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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1378, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 6% of total deaths are related to alcohol consumption worldwide. Mathematical models are important tools to estimate disease burden and to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to address this burden. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review on models, searching main health literature databases up to July 2017. Pairs of reviewers independently selected, extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We selected those models exploring: a) disease burden (main metrics being attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life years, quality-adjusted life years) or b) economic evaluations of health interventions or policies, based on models including the aforementioned outcomes. We grouped models into broad families according to their common central methodological approach. RESULTS: Out of 4295 reports identified, 63 met our inclusion criteria and were categorized in three main model families that were described in detail: 1) State transition -i.e Markov- models, 2) Life Table-based models and 3) Attributable fraction-based models. Most studies pertained to the latter one (n = 29, 48.3%). A few miscellaneous models could not be framed into these families. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can be useful for future researchers and decision makers planning to undertake alcohol-related disease burden or cost-effectiveness studies. We found several different families of models. Countries interested in adopting relevant public health measures may choose or adapt the one deemed most convenient, based on the availability of existing data at the local level, burden of work, and public health and economic outcomes of interest.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(38): 8-15, Abril 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-996317

RESUMO

NTRODUCCIÓN: El consumo de alcohol es uno de los principales factores de riesgo. Para relevar las condiciones previas al establecimiento de políticas públicas orientadas a disminuir el consumo de alcohol en Argentina, se fijaron tres objetivos: a) caracterizar la demanda y oferta de bebidas alcohólicas; b) evaluar la situación normativa respecto de políticas de control de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio, y las pautas de publicidad televisiva; c) definir qué modelos de carga de enfermedad atribuible y costo-efectividad de las intervenciones podrían ser aplicables. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Gasto de los Hogares 2004/5 y 2012/3 y de la base Euromonitor Internacional. Se examinaron el marco normativo y las acciones televisivas de publicidad, promoción y patrocinio. Se revisó la literatura sobre modelos de carga de enfermedad y costo-efectividad de intervenciones. RESULTADOS: El consumo de bebidas alcohólicas no se modificó entre 2004/5 y 2012/3, y la industria está muy concentrada. El marco de regulación de la publicidad es laxo; más de la mitad de los avisos de TV se emiten en horario diurno, por lo que se expone a menores y se incumplen los acuerdos internacionales subscritos. Hay tres enfoques principales de modelamiento epidemiológico y económico que podrían ser aplicables. CONCLUSIONES: Se caracterizaron aspectos económicos, jurídico-legales y epidemiológicos útiles para impulsar una agenda pública orientada a disminuir el consumo de alcohol


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Saúde Pública , Revisão , Publicidade como Assunto , Bebidas Alcoólicas
3.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e024325, 2018 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to: (1) describe alcohol industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions conducted across six global geographic regions; (2) identify the benefits accruing to the industry ('doing well'); and (3) estimate the public health impact of the actions ('doing good'). SETTING: Actions from six global geographic regions. PARTICIPANTS: A web-based compendium of 3551 industry actions, representing the efforts of the alcohol industry to reduce harmful alcohol use, was issued in 2012. The compendium consisted of short descriptions of each action, plus other information about the sponsorship, content and evaluation of the activities. Public health professionals (n=19) rated a sample (n=1046) of the actions using a reliable content rating procedure. OUTCOME MEASURES: WHO Global strategy target area, estimated population reach, risk of harm, advertising potential, policy impact potential and other aspects of the activity. RESULTS: The industry actions were conducted disproportionately in regions with high-income countries (Europe and North America), with lower proportions in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Only 27% conformed to recommended WHO target areas for global action to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. The overwhelming majority (96.8%) of industry actions lacked scientific support (p<0.01) and 11.0% had the potential for doing harm. The benefits accruing to the industry ('doing well') included brand marketing and the use of CSR to manage risk and achieve strategic goals. CONCLUSION: Alcohol industry CSR activities are unlikely to reduce harmful alcohol use but they do provide commercial strategic advantage while at the same time appearing to have a public health purpose.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Marketing/métodos , Política Pública , Responsabilidade Social , África , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América Latina , América do Norte
4.
Clín. salud ; 29(1): 27-33, mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178464

