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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(19): e1908355, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249984

RESUMO

Multiple donor-acceptor-type carbazole-benzonitrile derivatives that exhibit thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are the state of the art in efficiency and stability in sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes. However, such a motif still suffers from low reverse intersystem crossing rates (kRISC ) with emission peaks <470 nm. Here, a weak acceptor of cyanophenyl is adopted to replace the stronger cyano one to construct blue emitters with multiple donors and acceptors. Both linear donor-π-donor and acceptor-π-acceptor structures are observed to facilitate delocalized excited states for enhanced mixing between charge-transfer and locally excited states. Consequently, a high kRISC of 2.36 × 106 s-1 with an emission peak of 456 nm and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 22.8% is achieved. When utilizing this material to sensitize a blue multiple-resonance TADF emitter, the corresponding device simultaneously realizes a maximum external quantum efficiency of 32.5%, CIEy ≈ 0.12, a full width at half maximum of 29 nm, and a T80 (time to 80% of the initial luminance) of > 60 h at an initial luminance of 1000 cd m-2 .

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055809

RESUMO

The excited state properties and intersystem crossing dynamics of a series of donor-bridge-acceptor carbene metal-amides based upon the coinage metals Cu, Ag, Au, are investigated using quantum dynamics simulations and supported by photophysical characterisation. The simulated intersystem rates are consistent with experimental observations making it possible to provide a detailed interpretation of the excited state dynamics which ultimately control their functional properties. It is demonstrated that for all complexes there is a competition between the direct intersystem crossing occurring between the 1CT and 3CT states and indirect pathways which couple to an intermediate locally excited ππ* triplet state (3LE) on either the donor or acceptor ligands. The energy of the 3LE states decreases as the size of the metal decreases meaning that the indirect pathway plays an increasingly important role for the lighter metals. Importantly whenever the direct pathway is efficient, the presence of indirect pathways is detrimental to the overall rate of ISC as they provide a slower alternative pathway. Our results provide a detailed insight into the mechanism of intersystem crossing in these complexes and will greatly facilitate the design of new higher performing molecules.

3.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 13716-13727, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738516

RESUMO

Optoelectronic devices based on conjugated polymers often rely on multilayer device architectures, as it is difficult to design all the different functional requirements, in particular the need for efficient luminescence and fast carrier transport, into a single polymer. Here we study the photophysics of a recently discovered class of conjugated polymers with high charge carrier mobility and low degree of energetic disorder and investigate whether it is possible in this system to achieve by molecular design a high photoluminescence quantum yield without sacrificing carrier mobility. Tracing exciton dynamics over femtosecond to microsecond time scales, we show that nearly all nonradiative exciton recombination arises from interactions between chromophores on different chains. We evaluate the temperature dependence and role of electron-phonon coupling leading to fast internal conversion in systems with strong interchain coupling and the extent to which this can be turned off by varying side chain substitution. By sterically decreasing interchain interaction, we present an effective approach to increase the fluorescence quantum yield of low-energy gap polymers. We present a red-NIR-emitting amorphous polymer with the highest reported film luminescence quantum efficiency of 18% whose mobility concurrently exceeds that of amorphous-Si. This is a key result toward the development of single-layer optoelectronic devices that require both properties.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(46): 18390-18394, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661267

RESUMO

Harnessing the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is exceedingly important for photovoltaics, telecommunications, and the biomedical sciences. While thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials have attracted much interest due to their intense luminescence and narrow exchange energies (ΔEST), they are still greatly inferior to conventional fluorescent dyes in the NIR, which precludes their application. This is because securing a sufficiently strong donor-acceptor (D-A) interaction for NIR emission alongside the narrow ΔEST required for TADF is highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate that by abandoning the common polydonor model in favor of a D-A dyad structure, a sufficiently strong D-A interaction can be obtained to realize a TADF emitter capable of photoluminescence (PL) close to 1000 nm. Electroluminescence (EL) at a peak wavelength of 904 nm is also reported. This strategy is both conceptually and synthetically simple and offers a new approach to the development of future NIR TADF materials.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(43): 23931-23942, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661536

RESUMO

There is a growing body of experimental work showing that protein aggregates associated with amyloid fibrils feature intrinsic fluorescence. In order to understand the microscopic origin of this behavior observed in non-aromatic aggregates of peptides and proteins, we conducted a combined experimental and computational study on the optical properties of amyloid-derived oligopeptides in the near-UV region. We have focused on a few model systems having charged termini (zwitterionic) or acetylated termini. For the zwitterionic system, we were able to simulate the longer tail absorption in the near UV (250-350 nm), supporting the experimental results in terms of excitation spectra. We analyzed the optical excitations responsible for the low-energy absorption and found a large role played by charge-transfer states around the termini. These charge-transfer excitations are very sensitive to the conformation of the peptide and in realistic fibrils may involve inter and intra chain charge reorganization.


