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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180018, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517469

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 7.1% (95%CI 7.0 - 7.3) of the schoolchildren reported a poor self-assessed health status. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as female gender, 15 years of age or older, yellow, brown and indigenous race/skin color; risk behaviors such as regular alcohol consumption and drug experimentation, and issues related to physical and emotional health remained positively associated with the outcome studied. Protective factors identified were maternal schooling and demand for health services. CONCLUSION: The impact of risky behaviors on physical and emotional health need to be addressed among students. The school presents itself as a safe and opportune space for promoting a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoavaliação , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Percepção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180018, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977703

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução : A autoavaliação de saúde (AAS) é um indicador muito estudado entre adultos e idosos, mas pouco explorado em adolescentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde em escolares brasileiros. Métodos : Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), realizada em 2015; as prevalências e os respectivos valores do intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) do indicador autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde e dos fatores associados foram estimados. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados : Entre os escolares, 7,1% (IC95% 7,0 - 7,3) relataram autoavaliação ruim do estado de saúde. As características sociodemográficas, como sexo feminino, idade de 15 anos ou mais e raça/cor da pele amarela, parda e indígena; os comportamentos de risco de consumo regular de álcool e experimentação de drogas; e as questões relacionadas à saúde física e emocional mantiveram-se positivamente associadas ao desfecho estudado. Escolaridade materna e procurar serviços de saúde foram protetores. Conclusão : O impacto dos comportamentos de risco à saúde física e emocional necessitam ser abordados entre os estudantes. A escola apresenta-se como espaço seguro e oportuno para a promoção do estilo de vida saudável.


ABSTRACT: Introduction : Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. Methods : Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Results : A total of 7.1% (95%CI 7.0 - 7.3) of the schoolchildren reported a poor self-assessed health status. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as female gender, 15 years of age or older, yellow, brown and indigenous race/skin color; risk behaviors such as regular alcohol consumption and drug experimentation, and issues related to physical and emotional health remained positively associated with the outcome studied. Protective factors identified were maternal schooling and demand for health services. Conclusion : The impact of risky behaviors on physical and emotional health need to be addressed among students. The school presents itself as a safe and opportune space for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 17 Suppl 1: 17-30, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51), drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02), drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27), have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24), suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68), engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76), feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36) and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60). They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 17 Suppl 1: 77-91, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of major risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in school-aged children in Brazilian capitals surveyed in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey in its two editions, 2009 and 2012. METHODS: The frequencies, with Confidence Interval of 95%, of the following demographic variables were compared: food intake, body image, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence was compared in the two editions of the survey. RESULTS: The proportion of students who attend two physical education classes a week was maintained at 49% between 2009 and 2012, increasing in public schools from 50.6% (95%CI 49.8 - 51.4) to 52.5% (95%CI 49.2 - 55.7), and decreasing in private schools. There was no change in the proportion of students who watch two hours or more of television daily, about 80%. As for body image, there was no change between the two editions, and about 60% considered themselves being of normal weight. There was a reduction in the percentage of adolescents who experienced cigarettes, from 24.2% (95%CI 23.6 - 24.8) to 22.3% (95%CI 21.4 - 23.2), and the prevalence of smoking was maintained at about 6% (there was no statistical difference between 2009 and 2012). The consumption of beans, fruits, sweets and soft drinks also decreased. Frequency of drug experimentation was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.3 - 9.1) in 2009, and 9.6% (95%CI 9.0 - 10.3) in 2012, with no difference between confidence intervals, and the frequency of alcohol experimentation was maintained at about 70%; the percentage of use in the past 30 days was also maintained at around 27%. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian capitals, the vast majority of prevalence of risk factors were kept stable in the two editions of the National Survey of School. These data generate evidence to guide the implementation of public policies to minimize the exposure of adolescents to risk factors.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 17 Suppl 1: 92-105, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25054256