RESUMO

Los trastornos por uso de alcohol son preocupantemente altos en la población universitaria. Contar con instrumentos de tamizaje es fundamental para la medición epidemiológica y la práctica clínica. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar el desempeño de los instrumentos de tamizaje más usados a nivel internacional (AUDIT, AUDIT-C, TWEAK, RAPS-QF y CAGE) en estudiantes universitarios de Argentina. Los instrumentos de tamizaje, junto a la Entrevista Diagnóstica Compuesta Internacional, que permite obtener diagnósticos compatibles con el DSM 5, fueron administrados a una muestra probabilística (N = 2,430) de estudiantes de una universidad pública nacional. Entre otros, se evaluaron los puntos de corte óptimos, la sensibilidad, la especificidad, la consistencia interna y la estabilidad temporal, así como la presencia y la capacidad de discriminación de los ítems. La apreciación global de los resultados sugiere que tanto el AUDIT como el RAPS-QF serían los instrumentos preferibles para detectar la presencia de trastorno por uso de alcohol en esta población


The prevalence of alcohol use disorders in university students is alarmingly high. Screening instruments are fundamental for both, epidemiological research and clinical practice. The aim of this article is to compare the performance of the most widely used screening instruments (AUDIT, AUDIT-C, TWEAK, RAPS-QF, and CAGE) in Argentinean university students. Screening tests, along with the Alcohol Section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview that yields DSM 5 compatible diagnoses were administered to a probabilistic sample (N = 2,430) of university students from a national public university. The following characteristics were evaluated among others: optimal cut-off points, sensitivity, specificity, internal consistency, temporal stability, and item presence and discrimination capacity. The global appraisal of results suggests that the AUDIT and RAPS-QF would be preferable for evaluating AUD in this population


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tratamento Preliminar , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos do Sistema Nervoso Induzidos por Álcool/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Psychol ; 53(4): 245-252, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27594582

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is the leading risk factor for morbi-mortality in many Latin American Countries. However, epidemiologic studies are relatively scarce. Among factors such as limited research capacity, disciplinary traditions and an emphasis on psychopathology within the field of psychology, have been postulated to account for this. The aim of this article is to review epidemiologic research on alcohol in Spanish Speaking Latin American Countries, and to measure the contribution of psychology to the field. A systematic search was performed in English and Spanish using regional and international data bases. We identified 269 articles. Most focused on consumption patterns in youth, with samples from a single school and using a variety of measures. With the exception of multinational efforts like Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project or those supported by World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization, studies reviewed reflected little cross country collaboration. Mexico accounted for most of the productivity, while many countries had very few or no articles. Most research was performed by health science researchers with a small contribution from psychology, but which increased significantly over time. The results of this review provide a broad identification of patterns regarding epidemiologic research on alcohol, and demonstrate the need for national scientific policies to promote research on public health topics.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Humanos , América Latina , Estados Unidos
6.
Liberabit ; 23(2): 247-258, jul.- dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1006208

RESUMO

Las razones para reducir el consumo de alcohol pueden ser definidas como motivos que llevan a una persona a disminuir el consumo de alcohol o mantener la sobriedad. Este tema suele ser poco estudiado, particularmente en países latinoamericanos y en poblaciones en riesgo. El objetivo de esta investigación de diseño secuencial exploratorio fue explorar las razones para cambiar el consumo de alcohol en universitarios que lo hayan modificado (N = 100), de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina, con una pregunta abierta. A su vez, la descripción se realizó sobre la base de la experiencia previa de consumo excesivo episódico del alcohol, trastornos por uso de alcohol, y el sexo de los participantes. Los resultados indican que el motivo más frecuente es el disgusto o indiferencia por la sustancia en casi todos los grupos considerados. Sin embargo, cuando el trastorno por uso de alcohol fue grave o moderado, se observaron diferencias. Se discuten los aportes teóricos de la investigación, entre ellos, comprender qué lleva a cada grupo a cambiar su consumo alcohol, y las implicancias para el desarrollo de intervenciones específicas basadas en esta información.


The reasons to reduce alcohol consumption may be defined as the causes leading a person to decrease alcohol consumption or to stay sober. This topic is not often widely studied, particularly in Latin American countries and at-risk populations. The aim of this sequential exploratory research was to explore, through an open question, the reasons why university students (N = 100) of the city of Mar del Plata, Argentina, changed their alcohol consumption. Additionally, the description was based on previous heavy episodic alcohol consumption, disorders caused by alcohol use, and participants' gender. The results indicate that almost all studied groups reduced alcohol consumption due to their distaste or indifference for the substance. However, when disorders caused by alcohol use were severe or moderate, differences were observed. The theoretical contributions of this research are discussed, including the understanding of what leads each group to change its alcohol consumption, and the implications for the development of specific interventions based on this information.

