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1.
Plant Sci ; 295: 110396, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534615

RESUMO

The word phenotyping can nowadays invoke visions of a drone or phenocart moving swiftly across research plots collecting high-resolution data sets on a wide array of traits. This has been made possible by recent advances in sensor technology and data processing. Nonetheless, more comprehensive often destructive phenotyping still has much to offer in breeding as well as research. This review considers the 'breeder friendliness' of phenotyping within three main domains: (i) the 'minimum data set', where being 'handy' or accessible and easy to collect and use is paramount, visual assessment often being preferred; (ii) the high throughput phenotyping (HTP), relatively new for most breeders, and requiring significantly greater investment with technical hurdles for implementation and a steeper learning curve than the minimum data set; (iii) detailed characterization or 'precision' phenotyping, typically customized for a set of traits associated with a target environment and requiring significant time and resources. While having been the subject of debate in the past, extra investment for phenotyping is becoming more accepted to capitalize on recent developments in crop genomics and prediction models, that can be built from the high-throughput and detailed precision phenotypes. This review considers different contexts for phenotyping, including breeding, exploration of genetic resources, parent building and translational research to deliver other new breeding resources, and how the different categories of phenotyping listed above apply to each. Some of the same tools and rules of thumb apply equally well to phenotyping for genetic analysis of complex traits and gene discovery.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1530-1539, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548720

RESUMO

Bread wheat improvement using genomic tools is essential for accelerating trait genetic gains. Here we report the genomic predictabilities of 35 key traits and demonstrate the potential of genomic selection for wheat end-use quality. We also performed a large genome-wide association study that identified several significant marker-trait associations for 50 traits evaluated in South Asia, Africa and the Americas. Furthermore, we built a reference wheat genotype-phenotype map, explored allele frequency dynamics over time and fingerprinted 44,624 wheat lines for trait-associated markers, generating over 7.6 million data points, which together will provide a valuable resource to the wheat community for enhancing productivity and stress resilience.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estresse Fisiológico/imunologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/imunologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Seleção Genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Triticum/genética
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 782, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263476

RESUMO

The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani, significantly reduces wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain yields if not controlled. Host plant resistance (HPR) can protect yield, is environmentally friendly and easy to use. Our objectives were to: (1) identify genomic regions associated with S. graminum resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross of "Sokoll" (resistant) and "Weebill1" (moderately susceptible), (2) evaluate Sokoll derived breeding germplasm for resistance, and (3) conduct allelism tests between Sokoll and sources carrying resistance genes Gba, Gbb, and Gbd. Resistance was measured quantitatively and qualitatively using a SPAD meter and visual assessments, respectively. We identified a large effect resistance gene on chromosome arm 7DL of Sokoll, herein referred as GbSkl, which contributed up to 24% of the phenotypic variation. Other minor QTL on chromosomes 2B, 3A, and 7B were also identified. The QTL on 2B and 3A originated from Weebill1. Of the Sokoll derived germplasm, 13% displayed resistance. Allelism tests indicated that GbSkl could be allelic or tightly linked to the temporarily designated genes Gba, Gbb, and Gbd. Utility of SPAD to determine quantitative variation in resistance phenotyping is demonstrated and breeding efforts are underway to transfer the resistance from Sokoll to new CIMMYT elite germplasm.

4.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(6): 1705-1720, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778634

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) models have been validated for many quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding. However, those models are mostly constrained within the same growing cycle and the extension of GS to the case of across cycles has been a challenge, mainly due to the low predictive accuracy resulting from two factors: reduced genetic relationships between different families and augmented environmental variances between cycles. Using the data collected from diverse field conditions at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center, we evaluated GS for grain yield in three elite yield trials across three wheat growing cycles. The objective of this project was to employ the secondary traits, canopy temperature, and green normalized difference vegetation index, which are closely associated with grain yield from high-throughput phenotyping platforms, to improve prediction accuracy for grain yield. The ability to predict grain yield was evaluated reciprocally across three cycles with or without secondary traits. Our results indicate that prediction accuracy increased by an average of 146% for grain yield across cycles with secondary traits. In addition, our results suggest that secondary traits phenotyped during wheat heading and early grain filling stages were optimal for enhancing the prediction accuracy for grain yield.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Genoma de Planta , Genômica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Seleção Genética , Triticum/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(1): 177-194, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341493