Assuntos
Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/química , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/metabolismo , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Espectrofotometria , Termodinâmica
6.
Nat Mater ; 18(9): 977-984, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332338

RESUMO

With their unusual electronic structures, organic radical molecules display luminescence properties potentially relevant to lighting applications; yet, their luminescence quantum yield and stability lag behind those of other organic emitters. Here, we designed donor-acceptor neutral radicals based on an electron-poor perchlorotriphenylmethyl or tris(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methyl radical moiety combined with different electron-rich groups. Experimental and quantum-chemical studies demonstrate that the molecules do not follow the Aufbau principle: the singly occupied molecular orbital is found to lie below the highest (doubly) occupied molecular orbital. These donor-acceptor radicals have a strong emission yield (up to 54%) and high photostability, with estimated half-lives reaching up to several months under pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation. Organic light-emitting diodes based on such a radical emitter show deep-red/near-infrared emission with a maximal external quantum efficiency of 5.3%. Our results provide a simple molecular-design strategy for stable, highly luminescent radicals with non-Aufbau electronic structures.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 962, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796250

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Dan Credgington, which was incorrectly given as Dan Credington. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3531, 2018 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166536

RESUMO

Anharmonic crystal lattice dynamics have been observed in lead halide perovskites on picosecond timescales. Here, we report that the soft nature of the perovskite crystal lattice gives rise to dynamic fluctuations in the electronic properties of excited states. We use linear polarization selective transient absorption spectroscopy to study the charge carrier relaxation dynamics in lead-halide perovskite films and nanocrystals. We find that photo-excited charge carriers maintain an initial polarization anisotropy for several picoseconds, independent of crystallite size and composition, and well beyond the reported timescales of carrier scattering. First-principles calculations find intrinsic anisotropies in the transition dipole moment, which depend on the orientation of light polarization and the polar distortion of the local crystal lattice. Lattice dynamics are imprinted in the optical transitions and anisotropies arise on the time-scales of structural motion. The strong coupling between electronic states and structural dynamics requires a unique interpretation of recombination and transport mechanisms.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3892, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250032

RESUMO

Organometal halide perovskites (OHP) are promising materials for low-cost, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes. In films with a distribution of two-dimensional OHP nanosheets and small three-dimensional nanocrystals, an energy funnel can be realized that concentrates the excitations in highly efficient radiative recombination centers. However, this energy funnel is likely to contain inefficient pathways as the size distribution of nanocrystals, the phase separation between the OHP and the organic phase. Here, we demonstrate that the OHP crystallite distribution and phase separation can be precisely controlled by adding a molecule that suppresses crystallization of the organic phase. We use these improved material properties to achieve OHP light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency of 15.5%. Our results demonstrate that through the addition of judiciously selected molecular additives, sufficient carrier confinement with first-order recombination characteristics, and efficient suppression of non-radiative recombination can be achieved while retaining efficient charge transport characteristics.

10.
Adv Mater ; 30(35): e1802285, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984854

RESUMO

Efficient vacuum-processed organic light-emitting diodes are fabricated using a carbene-metal-amide material, CMA1. An electroluminescence (EL) external quantum efficiency of 23% is achieved in a host-free emissive layer comprising pure CMA1. Furthermore external quantum efficiencies of up to 26.9% are achieved in host-guest emissive layers. EL spectra are found to depend on both the emissive-layer doping concentration and the choice of host material, enabling tuning of emission color from mid-green (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage co-ordinates [0.24, 0.46]) to sky blue ([0.22 0.35]) without changing dopant. This tuning is achieved without compromising luminescence efficiency (>80%) while maintaining a short radiative lifetime of triplets (<1 µs).