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. RESULTS: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50), at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29) and 16 (OR = 1.41), public school students (OR = 2.08), black (OR = 1.18) and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old), male (OR = 1.26), black (OR = 1.15) and indigenous (OR = 1.16) and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08) and 15 years (OR = 1.18), male (OR = 1.87), black (OR = 1.14) and yellow (OR = 1.15), children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 17(supl.1): 77-91, 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-715733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of major risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in school-aged children in Brazilian capitals surveyed in the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey in its two editions, 2009 and 2012. METHODS: The frequencies, with Confidence Interval of 95%, of the following demographic variables were compared: food intake, body image, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence was compared in the two editions of the survey. RESULTS: The proportion of students who attend two physical education classes a week was maintained at 49% between 2009 and 2012, increasing in public schools from 50.6% (95%CI 49.8 - 51.4) to 52.5% (95%CI 49.2 - 55.7), and decreasing in private schools. There was no change in the proportion of students who watch two hours or more of television daily, about 80%. As for body image, there was no change between the two editions, and about 60% considered themselves being of normal weight. There was a reduction in the percentage of adolescents who experienced cigarettes, from 24.2% (95%CI 23.6 - 24.8) to 22.3% (95%CI 21.4 - 23.2), and the prevalence of smoking was maintained at about 6% (there was no statistical difference between 2009 and 2012). The consumption of beans, fruits, sweets and soft drinks also decreased. Frequency of drug experimentation was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.3 - 9.1) in 2009, and 9.6% (95%CI 9.0 - 10.3) in 2012, with no difference between confidence intervals, and the frequency of alcohol experimentation was maintained at about 70%; the percentage of use in the past 30 days was also maintained at around 27%. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian capitals, the vast majority of prevalence of risk factors were kept stable in the two editions of the National Survey of School. These data generate evidence to guide the implementation of public policies to minimize the exposure of adolescents to risk factors. .


OBJETIVO: Comparar as prevalências dos principais fatores de risco e proteção para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em escolares nas capitais brasileiras, investigados na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar nas suas duas edições, 2009 e 2012. MÉTODOS: Foram comparadas as frequências com Intervalo de Confiança de 95% das variáveis sóciodemograficas e dos seguintes comportamentos: consumo alimentar, imagem corporal, atividade física, tabagismo, consumo de álcool e outras drogas. As prevalências foram comparadas nas duas edições da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: A proporção de alunos que praticam duas ou mais aulas de educação física foi mantida em 49% entre 2009 e 2012. Não houve mudança nos que assistem duas horas ou mais de televisão diária, cerca de 80%. Quanto à imagem corporal, não houve mudança nas duas edições, e cerca de 60% se consideraram com peso normal. Houve uma redução no percentual de adolescentes que experimentou cigarros de 24,2% (IC95% 23,6 - 24,8) para 22,3% (IC95% 21,4 - 23,2), e a prevalência de fumantes foi mantida em cerca de 6%. O consumo de feijão, frutas, guloseimas e refrigerantes também reduziu. A experimentação de drogas foi de 8,7% (IC95% 8,3 - 9,1) em 2009 e de 9,6% (IC95% 9,0 - 10,3) em 2012, e a frequência de experimentação de bebidas alcoólicas foi mantida em cerca de 70%; a porcentagem de uso nos últimos 30 dias também foi mantida, em cerca de 27%. CONCLUSÃO: Nas capitais brasileiras, foram mantidas estáveis a grande maioria das prevalências de fatores de risco nas duas edições da Pesquisa Nacional de Escolares. Estes dados geram evidências para orientar a implementação de políticas públicas para minimizar a exp...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Brasil , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 17(supl.1): 17-30, 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-715739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study describes exposure labor among Brazilian 9th grade students from public and private schools and investigates socio-demographic characteristics, behaviors, violent situations and psychosocial factors associated with labor among adolescents. METHODS: The present study included 108,984 students from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey carried out in 2012. Variables were grouped into sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, violent situations and psychosocial aspects. Associations between labor and several health risk variables were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for sex and age. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of the students reported having a job: 17.4% of them were male. The chance of working was lower between females and individuals whose fathers' have incomplete superior education. Students who worked had greater chances to smoke (OR = 2.26; 95%CI 2.04 - 2.51), drink alcohol, use illicit drugs (OR = 2.63; 95%CI 2.29 - 3.02), drive motorized vehicles (OR = 2.15; 95%CI 2.03 2.27), have sexual intercourse (OR = 2.10; 95%CI 1.99 - 2.24), suffer physical violence (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.46 1.68), engage in fights (OR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.55 - 1.76), feel lonely (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.17 - 1.36) and report sleeping problems (OR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.34 - 1.60). They also have lower chances of having close friends (OR = 0.78; 95%CI 0.68 - 0.90). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of labor among students is high. Socioeconomical disadvantages increase the chances of early working. Early working is also associated to health damaging behavior, violent situations, sleeping problems, and social isolation. Adolescents who study and work experiment expositions that may affect distinct health dimensions and perpetuate disadvantages over lifetime. .


