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1.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498912

RESUMO

words are typically more difficult to identify than concrete words in lexical-decision, word-naming, and recall tasks. This behavioral advantage, known as the concreteness effect, is often considered as evidence for embodied semantics, which emphasizes the role of sensorimotor experience in the comprehension of word meaning. In this view, online sensorimotor simulations triggered by concrete words, but not by abstract words, facilitate access to word meaning and speed up word identification. To test whether perceptual simulation is the driving force underlying the concreteness effect, we compared data from early-blind and sighted individuals performing an auditory lexical-decision task. Subjects were presented with property words referring to abstract (e.g., "logic"), concrete multimodal (e.g., "spherical"), and concrete unimodal visual concepts (e.g., "blue"). According to the embodied account, the processing advantage for concrete unimodal visual words should disappear in the early blind because they cannot rely on visual experience and simulation during semantics processing (i.e., purely visual words should be abstract for early-blind people). On the contrary, we found that both sighted and blind individuals are faster when processing multimodal and unimodal visual words compared with abstract words. This result suggests that the concreteness effect does not depend on perceptual simulations but might be driven by modality-independent properties of word meaning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 746, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135466

RESUMO

Our brain constructs reality through narrative and argumentative thought. Some hypotheses argue that these two modes of cognitive functioning are irreducible, reflecting distinct mental operations underlain by separate neural bases; Others ascribe both to a unitary neural system dedicated to long-timescale information. We addressed this question by employing inter-subject measures to investigate the stimulus-induced neural responses when participants were listening to narrative and argumentative texts during fMRI. We found that following both kinds of texts enhanced functional couplings within the frontoparietal control system. However, while a narrative specifically implicated the default mode system, an argument specifically induced synchronization between the intraparietal sulcus in the frontoparietal control system and multiple perisylvian areas in the language system. Our findings reconcile the two hypotheses by revealing commonalities and differences between the narrative and the argumentative brain networks, showing how diverse mental activities arise from the segregation and integration of the existing brain systems.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Behav Res Methods ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159510

RESUMO

A common problem in eye-tracking research is vertical drift-the progressive displacement of fixation registrations on the vertical axis that results from a gradual loss of eye-tracker calibration over time. This is particularly problematic in experiments that involve the reading of multiline passages, where it is critical that fixations on one line are not erroneously recorded on an adjacent line. Correction is often performed manually by the researcher, but this process is tedious, time-consuming, and prone to error and inconsistency. Various methods have previously been proposed for the automated, post hoc correction of vertical drift in reading data, but these methods vary greatly, not just in terms of the algorithmic principles on which they are based, but also in terms of their availability, documentation, implementation languages, and so forth. Furthermore, these methods have largely been developed in isolation with little attempt to systematically evaluate them, meaning that drift correction techniques are moving forward blindly. We document ten major algorithms, including two that are novel to this paper, and evaluate them using both simulated and natural eye-tracking data. Our results suggest that a method based on dynamic time warping offers great promise, but we also find that some algorithms are better suited than others to particular types of drift phenomena and reading behavior, allowing us to offer evidence-based advice on algorithm selection.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0234219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852575

RESUMO

Category-specific impairments witnessed in patients with semantic deficits have broadly dissociated into natural and artificial kinds. However, how the category of food (more specifically, fruits and vegetables) fits into this distinction has been difficult to interpret, given a pattern of deficit that has inconsistently mapped onto either kind, despite its intuitive membership to the natural domain. The present study explores the effects of a manipulation of a visual sensory (i.e., color) or functional (i.e., orientation) feature on the consequential semantic processing of fruits and vegetables (and tools, by comparison), first at the behavioral and then at the neural level. The categorization of natural (i.e., fruits/vegetables) and artificial (i.e., utensils) entities was investigated via cross-modal priming. Reaction time analysis indicated a reduction in priming for color-modified natural entities and orientation-modified artificial entities. Standard event-related potentials (ERP) analysis was performed, in addition to linear classification. For natural entities, a N400 effect at central channel sites was observed for the color-modified condition compared relative to normal and orientation conditions, with this difference confirmed by classification analysis. Conversely, there was no significant difference between conditions for the artificial category in either analysis. These findings provide strong evidence that color is an integral property to the categorization of fruits/vegetables, thus substantiating the claim that feature-based processing guides as a function of semantic category.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cor , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mem Cognit ; 49(7): 1334-1347, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754308