7.
Liberabit ; 23(2): 247-258, jul.- dic. 2017. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-884585

RESUMO

Las razones para reducir el consumo de alcohol pueden ser definidas como motivos que llevan a una persona a disminuir el consumo de alcohol o mantener la sobriedad. Este tema suele ser poco estudiado, particularmente en países latinoamericanos y en poblaciones en riesgo. El objetivo de esta investigación de diseño secuencial exploratorio fue explorar las razones para cambiar el consumo de alcohol en universitarios que lo hayan modificado (N = 100), de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina, con una pregunta abierta. A su vez, la descripción se realizó sobre la base de la experiencia previa de consumo excesivo episódico del alcohol, trastornos por uso de alcohol, y el sexo de los participantes. Los resultados indican que el motivo más frecuente es el disgusto o indiferencia por la sustancia en casi todos los grupos considerados. Sin embargo, cuando el trastorno por uso de alcohol fue grave o moderado, se observaron diferencias. Se discuten los aportes teóricos de la investigación, entre ellos, comprender qué lleva a cada grupo a cambiar su consumo alcohol, y las implicancias para el desarrollo de intervenciones específicas basadas en esta información.


The reasons to reduce alcohol consumption may be defined as the causes leading a person to decrease alcohol consumption or to stay sober. This topic is not often widely studied, particularly in Latin American countries and at-risk populations. The aim of this sequential exploratory research was to explore, through an open question, the reasons why university students (N = 100) of the city of Mar del Plata, Argentina, changed their alcohol consumption. Additionally, the description was based on previous heavy episodic alcohol consumption, disorders caused by alcohol use, and participants' gender. The results indicate that almost all studied groups reduced alcohol consumption due to their distaste or indifference for the substance. However, when disorders caused by alcohol use were severe or moderate, differences were observed. The theoretical contributions of this research are discussed, including the understanding of what leads each group to change its alcohol consumption, and the implications for the development of specific interventions based on this information.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(10): 1731-1737, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study reports dose-response estimates for the odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk of acute alcohol use and road traffic injury (RTI). METHODS: Data were analyzed on 1,119 RTI patients arriving at 16 emergency departments (EDs) in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago. Case-crossover analysis, pair-matching the number of standard drinks consumed within the 6 hours prior to the RTI with 2 control periods (prior d/wk), was performed using fractional polynomial analysis for dose-response. RESULTS: About 1 in 6 RTI patients in EDs were positive for self-reported alcohol 6 hours prior to the injury (country range 8.6 to 24.1%). The likelihood of an RTI with any drinking prior (compared to not drinking) was 5 times higher (country range OR 2.50 to 15.00) and the more a person drinks the higher the risk. Every drink (12.8 g alcohol) increased the risk of an RTI by 13%, even 1 to 2 drinks were associated with a sizable increase in risk of an RTI and a dose-response was found. Differences in ORs for drivers (OR = 3.51; 95% CI = 2.25 to 5.45), passengers (OR = 8.12; 95% CI = 4.22 to 15.61), and pedestrians (OR = 6.30; 95% CI = 3.14 to 12.64) and attributable fractions were noted. Acute use of alcohol was attributable to 14% of all RTIs, varying from 7% for females to 19% for being injured as a passenger. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that the presence of alcohol increases risk among drivers and nondrivers alike may further help to urge interventions targeting passengers and pedestrians. Routine screening and brief interventions in all health services could also have a beneficial impact in decreasing rates of RTIs. Higher priority should be given to alcohol as a risk factor for RTIs, particularly in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Salud ment ; 40(4): 157-164, Jul.-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903727

