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1.
J Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966543

RESUMO

Mental health problems bring substantial individual, community and societal costs and the need for innovation to promote good mental health and to prevent and treat mental health problems has never been greater. However, we know that research findings can take up to 20 years to implement. One way to push the pace is to focus researchers and funders on shared, specific goals and targets. We describe a consultation process organised by the Department of Health and Social Care and convened by the Chief Medical Officer to consider high level goals for future research efforts and to begin to identify UK-specific targets to measure research impact. The process took account of new scientific methods and evidence, the UK context with a universal health care system (the NHS) and the embedded research support from the National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network, as well as the views of individual service users and service user organisations. The result of the consultation is a set of four overarching goals with the potential to be measured at intervals of three, five or ten years.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044852, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879487

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety difficulties are among the most common mental health problems in childhood. Despite this, few children access evidence-based interventions, and school may be an ideal setting to improve children's access to treatment. This article describes the design, methods and expected data collection of the Identifying Child Anxiety Through Schools - Identification to Intervention (iCATS i2i) study, which aims to develop acceptable school-based procedures to identify and support child anxiety difficulties. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: iCATS i2i will use a mixed-methods approach to codesign and deliver a set of procedures-or 'pathway'-to improve access to evidence-based intervention for child anxiety difficulties through primary schools in England. The study will consist of four stages, initially involving in-depth interviews with parents, children, school staff and stakeholders (stage 1) to inform the development of the pathway. The pathway will then be administered in two primary schools, including screening, feedback to parents and the offer of treatment where indicated (stage 2), with participating children, parents and school staff invited to provide feedback on their experience (stages 3 and 4). Data will be analysed using Template Analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The iCATS i2i study was approved by the University of Oxford's Research Ethics Committee (REF R64620/RE001). It is expected that this codesign study will lead on to a future feasibility study and, if indicated, a randomised controlled trial. The findings will be disseminated in several ways, including via lay summary report, publication in academic journals and presentation at conferences. By providing information on child, parent, school staff and other stakeholder's experiences, we anticipate that the findings will inform the development of an acceptable evidence-based pathway for identification and intervention for children with anxiety difficulties in primary schools and may also inform broader approaches to screening for and treating youth mental health problems outside of clinics.

3.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 72: 101654, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) may be important for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders but research with preadolescent children has relied entirely on questionnaire measures to assess IU. Here we aimed to develop a behavioural measure of IU that was appropriate for preadolescent children by adapting the beads task (Jacoby, Abramowitz, Buck, & Fabricant, 2014). METHODS: Participants were 51 typically developing children (26 female; 7-11 years). We examined first whether preadolescent participants could understand and complete the task, then how participants responded to varying levels of uncertainty. We also conducted exploratory analyses regarding associations between task measures and questionnaire measures of IU, anxiety and worry. RESULTS: Overall, the adapted Beads Task appears suitable for preadolescent children and is able to capture reactions to uncertainty. At least some of these reactions are related to questionnaire measures of IU and anxiety. Implications and areas for future research are discussed to provide insights into how behavioural tasks examining responses to uncertainty can improve our understanding of IU. LIMITATIONS: The sample size was relatively small. There was no control task or condition without uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the adapted Beads Task appears suitable for preadolescent children and is able to capture reactions to uncertainty. This type of behavioural task would be appropriate for use in future research that aims to improve our understanding of IU in children.