RESUMO

Beginning readers have been shown to be sensitive to the meaning of embedded neighbors (e.g., CROW in CROWN). Moreover, developing readers are sensitive to the morphological structure of words (TEACH-ER). However, the interaction between orthographic and morphological processes in meaning activation during reading is not well established. What determines semantic access to orthographically embedded words? What is the role of suffixes in this process? And how does this change throughout development? To address these questions, we asked 80 Italian elementary school children (third, fourth, and fifth grade) to make category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Critically, some target words for no-answers (e.g., is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded stems (i.e., CORN). To gauge the role of morphology in this process, half of the embedded stems were accompanied by a pseudosuffix (CORN-ER) and half by a non-morphological ending (PEA-CE). Results revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when the embedded stem was category-congruent. This effect held both with and without a pseudosuffix, but was larger for pseudosuffixed words in the error rates. These results suggest that orthographic stems are activated and activation is fed forward to the semantic level regardless of morphological structure, followed by a decision-making process that might strategically use suffix-like endings.


Assuntos
Leitura , Semântica , Criança , Família , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Curr Biol ; 31(6): 1261-1267.e3, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417881

RESUMO

As writing systems are a relatively novel invention (slightly over 5 kya),1 they could not have influenced the evolution of our species. Instead, reading might recycle evolutionary older mechanisms that originally supported other tasks2,3 and preceded the emergence of written language. Accordingly, it has been shown that baboons and pigeons can be trained to distinguish words from nonwords based on orthographic regularities in letter co-occurrence.4,5 This suggests that part of what is usually considered reading-specific processing could be performed by domain-general visual mechanisms. Here, we tested this hypothesis in humans: if the reading system relies on domain-general visual mechanisms, some of the effects that are often found with orthographic material should also be observable with non-orthographic visual stimuli. We performed three experiments using the same exact design but with visual stimuli that progressively departed from orthographic material. Subjects were passively familiarized with a set of composite visual items and tested in an oddball paradigm for their ability to detect novel stimuli. Participants showed robust sensitivity to the co-occurrence of features ("bigram" coding) with strings of letter-like symbols but also with made-up 3D objects and sinusoidal gratings. This suggests that the processing mechanisms involved in the visual recognition of novel words also support the recognition of other novel visual objects. These mechanisms would allow the visual system to capture statistical regularities in the visual environment.6-9 We hope that this work will inspire models of reading that, although addressing its unique aspects, place it within the broader context of vision.

7.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 73(10): 1546-1563, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419617

RESUMO

In human language the mapping between form and meaning is arbitrary, as there is no direct connection between words and the objects that they represent. However, within a given language, it is possible to recognise systematic associations that support productivity and comprehension. In this work, we focus on the consistency between orthographic forms and meaning, and we investigate how the cognitive system may exploit it to process words. We take morphology as our case study, since it arguably represents one of the most notable examples of systematicity in form-meaning mapping. In a series of three experiments, we investigate the impact of form-meaning mapping in word processing by testing new consistency metrics as predictors of priming magnitude in primed lexical decision. In Experiment 1, we re-analyse data from five masked morphological priming studies and show that orthography-semantics-consistency explains independent variance in priming magnitude, suggesting that word semantics is accessed already at early stages of word processing and that crucially semantic access is constrained by word orthography. In Experiments 2 and 3, we investigate whether this pattern is replicated when looking at semantic priming. In Experiment 2, we show that orthography-semantics-consistency is not a viable predictor of priming magnitude with longer stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). However, in Experiment 3, we develop a new semantic consistency measure based on the semantic density of target neighbourhoods. This measure is shown to significantly predict independent variance in semantic priming effect. Overall, our results indicate that consistency measures provide crucial information for the understanding of word processing. Specifically, the dissociation between measures and priming paradigms shows that different priming conditions are associated with the activation of different semantic cohorts.