OBJETIVOS: Descrever a prevalência de trabalho em estudantes da 9ª série do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas brasileiras e investigar as características sociodemográficas, comportamentos relacionados à saúde, situações de violência e aspectos psicossociais associados ao trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados dados da PeNSE 2012 e investigadas associações independentes entre características sociodemográficas e trabalho e a associação entre trabalho e fatores comportamentais e de proteção à saúde, situações de violência e aspectos psicossociais, ajustadas por sexo e faixa etária. Utilizou-se regressão logística binária para obter o Odds Ratio e seu intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 108.984 estudantes. Deste total, 13,1% trabalhavam: 17,4% eram meninos e 22,1% tinham 16 anos ou mais. A chance de trabalhar foi menor entre as meninas e entre aqueles com escolaridade paterna com nível universitário incompleto, e maior entre alunos das escolas públicas. Após ajuste por sexo e idade, os alunos que trabalhavam tiveram maior chance de tabagismo (OR = 2,26; IC95% 2,04 - 2,51), consumo de álcool, drogas ilícitas (OR = 2,63; IC95% 2,29 - 3,02), direção de veículo motorizado (OR = 2,15; IC95% 2,03 - 2,27), relação sexual (OR = 2,10; IC95% 1,99 - 2,24), sofrer agressão física (OR = 1,57; IC95% 1,46 - 1,68), envolvimento em briga (OR = 1,65; IC95% 1,55 - 1,76), sofrer ferimentos, sentir-se só e dificuldade em dormir, além de menor chance de ter amigos próximos (OR = 0,78; IC95% 0,68 - 0,90). CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de trabalho é elevada. Desvantagens socioeconômicas aumentam a chance de trabalho precoce. Este também está associado a comportamentos ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde da Criança , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 17(supl.1): 92-105, 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-715751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the victimization and bullying practice in Brazilian school children, according to data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey and to compare the surveys from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with univariate and multivariate analyzes of the following variables: to have been treated badly by colleagues, to have been bullied and to have bullied other children. The following independent variables were analyzed: age, sex, race/color, type of school, maternal education. Prevalence rates were compared between the editions of 2009 and 2012 of the survey. RESULTS: Of all the adolescents analyzed, 27.5% have not been treated well by peers at school, with greater frequency among boys (OR = 1.50), at the age of 15 years (OR = 1.29) and 16 (OR = 1.41), public school students (OR = 2.08), black (OR = 1.18) and whose mothers had less education; 7.2% reported having been bullied, with a greater chance in younger students (13 years old), male (OR = 1.26), black (OR = 1.15) and indigenous (OR = 1.16) and whose mothers had less education; 20.8% reported to have bullied other children, with a greater chance for older students, at the age of 14 (OR = 1.08) and 15 years (OR = 1.18), male (OR = 1.87), black (OR = 1.14) and yellow (OR = 1.15), children of mothers with higher education, private school students. There was an increase of bullying in the Brazilian capitals, from 5.4 to 6.8%, between 2009 and 2012. DISCUSSION: The occurrence of bullying reveals that the Brazilian school context is also becoming a space of reproduction of violence, in which it is crucial to act intersectorally and to articulate social protection networks, aiming to face this issue. .