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction The relationship between alcohol consumption, individual characteristics, and alcohol-related problems may vary according to environmental characteristics in certain populations. Objective To explore the existence of a hierarchical structure in the links between environmental stressors, individual socioeconomic factors, regular alcohol consumption, use of other substances, and alcohol-related problems in Argentinian university students. Method With a correlational design and data from a random sample of students from a public university (N = 1578, 58% female), we used a multilevel modeling strategy as follows: alcohol-related problems; regular alcohol consumption (quantity/frequency) as fixed effect, use of other psychoactive substances, sociodemographic factors (individual socioeconomic status, age, and gender); and environmental stressors as random effects (index of overcrowding as an indicator of poverty and reported crime as an indicator of violence in the neighborhood). Results The rate of overcrowding proved to be the best Level 2 predictor for the alcohol-related problems model. Socioeconomic status, quantity and frequency of consumption, use of other substances, and age directly predicted alcohol-related problems (Level 1). Gender was neither a direct predictor nor a moderator of the links. Discussion and conclusion At least one environmental stressor (neighborhood poverty) partly explains the variability observed in alcohol-related problems. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and the use of other psychoactive substances were the strongest predictors of alcohol-related problems.


Resumen Introducción La relación entre el consumo de alcohol, los problemas relacionados con éste y otras características individuales podrían variar según algunas características ambientales en ciertas poblaciones. Objetivo Determinar si existe una relación jerárquica según la exposición a estresores medioambientales (pobreza y violencia del vecindario), entre ciertas características sociodemográficas individuales (el nivel socioeconómico, edad, género), el consumo habitual de alcohol y otras sustancias psicoactivas y los problemas por uso de alcohol en estudiantes universitarios argentinos. Método El diseño fue correlacional y la muestra, aleatoria (N = 1578, 58% mujeres), y se efectuó un modelaje multinivel. Se evaluaron: problemas por consumo de alcohol, complicaciones como efectos fijos en el consumo habitual de alcohol (cantidad/frecuencia), y de otras sustancias psicoactivas, factores sociodemográficos (nivel socioeconómico, edad y género) y como efectos aleatorios estresores ambientales (índice de hacinamiento y de delitos por vecindario). Resultados El índice de hacinamiento resultó ser el mejor predictor de segundo nivel de los problemas por uso de alcohol. El nivel socioeconómico, el consumo habitual de alcohol y de otras sustancias psicoactivas y la edad predijeron directamente (Nivel 1) los problemas por uso de alcohol. El género no resultó ser un predictor directo ni un moderador de las relaciones. Discusión y conclusión Al menos un estresor ambiental (la pobreza del vecindario) se relaciona con la variabilidad observada en los problemas por uso de alcohol. A nivel individual, la cantidad y frecuencia del consumo de alcohol y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas fueron los predictores más fuertes de los problemas.

10.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(7): 322-329, July 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898874

RESUMO

Abstract Background Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders IdentificationTest- Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPSQF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low reliability of those instruments and a better performance of the AUDIT in this population.


Resumo Introdução Considerando os problemas físicos, mentais e comportamentais relacionados à exposição fetal ao álcool, as orientações clínicas pré-natais sugerem uma breve avaliação do consumo de álcool durante a gravidez para detectar o consumo de álcool e ajustar as intervenções, se necessário. Ainda que qualquer uso de álcool deva ser considerado arriscado durante a gravidez, identificar as mulheres com transtornos de uso de álcool é importante, porque elas podem precisar de uma intervenção mais específica do que um simples conselho para se abster. A maioria dos testes de triagem tem sido desenvolvidos e validados em populações masculinas, e estão focados nas consequências em longo prazo do uso excessivo de álcool, de modo que eles podem ser inadequados para avaliar o consumo em mulheres grávidas. Objetivo Analisar a confiabilidade e a validade internas dos instrumentos de triagem de álcool Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) e Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) para identificar transtornos por uso de álcool em mulheres grávidas. Método Um total de 641 puérperas foram entrevistadas pessoalmente durante as 48 horas após o parto. As curvas receiver operating characteristic (ROC), a sensibilidade e a especificidadede cada instrumento foramanalisadas utilizandodiferentespontosde corte. Resultados Todos os instrumentos mostraram áreas sob as curvas ROC acima de 0.80. Foram encontradas áreas maiores para o TWEAK e para o AUDIT. O TWEAK, o TACE e o AUDIT-C apresentaram maior sensibilidade, enquanto o AUDIT e o RAPS-QF apresentaram maior especificidade. A confiabilidade (consistência interna) foi baixa para todos os instrumentos, melhorando quando foram utilizados pontos de corte ótimos, especialmente para o AUDIT, o AUDIT-C e o RAPS-QF. Conclusões em outros contextos culturais, estudos concluíram que o T-ACE e o TWEAK são os melhores instrumentos para avaliar mulheres grávidas. Em contrapartida, nossos resultados evidenciaram baixa confiabilidade desses instrumentos e melhor desempenho do AUDIT nessa população.