8.
Neurol Sci ; 41(10): 2811-2817, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281040

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Verbs and nouns can be selectively impaired, suggesting that they are processed, at least in part, by distinct neural structures. While several tests of object naming are available, tasks involving action verb naming with normative data are lacking. We report the construction and standardization of a new test for the assessment of picture naming of actions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The test includes 50 stimuli, strictly controlled for several confounding variables. Normative data on 290 Italian subjects pooled across homogenous subgroups for age, sex, and education are reported. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses revealed that age and education significantly correlated with the subject's score. In particular, increasing age negatively affected performance, while the performance increased with a higher education. CONCLUSIONS: In the clinical practice, the availability of equivalent scores will help the comparison with performance in the picture naming of objects. This test allows investigating action naming deficits in aphasic patients, in Parkinson's disease patients and in further neurodegenerative disorders, in which a specific impairment of action verbs is expected, filling a gap in the clinical neuropsychological assessment.


Assuntos
Afasia , Doença de Parkinson , Adulto , Afasia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica
9.
Dev Sci ; 23(6): e12952, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061144

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether morphological processing in reading is influenced by the orthographic consistency of a language or its morphological complexity. Developing readers in Grade 3 and skilled adult readers participated in a reading aloud task in four alphabetic orthographies (English, French, German, Italian), which differ in terms of both orthographic consistency and morphological complexity. English is the least consistent, in terms of its spelling-to-sound relationships, as well as the most morphologically sparse, compared to the other three. Two opposing hypotheses were formulated. If orthographic consistency modulated the use of morphology in reading, readers of English should show more robust morphological processing than readers of the other three languages, because morphological units increase the reliability of spelling-to-sound mappings in the English language. In contrast, if the use of morphology in reading depended on the morphological complexity of a language, readers of French, German, and Italian should process morphological units in printed letter strings more efficiently than readers of English. Both developing and skilled readers of English showed greater morphological processing than readers of the other three languages. These results support the idea that the orthographic consistency of a language, rather than its morphological complexity, influences the extent to which morphology is used during reading. We explain our findings within the remit of extant theories of reading acquisition and outline their theoretical and educational implications.


Assuntos
Linguística , Leitura , Adulto , Humanos , Idioma , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 162(4): 803-812, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients affected by a high-grade glioma (HGG) have a poor prognosis with a median survival of 12-16 months. Such poor prognosis affects the perception of the remaining life by patients and the neuropsychological status can strongly affect every-day functioning of these patients. Monitoring changes of neuropsychological functioning (NPF) overtime may provide better clinical information and optimize the neuro-oncological management. The aims of our work were (1) to investigate the feasibility of a complex neuropsychological battery in HGG patients before and during follow-up after surgery; (2) to study the neuropsychological profile of patients affected by HGGs and their relation with the disease status (relapse/death) across time after surgery. METHODS: One hundred two patients who received surgery for HGG between 2011 and 2017 were studied. All clinical data were prospectively recorded. NPF was assessed during the neuro-oncological follow-up through the Milano-Bicocca Battery (MIBIB). Statistical analysis was performed on the neuropsychological results of the tests administered. RESULTS: First, MIBIB proved to be suitable for patients with HGG tumors before and after surgery, and during long-term follow-up; it also showed a cluster structure representative of the principal cognitive domains. Second, we found a steep decline in the neuropsychological profile before death and/or tumor relapse for the 52% of the neuropsychological tests administered. CONCLUSION: Complex neuropsychological batteries can be administered to HGG patients before and during follow-up after surgery. There is a correlation between neuropsychological deterioration and tumor relapse and/or death, which may reflect a progressive damage to cognitive functions due to tumor infiltration and progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Cognição , Glioma/psicologia , Glioma/cirurgia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultados Negativos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 27(1): 155-161, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823300

RESUMO

In visual word identification, readers automatically access word internal information: they recognize orthographically embedded words (e.g., HAT in THAT) and are sensitive to morphological structure (DEAL-ER, BASKET-BALL). The exact mechanisms that govern these processes, however, are not well established yet - how is this information used? What is the role of affixes in this process? To address these questions, we tested the activation of meaning of embedded word stems in the presence or absence of a morphological structure using two semantic categorization tasks in Italian. Participants made category decisions on words (e.g., is CARROT a type of food?). Some no-answers (is CORNER a type of food?) contained category-congruent embedded word stems (i.e., CORN-). Moreover, the embedded stems could be accompanied by a pseudo-suffix (-er in CORNER) or a non-morphological ending (-ce in PEACE) - this allowed gauging the role of pseudo-suffixes in stem activation. The analyses of accuracy and response times revealed that words were harder to reject as members of a category when they contained an embedded word stem that was indeed category-congruent. Critically, this was the case regardless of the presence or absence of a pseudo-suffix. These findings provide evidence that the lexical identification system activates the meaning of embedded word stems when the task requires semantic information. This study brings together research on orthographic neighbors and morphological processing, yielding results that have important implications for models of visual word processing.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Idioma , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Leitura , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Cogn ; 2(1): 42, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709385