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(14): 4053-4058, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957961

RESUMO

Electrically injected charge carriers in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) undergo recombination events to form singlet and triplet states in a 1:3 ratio, representing a fundamental hurdle for achieving high quantum efficiency. Dopants based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) have emerged as promising candidates for addressing the spin statistics issue in OLEDs. In these materials, reverse singlet-triplet intersystem crossing (rISC) becomes efficient, thereby activating luminescence pathways for weakly emissive triplet states. However, despite a growing consensus that torsional vibrations facilitate spin-orbit-coupling- (SOC-) driven ISC in these molecules, there is a shortage of experimental evidence. We use transient electron spin resonance and theory to show unambiguously that SOC interactions drive spin conversion and that ISC is a dynamic process gated by conformational fluctuations for benchmark carbazolyl-dicyanobenzene TADF emitters.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(29): 3672, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589616

RESUMO

Correction for 'Highly photoluminescent copper carbene complexes based on prompt rather than delayed fluorescence' by Alexander S. Romanov et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 6379-6382.

13.
Science ; 356(6334): 159-163, 2017 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360136

RESUMO

Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) promise highly efficient lighting and display technologies. We introduce a new class of linear donor-bridge-acceptor light-emitting molecules, which enable solution-processed OLEDs with near-100% internal quantum efficiency at high brightness. Key to this performance is their rapid and efficient utilization of triplet states. Using time-resolved spectroscopy, we establish that luminescence via triplets occurs within 350 nanoseconds at ambient temperature, after reverse intersystem crossing to singlets. We find that molecular geometries exist at which the singlet-triplet energy gap (exchange energy) is close to zero, so that rapid interconversion is possible. Calculations indicate that exchange energy is tuned by relative rotation of the donor and acceptor moieties about the bridge. Unlike other systems with low exchange energy, substantial oscillator strength is sustained at the singlet-triplet degeneracy point.

14.
Chemistry ; 23(19): 4625-4637, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28164390

RESUMO

Copper and gold halide and pseudo-halide complexes stabilised by methyl-, ethyl- and adamantyl-substituted cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbene (CAAC) ligands are mostly linear monomers in the solid state, without aurophilic Au⋅⋅⋅Au interactions. (Et2 L)CuCl shows the highest photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) in the series, 70 %. The photoemissions of Me2 L and Et2 L copper halide complexes show S1 →S0 fluorescence on the ns time scale, in agreement with theory, as well as a long-lived emission. Monomeric (Me2 L)CuNCS is a white emitter, whereas dimeric [(Et2 L)Cu(µ-NCS)]2 shows intense yellow emission with a photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 49 %. The reaction of (Ad L)MCl (M=Cu or Au) with phenols ArOH (Ar=Ph, 2,6-F2 C6 H3 , 2,6-Me2 C6 H3 , 3,5-tBu2 C6 H3 , 2-tBu-5-MeC6 H3 , 2-pyridyl), thiophenol, or aromatic amines H2 NAr'' (Ar'=Ph, 3,5-(CF3 )2 C6 H3 , C6 F5 , 2-py) afforded the corresponding phenolato, thiophenolato and amido complexes. Although the emission wavelengths are only marginally affected by the ring substitution pattern, the PL intensities respond sensitively to the presence of substituents in the ortho or meta positions. In gold aryloxides, PL is controlled by steric factors, with strong luminescence in compounds with Au-O-C-C torsion angles <50°. Calculations confirm the dependence of oscillator strength on the torsion angle, as well as the inter-ligand charge transfer nature of the emission. The HOMO/LUMO energy levels were estimated based on first reduction and oxidation potentials.

15.
Adv Mater ; 29(13)2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28145598

RESUMO

Solution-processed polymer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) doped with triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-upconversion molecules, including 9,10-diphenylanthracene, perylene, rubrene and TIPS-pentacene, are reported. The fraction of triplet-generated electroluminescence approaches the theoretical limit. Record-high efficiencies in solution-processed OLEDs based on these materials are achieved. Unprecedented solid-state TTA-upconversion quantum yield of 23% (TTA-upconversion reaction efficiency of 70%) at electrical excitation well below one-sun equivalent is observed.