4.
Trials ; 22(1): 267, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 related lockdowns and distancing measures have presented families with unprecedented challenges. A UK-wide cohort study tracking changes in families' mental health since early lockdown (Co-SPACE) found a significant rise in primary school-aged children's behaviour problems and associated family-related stress. Three-quarters of parents in Co-SPACE also reported wanting extra support. In SPARKLE, we will examine whether providing Co-SPACE families with a smartphone application delivering information and parenting support, Parent Positive, can reverse the negative effects of the pandemic on children and parents. The efficacy on child and parent outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Parent Positive will be examined. We will also test whether the effects are moderated by pre-existing levels of child conduct problems and usage of Parent Positive. Exploratory analyses will examine whether other baseline characteristics or lockdown circumstances moderate the effects of Parent Positive. TRIAL DESIGN: SPARKLE is a two-arm superiority parallel group randomised controlled trial embedded in an existing large UK-wide self-selected community cohort - Co-SPACE. Those who consent to SPARKLE will be randomised 1:1 to either Parent Positive or Follow-up As Usual (FAU). PARTICIPANTS: Co-SPACE (a UK-wide longitudinal cohort study) parents aged ≥18 who have children aged 4-10 years will be eligible for SPARKLE. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Parent Positive: is a digital public health intervention that can be delivered rapidly at scale to support parents in managing their children's behaviour to reduce conduct problems and levels of family conflict, which were exacerbated during the first lockdown, and which may increase further in future months as families need to cope with continuous uncertainty and further disruption to their daily lives. Co-designed with parents and based on decades of parenting research, Parent Positive consists of three elements: (i) Parenting Boosters: where advice, delivered in the form of narrated animations, videos, graphics and text is provided to help parents with eight common parenting challenges; (ii) Parenting Exchange: a facilitated parent-to-parent communication and peer support platform and; (iii) Parent Resources: giving access to carefully selected high-quality, evidence-based online parenting resources. Follow-up as Usual: FAU was selected as a comparator because the public health nature meant that an active comparator was not appropriate due to the pragmatic, rapid implementation of the trial. Individuals randomised to FAU will receive no intervention for the first two months while the data for baseline (T1), T2 and T3 are collected. They will then be given full access to the app until 30th November 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES: Outcome measures will be collected remotely through Qualtrics according to the Co-SPACE schedule at baseline (T1), which will be the Co-SPACE survey data obtained immediately prior to randomisation, and then at one month (T2) and two months (T3) post-randomisation. Measures will be collected to assess group differences in child and parent outcomes, costs and service utilisation, and adverse events. Usage of Parent Positive will also be tracked. The primary outcome is parent-reported child conduct problems at one-month post-randomisation measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire conduct problems subscale. RANDOMISATION: Enrolled participants will be allocated to Parent Positive or FAU at the ratio of 1:1 by simple randomisation using the Randomizer function within the Qualtrics programme. Neither blocking nor stratification will be used. BLINDING (MASKING): It is not possible to blind parents enrolled in the study and Qualtrics will automatically inform parents of their group allocation. Blinded members of the research team and the senior statistician will not be given access to the Qualtrics system or the data in order to remain blinded until after the analysis is complete. We do not anticipate any serious harms associated with taking part in the intervention, therefore there will be no need to unblind any blinded staff during the study. The junior statistician will be unblinded throughout. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 616 will be recruited into the trial with 308 consenting parents randomised to each treatment arm. TRIAL STATUS: V1.0; 15.03.2021. Not yet recruiting. Anticipated start date: 1st April 2021. Anticipated end date for recruitment: 31st July 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT04786080 . The trial was prospectively registered on 8 March 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792821

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify items from the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale - RCADS-C/P that provided a brief, reliable and valid screen for anxiety and/or depressive disorders in adolescents. In addition, we examined whether adding items assessing suicidal ideation (Moods and Feelings Questionnaire - MFQ- C/P) and symptom impact and duration (items adapted from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire - SDQ) improved the identification of adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders. We compared two samples of adolescents and their parents - a community sample, recruited through secondary schools in England (n = 214) and a clinic-referred sample, who met diagnostic criteria for anxiety and/or depressive disorder and were recruited through a university-based research clinic (n = 246). Participants completed the RCADS-C/P with additional symptom impact and duration items, and the MFQ-C/P. Using ROC curve analyses, we identified a set of 11 RCADS-C/P items (6 addressing anxiety and 5 depression symptoms) for adolescent- and parent-report. This set of 11 symptom items achieved sensitivity/specificity values > .75, which were comparable to corresponding values for the RCADS-47-C/P. Combining adolescent and parent-report improved the identification of anxiety/depression in adolescents compared to using adolescent-report alone. Finally, adding two symptom impact items further improved the sensitivity/specificity of the 11 symptom items, whereas adding suicidal ideation items did not. The 11 RCADS items accurately discriminated between the community and clinic-referred sample with anxiety and/or depressive disorders and have the potential to quickly and accurately identify adolescents with these disorders in community settings.