RESUMO

How perceptual information is encoded into language and conceptual knowledge is a debated topic in cognitive (neuro)science. We present modality norms for 643 Italian adjectives, which referred to one of the five perceptual modalities or were abstract. Overall, words were rated as mostly connected to the visual modality and least connected to the olfactory and gustatory modality. We found that words associated to visual and auditory experience were more unimodal compared to words associated to other sensory modalities. A principal components analysis highlighted a strong coupling between gustatory and olfactory information in word meaning, and the tendency of words referring to tactile experience to also include information from the visual dimension. Abstract words were found to encode only marginal perceptual information, mostly from visual and auditory experience. The modality norms were augmented with corpus-based (e.g., Zipf Frequency, Orthographic Levenshtein Distance 20) and ratings-based psycholinguistic variables (Age of Acquisition, Familiarity, Contextual Availability). Split-half correlations performed for each experimental variable and comparisons with similar databases confirmed that our norms are highly reliable. This database thus provides a new important tool for investigating the interplay between language, perception and cognition.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199658, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958269

RESUMO

Despite the flourishing research on the relationships between affect and language, the characteristics of pain-related words, a specific type of negative words, have never been systematically investigated from a psycholinguistic and emotional perspective, despite their psychological relevance. This study offers psycholinguistic, affective, and pain-related norms for words expressing physical and social pain. This may provide a useful tool for the selection of stimulus materials in future studies on negative emotions and/or pain. We explored the relationships between psycholinguistic, affective, and pain-related properties of 512 Italian words (nouns, adjectives, and verbs) conveying physical and social pain by asking 1020 Italian participants to provide ratings of Familiarity, Age of Acquisition, Imageability, Concreteness, Context Availability, Valence, Arousal, Pain-Relatedness, Intensity, and Unpleasantness. We also collected data concerning Length, Written Frequency (Subtlex-IT), N-Size, Orthographic Levenshtein Distance 20, Neighbor Mean Frequency, and Neighbor Maximum Frequency of each word. Interestingly, the words expressing social pain were rated as more negative, arousing, pain-related, and conveying more intense and unpleasant experiences than the words conveying physical pain.


Assuntos
Afeto , Dor/psicologia , Psicolinguística , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Dor , Semântica , Percepção Social , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 71(4): 808-816, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28326995

RESUMO

Numerous studies in psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psycholinguistics have used pictures of objects as stimulus materials. Currently, authors engaged in cross-linguistic work or wishing to run parallel studies at multiple sites where different languages are spoken must rely on rather small sets of black-and-white or colored line drawings. These sets are increasingly experienced as being too limited. Therefore, we constructed a new set of 750 colored pictures of concrete concepts. This set, MultiPic, constitutes a new valuable tool for cognitive scientists investigating language, visual perception, memory and/or attention in monolingual or multilingual populations. Importantly, the MultiPic databank has been normed in six different European languages (British English, Spanish, French, Dutch, Italian and German). All stimuli and norms are freely available at http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/multipic .


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Cultura , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 145(9): 1160-76, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27359130

RESUMO

Theories of embodied semantics (ES) suggest that a critical part of understanding what a word means consists of simulating the sensorimotor experience related to the word's referent. Some proponents of ES have suggested that sensorimotor activations are mandatory and highly automatic during semantic processing. Evidence supporting this claim comes from masked priming studies showing that unconsciously perceived spatial words (e.g., up, down) can directly modulate action performance on the basis of their meaning. However, a closer look reveals that such priming effects can be explained also in terms of symbolic (disembodied) semantic priming or nonsemantic mechanisms. In this study we sought to understand whether sensorimotor processing takes place during language understanding outside awareness. We used spatial words as a test bed and across 6 experiments we teased apart the possibility that action priming could be explained by: (a) nonsemantic mechanisms, (b) symbolic semantic priming, or (c) embodied semantic priming. The critical finding is that when symbolic and nonsemantic mechanisms were prevented, allowing only for a genuinely embodied semantic priming, no effect was found. Conversely, facilitation emerged in the same experimental paradigm when embodied priming was prevented and symbolic priming was allowed. Despite extensive testing, we found no evidence that unconsciously perceived words can activate sensorimotor processes, although these words are processed up to the semantic level. We thus conclude that sensorimotor activations might need conscious access to emerge during language understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Semântica , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Subliminar , Adulto , Compreensão , Estado de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 69(1): 113-28, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760942