11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 39(7): 322-329, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28609804

RESUMO

Background Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low reliability of those instruments and a better performance of the AUDIT in this population.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 20(1): 22-31, Jan.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886290

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this article was to analyze the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Adolescent (AEQ-A) in university students from Mar del Plata city, Argentina. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol refer to the beliefs that people hold about the consequences of alcohol consumption on behavior. Expectancies have been related to drinking initiation and maintenance, and to habitual drinking patterns. Although several questionnaires have been developed to measure expectancies, the AEQ-A has been one of the most frequently used. Studies in different cultural that, given expectancies' cultural variability, the questionnaire must be adapted to each particular context. A version of the AEQ-A previously validated in Mar del Plata, Argentina, was used, consisting of 40 items measured on a (true / false) dichotomous scale. The sample consisted of 1076 psychology students from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyzes were performed. The factorial analysis resulted in six factors containing 37 items. Internal consistency of each subscale was adequate. Concurrent validity was satisfactory inasmuch as scores on the subscales about beliefs associated with positive effects of consumption in social situations relate to heavy episodic drinking. Instruments like this one to evaluate expectancies, will allow the study of psychosocial factors associated with consumption and provide useful information to develop prevention strategies.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar as propriedades psicométricas (estrutura fatorial, consistência interna e validade concorrente) de uma versão adaptada do Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Adolescents (AEQ-A) em estudantes universitários da cidade de Mar del Plata, Argentina. As expectativas para os efeitos do álcool referem-se às crenças que as pessoas têm sobre os efeitos que produz o consumo de álcool no comportamento, e têm sido relacionadas com o início, a manutenção e os padrões de consumo. Embora tenham sido desenvolvidos vários instrumentos para sua medida, o AEQ-A tem sido um dos mais utilizados; no entanto devido à variabilidade cultural das expectativas, é recomendável realizar adaptações deste aos contextos particulares em estudo. Para este trabalho, utilizou-se uma versão do AEQ-A previamente validada em Mar del Plata, Argentina, que consta de 40 itens medidos numa escala dicotômica (verdadeiro/falso). A amostra esteve composta por 1076 estudantes de Psicologia da Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Realizaram-se análises fatoriais exploratórias e confirmatórias, nas quais se encontrou uma estrutura de seis fatores que reuniram 37 itens. A consistência interna de cada subescala foi adequada e a validade concorrente foi satisfatóriajá que as pontuações nas subescalas de crenças sobre os efeitos positivos do consumo em situações sociais relacionaram-se com o consumo excessivo episódico. Concluiu-se que contar com instrumentos de avaliação das expectativas permitirá estudar os fatores psicossociais associados ao consumo e dar informação útil para a elaboração de intervenções.


Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas (estructura factorial, consistencia interna y validez concurrente) de una versión adaptada del Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Adolescents (AEQ-A) en estudiantes universitarios de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina. Las expectativas hacia los efectos del alcohol se refieren a las creencias que las personas tienen sobre los efectos que produce el consumo de alcohol en el comportamiento, y han sido relacionadas con el inicio, el mantenimiento y los patrones de consumo. Si bien se han desarrollado varios instrumentos para su medición, el AEQ-A ha sido uno de los más utilizados; sin embargo debido a la variabilidad cultural de las expectativas, es recomendable realizar adaptaciones del mismo a los contextos particulares en estudio. Para este trabajo se utilizó una versión del AEQ-A previamente validada en Mar del Plata, Argentina, que consta de 40 ítems medidos en una escala dicotómica (verdadero/falso). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 1076 estudiantes de Psicología de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Se realizaron análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios, en los cuales se encontró una estructura de seis factores que reunieron 37 ítems. La consistencia interna de cada subescala fue adecuada y la validez concurrente fue satisfactoria ya que los puntajes en las subescalas de creencias sobre los efectos positivos del consumo en situaciones sociales se relacionaron con el consumo excesivo episódico. Se concluyó que contar con instrumentos de evaluación de las expectativas permitirá estudiar los factores psicosociales asociados al consumo y brindar información útil para el diseño de intervenciones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes , Alcoolismo
13.
J Addict Med ; 11(2): 106-113, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence of important problems related to prenatal alcohol exposure has faced researchers with the problem of understanding and screening alcohol use in this population. Although any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying alcohol-drinking problems (ADPs) could be especially important because women with ADPs could not benefit from a simple advice of abstinence and because their offsprings are subjected to a higher risk of problems related with prenatal alcohol exposure. In this context, we aim to study the prevalence and characteristics of ADPs in pregnant women, evaluating the performance of different diagnostic systems in this population. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of ADPs obtained with the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its fourth (DSM-IV) and fifth edition (DSM-5), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10, in Argentinean females aged 13 to 44 years, 12 months before delivery; to evaluate the level of agreement between these classification systems; and to analyze the performance of each diagnosis criterion in this population. METHODS: Data were collected through personal interviews of a probability sample of puerperal women (N = 641) in the city of Santa Fe (Argentina), between October 2010 and February 2011. Diagnoses compatible with DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10 were obtained through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Agreement among diagnostic systems was measured through Cohen kappa. Diagnosis criteria performance were analyzed considering their prevalence and discriminating ability (D value). RESULTS: Total ADP prevalence was 6.4% for DSM-IV (4.2% abuse and 2.2% dependence), 8.1% for DSM-5 (6.4% mild, 0.8% moderate, and 0.9% severe alcohol use disorder), and 14.1% for the ICD-10 (11.9% harmful use and 2.2% dependence). DSM-5 modifications improved agreement between DSM and ICD. The least prevalent and worst discriminating ability diagnostic criterion was "legal problems." The most prevalent and 1 of the best discriminating ability diagnostic criterion was '"health issues." CONCLUSIONS: DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence prevalence was similar to that of previous studies in pregnant women, whereas abuse prevalence was surprisingly higher. Our results indicate a better performance of the DSM-5 alcohol use disorder category relative to the DSM-IV dual categorization. Nevertheless, the poor diagnostic performance of some DSM-5 criteria in this population could evidence their intercultural variability.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addiction ; 112 Suppl 1: 74-80, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27661467

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. METHODS: Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. RESULTS: A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. CONCLUSION: Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Marketing/métodos , Responsabilidade Social , Região do Caribe , Humanos , América Latina
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 51(12): 1629-1636, 2016 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27486678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and its related consequences are not equal for women and men, although related studies do not frequently include gender analysis. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize differences in endorsement of ICD-10 and DSM 5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria by gender in an Argentinean emergency department population. METHODS: A probability sample of patients (N = 923) from the largest emergency department in the city of Mar del Plata, Argentina (44% were females, aged 16 to 86, M (SD) = 37.31(15.20) was collected. Using a structured questionnaire, diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders, alcohol consumption, and socio-demographic variables were obtained. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess differences in the endorsement of each diagnostic criterion by gender. RESULTS: Women were less likely to endorse each of the criteria for each of the diagnostic schemes. Even after controlling alcohol consumption, socio-demographic variables, severity of alcohol use disorders and adjusting for multiple comparisons females had a lower probability than males of endorsing withdrawal and impaired control. CONCLUSIONS: gender differences in the endorsement of diagnostic criteria for both the DSM 5 and ICD-10 were found. Some differences in endorsement but not all, might be partially explained by alcohol consumption patterns and socio-demographic factors, and same remained after controlling severity of the AUD. Results also suggest a differential functioning of DSM 5 and ICD-10 AUD criteria for women and men.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Argentina , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 54(2): 84-93, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-791032

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la presencia de problemas por uso de alcohol en estudiantes de secundaria y universitarios de Mar del Plata, Argentina. Se estimó la frecuencia según la edad, la probabilidad de presentar cada problema, y la proporción de búsqueda de ayuda por problemas por uso de alcohol. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras probabilísticas de dos escuelas de educación secundaria (n = 305, 52% varones) y de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (n = 1.427, 41% varones) entre los meses de abril-noviembre de 2014. Los problemas por uso de alcohol se estimaron con el cuestionario AUDIT-P, y la búsqueda de ayuda con una pregunta simple de formato dicotómico. Resultados: En ambos grupos se hallaron altos porcentajes de problemas por uso de alcohol, en particular el descuido de actividades, los sentimientos de culpa y remordimiento, y amnesia anterógrada inducida por el alcohol (blackouts). A pesar de que los estudiantes universitarios en algunos casos duplicaron a los estudiantes de secundaria en la proporción de problemas por uso de alcohol, la proporción de búsqueda de ayuda fue del 2%. Conclusiones: Se discute la repercusión de estos hallazgos en estrategias de prevención y tratamiento de problemas por uso de alcohol.


Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the presence of alcohol-related problems in high school and university students of Mar del Plata, Argentina. We estimated the frequency by age, the probability of each problem, and the proportion of help seeking for alcohol-related problems. Method: We obtained probabilistic samples from two high schools (n = 305,52% male) and the National University of Mar del Plata (n = 1427,41% male) between the months of April-November of 2014. We estimated alcohol-related problems with the AUDIT-P questionnaire, and help seeking with a simple dichotomous question. Results: In both groups, we found high rates of alcohol-related problems, including neglect of activities, feelings of guilt and remorse, and blackouts. Although university students in some cases doubled high school students in the proportion of alcohol-related problems, the proportion help seeking was 2%. Conclusions: The impact of these findings in prevention and treatment of alcohol-related problems is discussed.

17.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(1): 56-62, feb. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-775524

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir la producción científica de las Intervenciones Breves (IB) para disminuir el consumo de alcohol durante la gestación y cuantificarla mediante indicadores bibliométricos. Método: Se realizó un estudio de investigación secundaria con un diseño de revisión estructurada que consistió en búsquedas sistemáticas en las bases de datos Lilacs, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo y Scopus. Para el análisis se accedió al documento completo y se registraron características y procedimientos de aplicación de IB de los documentos seleccionados. Resultados: Se analizaron 45 artículos, la mayoría de los Estados Unidos. La primera publicación fue en 1999 registrándose un incremento progresivo hasta la actualidad. La revista con más publicaciones fue Obstetrics and Gynecology y el idioma predominante el inglés. El 52% de los artículos corresponden a trabajos empíricos, y el resto a trabajos de reflexión y revisiones que en su mayoría, promueven la abstinencia durante la gestación. En los trabajos experimentales se compararon dos grupos, intervención y control, y se registraron dos modalidades: vía web y cara a cara (71%). Para tamizar consumo de alcohol el T-ACE fue el instrumento más recomendado y utilizado, junto con preguntas de cantidad y frecuencia. Conclusiones: La necesidad de contar con estrategias efectivas para evitar el consumo de alcohol durante la gestación está siendo cada vez más reconocida. Se espera que en los próximos años el crecimiento del número de publicaciones impacte en nuestro contexto latinoamericano donde hay escasez de publicaciones, aparentemente nulas en habla hispana, y donde existe una relevante necesidad de evidencia sobre estrategias efectivas en esta población.


Aims: To describe the scientific production of the Brief Interventions (BI) to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy and quantify it by bibliometric indicators. Method: A secondary research study was conducted with a structured design review. A systematic search of Lilacs, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases was made. For the analysis, we accessed to the full document and then concentrated on the application and procedures of the BI characterized in the articles. Results: Forty-five articles, most from the United States were analyzed. In 1999 was the first publication and it has been a gradual increase until today. The journal which published more was Obstetrics and Gynecology and the language of all publications was above all English. Half of the articles were empirical works, and the rest, opinion articles, and reviews. Most of them promote alcohol abstinence during pregnancy. In all experimental works, two groups were compared: intervention and control and the BI was implemented by two procedures: via web or face to face (71%). Among all the alcohol consumption screening instruments, the most recommended and used was the T-ACE, along with quantity and frequency questions. Conclusions: The need for effective strategies to prevent alcohol consumption during pregnancy is being increasingly recognized. It is expected that in coming years the growth in the number of publications have an impact on our Latin American context, where there is a lack of publications, apparently null in Spanish speaking, and where there is a significant need for evidence on effective strategies in this population.