OBJETIVO: Descrever a vitimização e a prática de bullying em escolares brasileiros, segundo dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), e comparar a evolução entre as pesquisas de 2009 e 2012. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo transversal com análises univariadas e multivariadas das variáveis: não ser bem tratado, sofrer bullying e praticar bullying. Como variáveis independentes, foram analisadas: idade, sexo, raça/cor, tipo de escola, escolaridade materna. Foram comparadas as prevalências entre as edições da PeNSE de 2009 e 2012. RESULTADOS: Não foram bem tratados pelos colegas na escola 27,5% dos adolescentes, tendo sido maior a frequência entre meninos (OR = 1,50) mais velhos, 15 anos (OR = 1,29) e 16 anos (OR = 1,41), alunos de escolas públicas (OR = 2,08), de raça/cor preta (OR = 1,18) e cujas mães tinham menor escolaridade. Relatam ter sofrido bullying 7,2%, tendo sido a maior chance em alunos mais jovens (13 anos) do sexo masculino (OR = 1,26), da raça/cor preta (OR = 1,15) e indígena (OR = 1,16) e cujas mães apresentaram menor escolaridade. A prática de bullying foi relatada por 20,8% e mostrou maior chance em alunos mais velhos, 14 anos (OR = 1,08) e 15 anos (OR = 1,18), do sexo masculino (OR = 1,87), raça/cor preta (OR = 1,14) e amarela (OR = 1,15), filhos de mães com maior escolaridade e alunos de escola privada. Ocorreu aumento de bullying nas capitais, passando de 5,4 para 6,8% entre 2009 e 2012. DISCUSSÃO: A ocorrência de bullying revela que o contexto escolar brasileiro também tem se tornado um espaço de reprodução da violência, sendo fundamental atuar de forma intersetorial e articulando redes de proteção social, visando seu enfrentamento. .


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 66(8): 723-9, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21471139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. METHODS: This work describes smoking exposure among 59,992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13-15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Prevalência , Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Público/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 15 Suppl 2: 3009-19, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21049138

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Adolescence is typically a developmental phase characterized by change and experimentation and therefore varying exposure to health hazards. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of protective and risk health behaviors of adolescents interviewed in the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). PeNSE, a partnership between the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) and the Ministry of Health, using a PDA-based self-administered questionnaire collected information on 60,973 students enrolled at 1,453 public and private schools in the 27 state capitals and the Federal District. RESULTS: Among the food items most often consumed ( > or = 5 days per week), were beans (62.6%) and fruit (31.5%), but also sweets (58.3%) and soft drinks (37%), 43.1% of the students were sufficiently physically active but 79.5% spent >2 hours per day in front of the TV. As for drug use, 6.3% reported being current tobacco smokers, 27% drank alcoholic beverages regularly and 8.7% had used illicit drugs at least once. These results should guide stakeholders and policy makers in the development and implementation of programs and recommendations aimed at curtailing unhealthy exposures of adolescents in Brazil.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 15 Suppl 2: 3027-34, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21049143