6.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; : 1-15, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common. It usually starts in adolescence, and without treatment can disrupt key developmental milestones. Existing generic treatments are less effective for young people with SAD than with other anxiety disorders, but an adaptation of an effective adult therapy (CT-SAD-A) has shown promising results for adolescents. AIMS: The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative exploration to contribute towards the evaluation of CT-SAD-A for adoption into Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). METHOD: We used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyse the transcripts of interviews with a sample of six young people, six parents and seven clinicians who were learning the treatment. RESULTS: Three cross-cutting themes were identified: (i) endorsing the treatment; (ii) finding therapy to be collaborative and active; challenging but helpful; and (iii) navigating change in a complex setting. Young people and parents found the treatment to be useful and acceptable, although simultaneously challenging. This was echoed by the clinicians, with particular reference to integrating CT-SAD-A within community CAMHS settings. CONCLUSIONS: The acceptability of the treatment with young people, their parents and clinicians suggests further work is warranted in order to support its development and implementation within CAMHS settings.

7.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; : 1-13, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive therapy, based on the Clark and Wells (1995) model, is a first-line treatment for adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD), and findings from research settings suggest it has promise for use with adolescents (Cognitive Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents; CT-SAD-A). However, for the treatment to be suitable for delivery in routine clinical care, two questions need to be addressed. AIMS: Can therapists be trained to achieve good outcomes in routine Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and what are the costs associated with training and treatment? METHOD: CAMHS therapists working in two NHS trusts received training in CT-SAD-A. They delivered the treatment to adolescents with SAD during a period of supervised practice. We examined the clinical outcomes for the 12 patients treated during this period, and estimated costs associated with treatment and training. RESULTS: Treatment produced significant improvements in social anxiety symptoms, general anxiety and depression symptoms, and reductions in putative process measures. Seventy-five per cent (9 out of 12) patients showed a reliable and clinically significant improvement in social anxiety symptoms, and 64% (7/11) lost their primary diagnosis of SAD. The total cost to the NHS of the CT-SAD-A treatment was £4047 (SD = £1003) per adolescent treated, of which £1861 (SD = £358) referred to the specific estimated cost of face-to-face delivery; the remaining cost was for training and supervising therapists who were not previously familiar with the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides preliminary evidence that clinicians can deliver good patient outcomes for adolescents with SAD in routine CAMHS during a period of supervised practice after receiving a 2-day training workshop. Furthermore, the cost of delivering CT-SAD-A with adolescents appeared to be no more than the cost of delivering CT-SAD with adults.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parent anxiety is associated with offspring internalizing problems (emotional problems related to anxiety and depression). This may reflect causal processes, whereby exposure to parent anxiety directly influences offspring internalizing (and/or vice versa). However, parent-offspring associations could also be attributable to their genetic relatedness. We present a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether exposure to parent anxiety is associated with offspring internalizing after controlling for genetic relatedness. METHOD: A literature search in five databases identified 429 records. Publications were retained if they used a quasi-experimental design in a general population sample to control for participant relatedness in associations between parent anxiety and offspring internalizing outcomes. Publications were excluded if they involved an experimental exposure or intervention. Studies of pre- and post-natal anxiety exposure were meta-analysed separately. Pearson's correlation coefficient estimates (r) were pooled using multilevel random effects models. RESULTS: Eight publications were retained. Data were drawn from four population cohorts, each unique to a quasi-experimental design: adoption, sibling-comparison, children-of-twins or in-vitro-fertilisation. Cohorts were located in northern Europe or America. Families were predominantly of European ancestry. Three publications (Nfamilies>11,700; offspring aged 0.5-10 years) showed no association between prenatal anxiety exposure and offspring internalizing outcomes after accounting for participant relatedness (r=.04, CI -.07,.14). Six publications (Nfamilies>12,700; offspring aged 0.75-22 years) showed a small but significant association between concurrent symptoms in parents and offspring, after accounting for participant relatedness (r=.13, CI .04,.21). CONCLUSION: Initial literature, derived from homogenous populations, suggests that prenatal anxiety exposure does not cause offspring internalizing outcomes. However, postnatal anxiety exposure may be causally associated with concurrent offspring internalizing, via non-genetic pathways. Longitudinal stability, child-to-parent effects, and the role of moderators and methodological biases require attention.