18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 37(4-5): 211-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26208187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Describe alcohol consumption by Argentine women before and during pregnancy and identify the factors associated with consumption- and pregnancy-related changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. Women were interviewed after giving birth and receiving care at two perinatal health care centers in Santa Fe, Argentina. Sociodemographic information, data on their alcohol use, and other information were obtained from the participants. A descriptive analysis of consumption prevalence rates was made and the factors associated with patterns of alcohol use were identified by means of repeated measure analysis. RESULTS: Of the 614 participants, 75.2% had had at least one alcoholic drink (standard unit) during pregnancy and 83.3% had done so in the previous year; 15.1% admitted having at least one episode of binge drinking (five or more drinks) during pregnancy and 27.6% in the year prior to pregnancy. Only 30.6% of the women said they had made any change in consumption during the previous year; of those, 55.6% reduced their consumption and 41.8% stopped drinking. Women who consumed the most alcohol before and during pregnancy reported higher consumption by their partners, smoked, and had more permissive attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: A specific prevention plan is required in Argentina to reduce alcohol use in pregnant women, adjusted to local patterns of use, with interventions that include couples, and focused on the youngest women, those who use tobacco, and those who have more permissive attitudes about alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Casamento , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 37(4/5): 211-217, abr.-may. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-752645

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el consumo de alcohol de mujeres argentinas antes y durante la gestación e identificar los factores asociados con ese consumo y con los cambios relacionados con la gestación. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional transversal. Se entrevistaron mujeres puérperas atendidas en dos centros de atención perinatal de la ciudad de Santa Fe, Argentina. Se recabó la información sociodemográfica de las participantes y datos de su consumo de alcohol, entre otros. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de las prevalencias de consumo y se identificaron los factores asociados con los patrones de consumo de alcohol mediante análisis de medidas repetidas. RESULTADOS: De las 614 participantes, 75,2% había consumido al menos un trago (unidad estándar) de alcohol durante la gestación y 83,3% lo había hecho durante el último año; 15,1% reconoció haber tenido al menos un evento de consumo excesivo episódico (5 tragos o más) durante la gestación y 27,6% durante el año anterior a la gestación. Solo 30,6% de las mujeres manifestó haber hecho algún cambio en el consumo durante el último año; de ellas, 55,6% disminuyó el consumo y 41,8% dejó de beber. Las mujeres que mostraron mayor consumo de alcohol antes y durante la gestación informaron mayor consumo de sus parejas, fumaban y tenían actitudes más permisivas respecto al consumo de alcohol durante la gestación. CONCLUSIONES: En Argentina, se requiere un plan de prevención específico para reducir el consumo de alcohol en las mujeres embarazadas, ajustado a las características del consumo en el contexto local, con intervenciones que incluyan a las parejas y se focalicen en las mujeres más jóvenes, las que consumen tabaco y las que tienen actitudes más permisivas respecto al consumo de alcohol.


OBJECTIVE: Describe alcohol consumption by Argentine women before and during pregnancy and identify the factors associated with consumption- and pregnancy-related changes. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. Women were interviewed after giving birth and receiving care at two perinatal health care centers in Santa Fe, Argentina. Sociodemographic information, data on their alcohol use, and other information were obtained from the participants. A descriptive analysis of consumption prevalence rates was made and the factors associated with patterns of alcohol use were identified by means of repeated measure analysis. RESULTS: Of the 614 participants, 75.2% had had at least one alcoholic drink (standard unit) during pregnancy and 83.3% had done so in the previous year; 15.1% admitted having at least one episode of binge drinking (five or more drinks) during pregnancy and 27.6% in the year prior to pregnancy. Only 30.6% of the women said they had made any change in consumption during the previous year; of those, 55.6% reduced their consumption and 41.8% stopped drinking. Women who consumed the most alcohol before and during pregnancy reported higher consumption by their partners, smoked, and had more permissive attitudes about alcohol use during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: A specific prevention plan is required in Argentina to reduce alcohol use in pregnant women, adjusted to local patterns of use, with interventions that include couples, and focused on the youngest women, those who use tobacco, and those who have more permissive attitudes about alcohol use.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/complicações , Gestantes , Argentina
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 31(1): 39-47, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25715290

RESUMO

Different survey modalities have been developed to assess alcohol consumption and related problems. Research that compares data quality between survey modalities is scarce in Latin America. The aim of this study was to assess data quality in three survey modalities on alcohol consumption: self-administered online, self-administered hard-copy, and face-to-face interviews. Data were obtained from three probabilistic samples of students (n = 60 each) from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina, using the same questionnaire. Data quality was measured for each modality by overall response rate, item response rate, and accuracy. Data accuracy was evaluated as the percentage of self-reported binge drinking, positive results on AUDIT, and internal consistency of AUDIT for each modality. The overall and item response rates were lower in the online modality and similar between the other two. No differences were found between modalities in the accuracy of responses.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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