RESUMO

The article describes the prevalence of tobacco exposure among adolescents at the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) and investigates socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with smoking. The profile of a current smoker was defined as reporting having smoked at least one cigarette in the previous 30 days. The socio-demographic characteristics studied were age, sex, race/skin color, mother education, household assets index and school (public or private). Risk and protective behaviors included were alcohol and drug experimentation, sexual intercourse, consumption of at least one glass of alcohol in the past 30 days and perform or be willing to perform physical activity on most days of the weeks. Prevalence of current smoker was 6.3% (95%CI:5,87-6,74) and was positively associated with older age, lower education of the mother, brown skin color, study in public school and presence of all the risk and protective behaviors studied. On the multivariate analysis, smoking remained associated with age and risk behaviors. To perform or be willing to perform physical activity were inversely related to smoking. The coexistence of risk behaviors is also present in adolescence, suggesting that health promotion policies to the adolescence might have a broader impact, including on tobacco use.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 15 Suppl 2: 3053-63, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21049146

RESUMO

This article presents the main results of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 60,973 students of the 9th year of Junior high school in public and private schools of the Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, between March and June 2009. The prevalence and confidence interval of 95% (CI 95%) of the violence situations involving adolescents were analyzed. The following situations were identified: lack of safety on the way home-school (6.4%; CI95%: 6.1%-6.8%) and at school (5.5%; CI95%: 5.2%-5.8%); involving fights with physical aggression (12.9%; CI95%: 12.4%-13.4%), with knife (6.1%; CI95%: 5.7%-6.4%) or fire arm (4.0%; CI95%: 3.7%-4.3%); physical aggression by family member (9.5%; CI95%: 9.1%-9.9%). Violence situations were more prevalent among male students. There were great variations among the cities studied. Adolescents are exposed to different violence manifestations in the institutions that supposedly must assure their protection and healthy development: school and the home. These results aim to support health promotion measures and prevention of these risk factors.


Assuntos
Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 15 Suppl 2: 3065-76, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21049147

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to identify and describe the occurrence of bullying among students in the 9th year (8th grade) from public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. It is a cross-sectional study involving 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis indicates that 5.4% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.7%) of students reported having suffered bullying almost always or always in the last 30 days, 25.4% (IC95%: 24.8%-26.0%) were rarely or sometimes the victim of bullying and 69.2% (IC95%: 68.5%-69.8%) of students felt no humiliation or provocation at school. The capital with higher frequency of bullying was Belo Horizonte (6.9%; IC95%: 5,9%-7,9%), Minas Gerais, and the lowest was Palmas (3.5%; IC95%: 2.6%-4.5%), Tocantins. Boys reported more bullying (6,0%; IC95%: 5.5%-6.5%) compared with girls (4,8%; IC95%: 4.4%-5.3%). There was no difference between public schools 5.5% (IC95%: 5.1%-5.8%) and private (5.2%) (IC95%: 4.6%-5.8%), except in Aracaju, Sergipe, that show more bullying in private schools. The findings indicate an urgent need for intersectoral action from educational policies and practices that enforce the reduction and prevention of the occurrence of bullying in schools in Brazil.


Assuntos
Bullying , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 15(supl.2): 3009-3019, out. 2010.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-562840

RESUMO

A adolescência é marcada por transformações e exposição a diversas situações e riscos para a saúde. O estudo atual estima a prevalência dos principais fatores de risco e proteção à saúde dos adolescentes entrevistados em 2009 na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE). A PeNSE, parceria do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) com o Ministério da Saúde, usou questionário autoaplicável em palmtop coletando informação de 60.973 estudantes em 1.453 escolas públicas privadas nas 27 capitais. RESULTADOS: consumo de alimentos em cinco dias ou mais na semana: 62,6 por cento comem feijão, apenas 31,5 por cento consomem frutas, 58,3 por cento comem guloseimas e 37 por cento tomam refrigerantes; 43,1 por cento dos alunos são suficientemente ativos fisicamente e 79,5 por cento gastam mais de duas horas diárias em frente à TV. Em relação a tabaco e drogas: 6,3 por cento são fumantes atuais, 71,4 por cento dos alunos disseram já ter experimentado alguma bebida alcoólica. O consumo atual de bebida alcoólica foi de 27 por cento e as drogas ilícitas foram usadas alguma vez na vida em 8,7 por cento. Esses dados geram evidências para orientar a implementação de políticas públicas e realizar ações para minimizar a exposição de fatores de risco dos adolescentes brasileiros.