9.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(5): 584-605, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in children and young people are common and can lead to poor long-term outcomes. Despite the availability of effective psychological interventions for mental health disorders, only a minority of affected children and young people access treatment. Digital interventions, such as applied games and virtual reality (VR), that target mental health problems in children and young people may hold a key to increasing access to, engagement with, and potentially the effectiveness of psychological treatments. To date, several applied games and VR interventions have been specifically developed for children and young people. This systematic review aims to identify and synthesize current data on the experience and effectiveness of applied games and VR for targeting mental health problems in children and young people (defined as average age of 18 years or below). METHODS: Electronic systematic searches were conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Nineteen studies were identified that examined nine applied games and two VR applications, and targeted symptoms of anxiety, depression, and phobias using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Existing evidence is at a very early stage and studies vary extensively in key methodological characteristics. For applied games, the most robust evidence is for adolescent depressive symptoms (medium clinical effect sizes). Insufficient research attention has been given to the efficacy of VR interventions in children and young people. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence to date is at a very early stage. Despite the enthusiasm for applied games and VR, existing interventions are limited in number and evidence of efficacy, and there is a clear need for further co-design, development, and evaluation of applied games and VR before they are routinely offered as treatments for children and young people with mental health problems.

10.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(20): 1-94, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common, typically starts in adolescence and has a low natural recovery rate. Existing psychological treatments for adolescent SAD are only moderately effective. It is possible that recovery rates for adolescents could be substantially improved by adapting a psychological therapy that is highly effective among adults with SAD. OBJECTIVES: To train child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) therapists to deliver cognitive therapy for SAD in adolescents (CT-SAD-A) and assess therapist competence. To estimate the costs to the NHS of training therapists to deliver CT-SAD-A and the mean cost per adolescent treated. To examine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare CT-SAD-A with the general form of cognitive-behavioural therapy that is more commonly used. DESIGN: During the training phase of the study, it became clear that the RCT would not be feasible because of high staff turnover and unfilled posts within CAMHS and changes in the nature of referrals, which meant that few young people with primary SAD were accessing some of the participating services. The study design was altered to comprise the following: a training case series of CT-SAD-A delivered in routine CAMHS, an estimate of the cost to the NHS of training therapists to deliver CT-SAD-A and of the mean cost per adolescent treated, and qualitative interviews with participating young people, parents, therapists and service managers/leads. SETTING: Five CAMHS teams within Berkshire Healthcare and Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trusts. PARTICIPANTS: Eight therapists received training in CT-SAD-A. Twelve young people received CT-SAD-A, delivered by six therapists. Six young people, six parents, seven therapists and three managers participated in qualitative interviews. INTERVENTIONS: Cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder in adolescents (CT-SAD-A). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured outcomes included social anxiety symptoms and diagnostic status, comorbid symptoms of anxiety and depression, social and general functioning, concentration in class and treatment acceptability. Patient level utilisation of the intervention was collected using clinicians' logs. RESULTS: Nine out of 12 participants achieved good outcomes across measures (r ≥ 0.60 across social anxiety measures). The estimated cost of delivering CT-SAD-A was £1861 (standard deviation £358) per person. Qualitative interviews indicated that the treatment was acceptable to young people, parents and therapists, but therapists and managers experienced challenges when implementing the training and treatment within the current CAMHS context. LIMITATIONS: Findings were based on a small, homogeneous sample and there was no comparison arm. CONCLUSIONS: CT-SAD-A is a promising treatment for young people with SAD, but the current CAMHS context presents challenges for its implementation. FUTURE WORK: Further work is needed to ensure that CAMHS can incorporate and test CT-SAD-A. Alternatively, CT-SAD-A should be delivered and tested in other settings that are better configured to treat young people whose lives are held back by SAD. The new schools Mental Health Support Teams envisaged in the 2017 Children's Mental Health Green Paper may provide such an opportunity. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme. Individual funding was also provided for Cathy Creswell, David M Clark and Eleanor Leigh as follows: NIHR Research Professorship (Cathy Creswell); Wellcome Senior Investigator Award (Anke Ehlers and David M Clark); and the Wellcome Clinical Research Training Fellowship (Eleanor Leigh).