16.
Chemistry ; 23(1): 105-113, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859790

RESUMO

A new family of cyclometallated gold(III) thiolato complexes based on pyrazine-centred pincer ligands has been prepared, (C^Npz ^C)AuSR, where C^Npz ^C=2,6-bis(4-But C6 H4 )pyrazine dianion and R=Ph (1), C6 H4 tBu-4 (2), 2-pyridyl (3), 1-naphthyl (1-Np, 4), 2-Np (5), quinolinyl (Quin, 6), 4-methylcoumarinyl (Coum, 7) and 1-adamantyl (8). The complexes were isolated as yellow to red solids in high yields using mild synthetic conditions. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed that the colour of the deep-red solids is associated with the formation of a particular type of short (3.2-3.3 Å) intermolecular pyrazine⋅⋅⋅pyrazine π-interactions. In some cases, yellow and red crystal polymorphs were formed; only the latter were emissive at room temperature. Combined NMR and UV/Vis techniques showed that the supramolecular π-stacking interactions persist in solution and give rise to intense deep-red photoluminescence. Monomeric molecules show vibronically structured green emissions at low temperature, assigned to ligand-based 3 IL(C^N^C) triplet emissions. By contrast, the unstructured red emissions correlate mainly with a 3 LLCT(SR→{(C^Npz ^C)2 }) charge transfer transition from the thiolate ligand to the π⋅⋅⋅π dimerized pyrazine. Unusually, the π-interactions can be influenced by sample treatment in solution, such that the emissions can switch reversibly from red to green. To our knowledge this is the first report of aggregation-enhanced emission in gold(III) chemistry.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(38): 6379-82, 2016 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087532

RESUMO

Linear two-coordinate copper complexes of cyclic (alkyl)(amino)carbenes (CAAC)CuX (X = halide) show photoluminescence with solid-state quantum yields of up to 96%; in contrast to previously reported Cu photoemitters the emission is independent of temperature over the range T = 4-300 K and occurs very efficiently by prompt rather than delayed fluorescence, with lifetimes in the sub-nanosecond range.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Luminescência , Metano/análogos & derivados , Metano/química , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(9): 2941-4, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26901659

RESUMO

Metal halide perovskite crystal structures have emerged as a class of optoelectronic materials, which combine the ease of solution processability with excellent optical absorption and emission qualities. Restricting the physical dimensions of the perovskite crystallites to a few nanometers can also unlock spatial confinement effects, which allow large spectral tunability and high luminescence quantum yields at low excitation densities. However, the most promising perovskite structures rely on lead as a cationic species, thereby hindering commercial application. The replacement of lead with nontoxic alternatives such as tin has been demonstrated in bulk films, but not in spatially confined nanocrystals. Here, we synthesize CsSnX3 (X = Cl, Cl0.5Br0.5, Br, Br0.5I0.5, I) perovskite nanocrystals and provide evidence of their spectral tunability through both quantum confinement effects and control of the anionic composition. We show that luminescence from Sn-based perovskite nanocrystals occurs on pico- to nanosecond time scales via two spectrally distinct radiative decay processes, which we assign to band-to-band emission and radiative recombination at shallow intrinsic defect sites.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(45): 25227-36, 2015 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497547

RESUMO

Room-temperature photocurrent measurements in two-dimensional (2D) inorganic-organic perovskite devices reveal that excitons strongly contribute to the photocurrents despite possessing binding energies over 10 times larger than the thermal energies. The p-type (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 liberates photocarriers at metallic Schottky aluminum contacts, but incorporating electron- and hole-transport layers enhances the extracted photocurrents by 100-fold. A further 10-fold gain is found when TiO2 nanoparticles are directly integrated into the perovskite layers, although the 2D exciton semiconducting layers are not significantly disrupted. These results show that strong excitonic materials may be useful as photovoltaic materials despite high exciton binding energies and suggest mechanisms to better understand the photovoltaic properties of the related three-dimensional perovskites.

20.
ACS Nano ; 9(6): 5857-67, 2015 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25951125

RESUMO

We investigate charge dynamics in solar cells constructed using solution-processed layers of CuInS2 (CIS) nanocrystals (NCs) as the electron donor and CdS as the electron acceptor. By using time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, we are able to observe photoinduced absorptions that we attribute to the mobile hole carriers in the NC film. In combination with transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements, we monitor charge dynamics on time scales from 300 fs to 1 ms. Carrier dynamics are investigated for devices with CIS layers composed of either colloidally synthesized 1,3-benzenedithiol-capped nanocrystals or in situ sol-gel synthesized thin films as the active layer. We find that deep trapping of holes in the colloidal NC cells is responsible for decreases in the open-circuit voltage and fill factor as compared to those of the sol-gel synthesized CIS/CdS cell.

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