Adolescence is typically a developmental phase characterized by change and experimentation and therefore varying exposure to health hazards. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of protective and risk health behaviors of adolescents interviewed in the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). PeNSE, a partnership between the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) and the Ministry of Health, using a PDA-based self-administered questionnaire collected information on 60,973 students enrolled at 1,453 public and private schools in the 27 state capitals and the Federal District. RESULTS: among the food items most often consumed ( > or = 5 days per week), were beans (62.6 percent) and fruit (31.5 percent), but also sweets (58.3 percent) and soft drinks (37 percent), 43.1 percent of the students were sufficiently physically active but 79.5 percent spent >2 hours per day in front of the TV. As for drug use, 6.3 percent reported being current tobacco smokers, 27 percent drank alcoholic beverages regularly and 8.7 percent had used illicit drugs at least once. These results should guide stakeholders and policy makers in the development and implementation of programs and recommendations aimed at curtailing unhealthy exposures of adolescents in Brazil.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Assunção de Riscos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência
15.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 15(supl.2): 3027-3034, out. 2010. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-562845

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a exposição ao tabagismo de participantes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) e identificar fatores associados a ele. Para se apresentar o perfil de tabagismo regular, era preciso ter fumado cigarro pelo menos um dia nos 30 dias anteriores à pesquisa. As características estudadas foram idade, sexo, raça/cor, escolaridade da mãe, índice de bens do domicílio e dependência administrativa da escola. Os comportamentos de risco e proteção incluídos foram experimentar álcool ou drogas, ter relação sexual, consumo de > 1 copo de bebida alcoólica nos últimos 30 dias e realizar/ter interesse em realizar atividade física na maioria dos dias da semana. A prevalência de fumante regular foi 6,3 por cento (IC95 por cento:5,87-6,74), sendo estatisticamente maior nos mais velhos, de cor parda, cujas mães têm menor escolaridade, estudantes em escolas públicas e apresentando os comportamentos estudados. Na análise multivariável, o tabagismo permaneceu associado à idade e a comportamentos de risco. A chance de fumar também foi menor em quem não faz nem gostaria de fazer atividade física. CONCLUSÃO: comportamentos de risco para a saúde coexistem também na adolescência, sugerindo que políticas de promoção da saúde na adolescência provavelmente terão impacto amplo, incluindo o problema do tabagismo.


The article describes the prevalence of tobacco exposure among adolescents at the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) and investigates socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with smoking. The profile of a current smoker was defined as reporting having smoked at least one cigarette in the previous 30 days. The socio-demographic characteristics studied were age, sex, race/skin color, mother education, household assets index and school (public or private). Risk and protective behaviors included were alcohol and drug experimentation, sexual intercourse, consumption of at least one glass of alcohol in the past 30 days and perform or be willing to perform physical activity on most days of the weeks. Prevalence of current smoker was 6.3 percent (95 percentCI:5,87-6,74) and was positively associated with older age, lower education of the mother, brown skin color, study in public school and presence of all the risk and protective behaviors studied. On the multivariate analysis, smoking remained associated with age and risk behaviors. To perform or be willing to perform physical activity were inversely related to smoking. The coexistence of risk behaviors is also present in adolescence, suggesting that health promotion polices to the adolescence might have a broader impact, including on tobacco use.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos
16.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 15(supl.2): 3053-3063, out. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-562848