RESUMO

Although masked stem priming (e.g., dealer-DEAL) is one of the most established effects in visual word identification, it is less clear whether primes and targets sharing a suffix (e.g., kindness-WILDNESS) also yield facilitation. In a new take on this issue, we show that prime nonwords facilitate lexical decisions to target words ending with the same suffix (sheeter-TEACHER) compared to a condition where the critical suffix was substituted by another one (sheetal-TEACHER) or by an unrelated nonmorphological ending (sheetub- TEACHER). We also show that this effect is genuinely morphological, as no priming emerged in noncomplex items with the same orthographic characteristics (sportel-BROTHEL vs. sportic-BROTHEL vs. sportur-BROTHEL). In a further experiment, we took advantage of these results to assess whether suffixes are recognized in a position-specific fashion. Masked suffix priming did not emerge when the relative order of stems and suffixes was reversed in the prime nonwords-ersheet did not yield any time saving in the identification of teacher as compared to either alsheet or obsheet. We take these results to show that -er was not identified as a morpheme in ersheet, thus indicating that suffix identification is position specific. This conclusion is in line with data on interference effects in nonword rejection and strongly constrains theoretical proposals on how complex words are identified. In particular, because these findings were reported in a masked priming paradigm, they suggest that positional constraints operate early, most likely at a prelexical level of morpho-orthographic analysis.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Semântica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estudantes , Universidades , Vocabulário
19.
Cognition ; 141: 67-72, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935747

RESUMO

Across many cultures people conceptualize time as extending along a horizontal Mental Time Line (MTL). This spatial mapping of time has been shown to depend on experience with written text, and may also depend on other graphic conventions such as graphs and calendars. All of this information is typically acquired visually, suggesting that visual experience may play an important role in the development of the MTL. Do blind people develop a MTL? If so, how does it compare with the MTL in sighted? In this study we tested early blind, late blind and sighted participants in a space-time congruity task. Participants had to classify temporal words by pressing a right and a left key, either with crossed or uncrossed hands. We found that the MTL develops in the absence of vision, and that it is based on the same external frame of reference in sighted and blind people. Reading braille may provide the same experiential link between space and time in the manual modality as reading printed text provides in the visual modality. These results showing a similar MTL in sighted and blind participants contrast with previous results showing that the Mental Number Line (MNL) depends on different spatial coordinates in the sighted and the blind, and suggest that spatial representations of time and number may have different experiential bases.


Assuntos
Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 41(3): 747-60, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25867509

RESUMO

Research strongly suggests that printed words are recognized in terms of their constituent morphemes, but researchers have tended to consider the recognition of derivations and inflections in separate theoretical debates. Recently, Crepaldi et al. (2010) proposed a theory that claims to account for the recognition of both derivations and inflections. We investigated brain potentials in the context of masked priming to test 2 key predictions of this theory: (a) that regular inflections should prime their stems to a greater degree than irregular inflections should prime their stems and (b) that priming for regular inflections should arise earlier in the recognition process than priming for irregular inflections. Significant masked priming effects were observed for both regular and irregular inflections, though these effects were greater for regular inflections. ERP data further suggested that masked priming effects for regular and irregular inflections had different time courses. Priming for regular but not irregular inflections emerged in a time window reflecting processing up to 250 ms post target onset, and although priming for regular and irregular inflections was observed in a time window reflecting processing 400 to 600 ms post target onset, these effects arose earlier and were of greater magnitude for the regular inflections. These findings support a form-then-meaning characterization of the visual word processing system such as that proposed by Crepaldi et al. (2010) and raise challenges for alternative approaches.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Idioma , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
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