RESUMO

Genomic selection and high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) are promising tools to accelerate breeding gains for high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Hence, our objective was to evaluate them for predicting grain yield (GY) in drought-stressed (DS) and late-sown heat-stressed (HS) environments of the International maize and wheat improvement center's elite yield trial nurseries. We observed that the average genomic prediction accuracies using fivefold cross-validations were 0.50 and 0.51 in the DS and HS environments, respectively. However, when a different nursery/year was used to predict another nursery/year, the average genomic prediction accuracies in the DS and HS environments decreased to 0.18 and 0.23, respectively. While genomic predictions clearly outperformed pedigree-based predictions across nurseries, they were similar to pedigree-based predictions within nurseries due to small family sizes. In populations with some full-sibs in the training population, the genomic and pedigree-based prediction accuracies were on average 0.27 and 0.35 higher than the accuracies in populations with only one progeny per cross, indicating the importance of genetic relatedness between the training and validation populations for good predictions. We also evaluated the item-based collaborative filtering approach for multivariate prediction of GY using the green normalized difference vegetation index from HTP. This approach proved to be the best strategy for across-nursery predictions, with average accuracies of 0.56 and 0.62 in the DS and HS environments, respectively. We conclude that GY is a challenging trait for across-year predictions, but GS and HTP can be integrated in increasing the size of populations screened and evaluating unphenotyped large nurseries for stress-resilience within years.


Assuntos
Clima , Modelos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Triticum/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Genótipo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Modelos Lineares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
6.
Plant Genome ; 11(3)2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512048

RESUMO

Genomic selection (GS) has been promising for increasing genetic gains in several species. Therefore, we evaluated the potential integration of GS for grain yield (GY) in bread wheat ( L.) in CIMMYT's elite yield trial nurseries. We observed that the genomic prediction accuracies within nurseries (0.44 and 0.35) were substantially higher than across-nursery accuracies (0.15 and 0.05) for GY evaluated in the bed and flat planting systems, respectively. The accuracies from using only a subset of 251 genotyping-by-sequencing markers were comparable to the accuracies using all 2038 markers. We also used the item-based collaborative filtering approach for incorporating other related traits in predicting GY and observed that it outperformed genomic predictions across nurseries, but was less predictive when trait correlations with GY were low. Furthermore, we compared GS and phenotypic selections (PS) and observed that at a selection intensity of 0.5, GS could select a maximum of 70.9 and 61.5% of the top lines and discard 71.5 and 60.5% of the poor lines selected or discarded by PS within and across nurseries, respectively. Comparisons of GS and pedigree-based predictions revealed that the advantage of GS over the pedigree was moderate in populations without full-sibs. However, GS was less advantageous for within-family selections in elite families with few full-sibs and minimal Mendelian sampling variance. Overall, our results demonstrate the importance of applying GS for GY at the appropriate stage of the breeding cycle, and we speculate that gains can be maximized if it is implemented in early-generation within-family selections.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Seleção Genética , Triticum/genética , Agricultura , Grão Comestível , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Linhagem , Fenótipo
7.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13526, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201978

RESUMO

Wheat is an important staple that acts as a primary source of dietary energy, protein, and essential micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) for the world's population. Approximately two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiency, thus breeders have crossed high Zn progenitors such as synthetic hexaploid wheat, T. dicoccum, T. spelta, and landraces to generate wheat varieties with competitive yield and enhanced grain Zn that are being adopted by farmers in South Asia. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the wheat Illumina iSelect 90 K Infinitum SNP array to characterize grain Zn concentrations in 330 bread wheat lines. Grain Zn phenotype of this HarvestPlus Association Mapping (HPAM) panel was evaluated across a range of environments in India and Mexico. GWAS analysis revealed 39 marker-trait associations for grain Zn. Two larger effect QTL regions were found on chromosomes 2 and 7. Candidate genes (among them zinc finger motif of transcription-factors and metal-ion binding genes) were associated with the QTL. The linked markers and associated candidate genes identified in this study are being validated in new biparental mapping populations for marker-assisted breeding.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Grão Comestível/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Zinco/análise , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/química , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Índia , México , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Triticum/química , Dedos de Zinco/genética
8.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1971, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687366