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta os principais resultados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE). Aplicou-se questionário em uma amostra de conglomerados de 60.973 estudantes do 9º ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal, entre março e junho de 2009. Analisam-se prevalências e intervalos de confiança de 95 por cento (IC95 por cento) das situações de violência envolvendo adolescentes. Foram identificadas as seguintes situações: insegurança no trajeto casa-escola (6,4 por cento; IC95 por cento: 6,1 por cento-6,8 por cento) e na escola (5,5 por cento; IC95 por cento: 5,2 por cento-5,8 por cento); envolvimento em brigas com agressão física (12,9 por cento; IC95 por cento: 12,4 por cento-13,4 por cento), com arma branca (6,1 por cento; IC95 por cento: 5,7 por cento-6,4 por cento) ou arma de fogo (4,0 por cento; IC95 por cento: 3,7 por cento-4,3 por cento); agressão física por familiar (9,5 por cento; IC95 por cento: 9,1 por cento-9,9 por cento). As situações de violência foram mais prevalentes entre estudantes do sexo masculino. Houve grande variação segundo as cidades estudadas. Os adolescentes estão expostos a diferentes manifestações de violência nas instituições que supostamente deveriam garantir sua proteção e desenvolvimento saudável e seguro - a escola e o lar. Esses resultados visam apoiar medidas de promoção à saúde e prevenção desses fatores de risco.


This article presents the main results of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). A questionnaire was applied to a sample of 60,973 students of the 9th year of Junior high school in public and private schools of the Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, between March and June 2009. The prevalence and confidence interval of 95 percent (CI 95 percent) of the violence situations involving adolescents were analyzed. The following situations were identified: lack of safety on the way home-school (6.4 percent; CI95 percent: 6.1 percent-6.8 percent) and at school (5.5 percent; CI95 percent: 5.2 percent-5.8 percent); involving fights with physical aggression (12.9 percent; CI95 percent: 12.4 percent-13.4 percent), with knife (6.1 percent; CI95 percent: 5.7 percent-6.4 percent) or fire arm (4.0 percent; CI95 percent: 3.7 percent-4.3 percent); physical aggression by family member (9.5 percent; CI95 percent: 9.1 percent-9.9 percent). Violence situations were more prevalent among male students. There were great variations among the cities studied. Adolescents are exposed to different violence manifestations in the institutions that supposedly must assure their protection and healthy development: school and the home. These results aim to support health promotion measures and prevention of these risk factors.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 15(supl.2): 3065-3076, out. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-562849

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo é identificar e descrever a ocorrência do bullying, episódios de humilhação ou provocação perpetrados pelos colegas da escola, entre estudantes do 9º ano do ensino fundamental de escolas públicas e privadas das 26 capitais dos estados brasileiros e do Distrito Federal. Trata-se de estudo transversal feito com 60.973 escolares de 1.453 escolas públicas e privadas. A análise dos dados aponta que 5,4 por cento (IC95 por cento: 5,1 por cento-5,7 por cento) dos estudantes relataram ter sofrido bullying quase sempre ou sempre nos últimos 30 dias; 25,4 por cento (IC95 por cento: 24,8 por cento-26,0 por cento) foram raramente ou às vezes vítimas de bullying e 69,2 por cento (IC95 por cento: 68,5 por cento-69,8 por cento) não sentiram nenhuma humilhação ou provocação (bullying). A capital com maior frequência de foi Belo Horizonte-MG (6,9 por cento; IC95 por cento: 5,9 por cento-7,9) e a menor foi Palmas-TO (3,5 por cento; IC95 por cento: 2,6 por cento-4,5 por cento). Meninos relatam mais bullying (6,0 por cento; IC95 por cento: 5,5 por cento-6,5 por cento) do que meninas (4,8 por cento; IC95 por cento: 4,4 por cento-5,3 por cento). Não houve diferença entre escolas públicas (5,5 por cento; IC95 por cento: 5,1 por cento-5,8 por cento) e privadas (5,2 por cento; IC95 por cento: 4,6 por cento-5,8 por cento), exceto em Aracaju-SE, onde foi registrada maior ocorrência de bullying em escolas privadas. Os dados mostram urgente necessidade de ações intersetoriais a partir de políticas e práticas educativas que efetivem redução e prevenção da ocorrência do bullying nas escolas.


The aim of this study is to identify and describe the occurrence of bullying among students in the 9th year (8th grade) from public and private schools from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. It is a cross-sectional study involving 60,973 students and 1,453 public and private schools. Data analysis indicates that 5.4 percent (IC95 percent: 5.1 percent-5.7 percent) of students reported having suffered bullying almost always or always in the last 30 days, 25.4 percent (IC95 percent: 24.8 percent-26.0 percent) were rarely or sometimes the victim of bullying and 69.2 percent (IC95 percent: 68.5 percent-69.8 percent) of students felt no humiliation or provocation at school. The capital with higher frequency of bullying was Belo Horizonte (6.9 percent; IC95 percent: 5,9 percent-7,9 percent), Minas Gerais, and the lowest was Palmas (3.5 percent; IC95 percent: 2.6 percent-4.5 percent), Tocantins. Boys reported more bullying (6,0 percent; IC95 percent: 5.5 percent-6.5 percent) compared with girls (4,8 percent; IC95 percent: 4.4 percent-5.3 percent). There was no difference between public schools 5.5 percent (IC95 percent: 5.1 percent-5.8 percent) and private (5.2 percent) (IC95 percent: 4.6 percent-5.8 percent), except in Aracaju, Sergipe, that show more bullying in private schools. The findings indicate an urgent need for intersectoral action from educational policies and practices that enforce the reduction and prevention of the occurrence of bullying in schools in Brazil.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Bullying , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Acta méd. (Porto Alegre) ; (1): 556-62, 1995.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-198443

RESUMO

Os autores procuram avaliar a contribuiçäo dos fatores depressivo-agressivos na etiopatogenia da Artrite Reumatóide, através da comparaçäo entre pacientes artríticos, pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica e a populaçäo geral


Assuntos
Humanos , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/etiologia
20.
Rev. bras. patol. clín ; 22(5): 152-64, set.-out. 1986. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-37152

RESUMO

Foram estudados 40 pacientes submetidos a cateterismo vesical, pelo prazo mínimo de 4 dias, a fim de avaliar a relaçäo entre os resultados obtidos de amostras retiradas do cateter já instalado e os de amostras retiradas imediatamente após a troca do cateter, num total de 80 culturas. Verificou-se que a maioria das culturas mostrou contagens acima de 100.000 bactérias por ml de urina. As amostras obtidas do cateter já instalado estäo relacionadas com contagens bacterianas mais elevadas, assim como, com infecçöes polimicrobianas. As bactérias com maior incidência foram Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, "Enterococos" e Proteus mirabilis, em ambas as séries, antes e após a troca do cateter. A coincidência entre as culturas obtidas de amostras do cateter já instalado e após a troca, em relaçäo ao mesmo microrganismo, foi de 30%. Considerando-se a coincidência do microrganismo e do número de bactérias por ml, tal percentual caiu para 5%, portanto, näo há coincidência entre os resultados bacteriológicos de amostras de urina colhidas antes e após a troca do cateter, em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo vesical prolongado. A simples troca do cateter é suficiente para modificar os resultados dos exames bacteriológicos, tanto quantitativa quanto qualitativamente, apontando-se o cateter nicho ecológico particular e diferenciado na invasäo vesical. Os critérios quantitativos propostos por Kass para diagnóstico de infecçöes urinárias, assim como os métodos de colheita de urina em pacientes cateterizados, devem ser reavaliados, devendo-se estabelecer correlaçöes qualitativas e quantitativas adequadas a reconhecerem infecçäo vesical e/ou colonizaçäo luminar do cateter. A avaliaçäo clínica deve ser sempre fator importante na decisäo de usar antibióticos. A especificidade da adesäo bacteriana é fator fundamental na compreensäo e análise de resultados de culturas de urina em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo vesical prolongado, devendo-se, no futuro, avaliar esta especificidade quanto a espécies bacterianas e substrato disponível pela manutençäo do cateter


Assuntos
Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Cateterismo Urinário/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/uso terapêutico , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
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