RESUMO

Breeding wheat with enhanced levels of grain zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a cost-effective, sustainable solution to malnutrition problems. Modern wheat varieties have limited variation in grain Zn and Fe, but large-scale screening has identified high levels of Zn and Fe in wild relatives and progenitors of cultivated wheat. The most promising sources of high Zn and Fe are einkorn (Triticum monococcum), wild emmer (T. dicoccoides), diploid progenitors of hexaploid wheat (such as Aegilops tauschii), T. spelta, T. polonicum, and landraces of T. aestivum. This study evaluate the effects of translocations from rye and different Aegilops species in a "Pavon-76" wheat genetic background and utilized in the wheat biofortification breeding program at CIMMYT that uses diverse genetic resources, including landraces, recreated synthetic hexaploids, T. spelta and pre-breeding lines. Four translocations were identified that resulted significantly higher Zn content in "Pavon 76" genetic background than the check varieties, and they had increased levels of grain Fe as well-compared to "Pavon 76." These lines were also included in the breeding program aimed to develop advanced high Zn breeding lines. Advanced lines derived from diverse crosses were screened under Zn-enriched soil conditions in Mexico during the 2017 and 2018 seasons. The Zn content of the grain was ranging from 35 to 69 mg/kg during 2017 and 38 to 72 mg/kg during 2018. Meanwhile grain Fe ranged from 30 to 43 mg/kg during 2017 and 32 to 52 mg/kg during 2018. A highly significant positive correlation was found between Zn and Fe (r = 0.54; P < 0.001) content of the breeding lines, therefore it was possible to breed for both properties in parallel. Yield testing of the advanced lines showed that 15% (2017) and 24% (2018) of the lines achieved 95-110% yield potential of the commercial checks and also had 12 mg/kg advantage in the Zn content suggesting that greater genetic gains and farmer-preferred wheat varieties were developed and deployed. A decade of research and breeding efforts led to the selection of "best-bet" breeding lines and the release of eight biofortified wheat varieties in target regions of South Asia and in Mexico.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1800, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093728

RESUMO

More than 50% of undernourished children live in Asia and more than 25% live in Africa. Coupled with an inadequate food supply, mineral deficiencies are widespread in these populations; particularly zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) deficiencies that lead to retarded growth, adverse effects on both the immune system and an individual's cognitive abilities. Biofortification is one solution aimed at reducing the incidence of these deficiencies. To efficiently breed a biofortified wheat variety, it is important to generate knowledge of the genomic regions associated with grain Zn (GZn) and Fe (GFe) concentration. This allows for the introgression of favorable alleles into elite germplasm. In this study we evaluated two bi-parental populations of 188 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) displaying a significant range of transgressive segregation for GZn and GFe during three crop cycles in CIMMYT, Mexico. Parents of the RILs were derived from Triticum spelta L. and synthetic hexaploid wheat crosses. QTL analysis identified a number of significant QTL with a region denominated as QGZn.cimmyt-7B_1P2 on chromosome 7B explaining the largest (32.7%) proportion of phenotypic variance (PVE) for GZn and leading to an average additive effect of -1.3. The QTL with the largest average additive effect for GFe (-0.161) was found on chromosome 4A (QGFe.cimmyt-4A_P2), with 21.14% of the PVE. The region QGZn.cimmyt-7B_1P2 co-localized closest to the region QGZn.cimmyt-7B_1P1 in a consensus map built from the linkage maps of both populations. Pleiotropic or tightly linked QTL were also found on chromosome 3B, however of minor effects and PVE between 4.3 and 10.9%. Further efforts are required to utilize the QTL information in marker assisted backcrossing schemes for wheat biofortification. A strategy to follow is to intercross the transgressive individuals from both populations and then utilize them as sources in biofortification breeding pipelines.

10.
Hereditas ; 154: 14, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559761

RESUMO

Wheat is globally one of the most important crops. With the current human population growth rate, there is an increasing need to raise wheat productivity by means of plant breeding, along with development of more efficient and sustainable agricultural systems. Damage by pathogens and pests, in combination with adverse climate effects, need to be counteracted by incorporating new germplasm that makes wheat more resistant/tolerant to such stress factors. Rye has been used as a source for improved resistance to pathogens and pests in wheat during more than 50 years. With new devastating stem and yellow rust pathotypes invading wheat at large acreage globally, along with new biotypes of pest insects, there is renewed interest in using rye as a source of resistance. Currently the proportion of wheat cultivars with rye chromatin varies between countries, with examples of up to 34%. There is mainly one rye source, Petkus, that has been widely exploited and that has contributed considerably to raise yields and increase disease resistance in wheat. Successively, the multiple disease resistances conferred by this source has been overcome by new pathotypes of leaf rust, yellow rust, stem rust and powdery mildew. However, there are several other rye sources reported to make wheat more resistant to various biotic constraints when their rye chromatin has been transferred to wheat. There is also development of knowledge on how to produce new rye translocation, substitution and addition lines. Here we compile information that may facilitate decision making for wheat breeders aiming to transfer resistance to biotic constraints from rye to elite wheat germplasm.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Secale/genética , Triticum/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Translocação Genética
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 991, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27458472

RESUMO

Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance.

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