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547624

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioural therapy is an effective treatment for anxiety disorders in children and young people; however, many do not benefit. Behavioural exposure appears to be the critical ingredient in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research with adults has identified innovative strategies to optimise exposure-based treatments, yet it is not clear how to optimise the effects of exposure for children and young people. This review was a preliminary exploration of the association between potential optimisation strategies and treatment procedures and outcomes for the treatment of child anxiety symptoms/disorders. We searched Psych-Info and Medline databases using a systematic search strategy and identified 29 articles. We found preliminary evidence that some specific strategies may enhance the effects of exposure, such as dropping safety behaviours, parents and therapists discouraging avoidance, and the use of homework. However, not one significant finding was replicated by another study for the same timepoint using the same methodology. To a large degree, this lack of replication reflects a limited number of studies combined with a lack of consistency across studies around conceptualisations, methodological approaches, and outcome measures making it difficult to make meaningful comparisons between studies and draw firm conclusions. Examination is needed of a wide range of theoretically-driven potential optimisation strategies using methodologically robust, preclinical studies with children and young people. Furthermore, the methods used in future research must enable comparisons across studies and explore developmental differences in the effects of particular optimisation strategies.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502596

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common mental health disorders in adolescents, yet only a minority of young people with these disorders access professional help. This study aims to address this treatment gap by improving our understanding of barriers and facilitators to seeking/accessing professional help as perceived by adolescents with anxiety/depressive disorders identified in the community. Twenty-two adolescents, aged 11-17 years, who met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety and/or depressive disorder were identified through school-based screening. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted one-to-one with each adolescent and adolescents' parents were interviewed separately for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. We identified four themes capturing adolescent perceived barriers and facilitators to seeking/accessing professional help for anxiety and depressive disorders: (1) making sense of difficulties, (2) problem disclosure, (3) ambivalence to seeking help, and (4) the instrumental role of others. Barriers/facilitators identified within each theme reflect important developmental characteristics of adolescence, such as a growing need for autonomy and concerns around negative social evaluation. At the same time, the results highlight adolescents' dependency on other people, mainly their parents and school staff, when it comes to successfully accessing professional help for their mental health difficulties. This study identifies a number of barriers/facilitators that influence help-seeking behaviour of adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders. These factors need to be addressed when targeting treatment utilisation rates in this particular group of young people.

13.
J Anxiety Disord ; 77: 102343, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310446

RESUMO

Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is a dispositional tendency to react negatively to uncertainty. The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale for Children (IUS-C) is designed to measure IU in children but there has been limited investigation into the psychometric properties of this scale. Using data from 227 preadolescent children and 204 parents, we examined (a) readability and whether any items were difficult to understand for children and parents, (b) factor structure, (c) test-retest reliability, and (d) the agreement between child and parent forms of the IUS-C. Results revealed that the reading age of the IUS-C may be too high for preadolescent children and that both children and parents found some items difficult to understand. Model fit with the full IUS-C was not adequate for either parent or child forms. For both forms, selecting items aligned with the IUS-12 led to adequate model fit. For both child-report and parent-report, a one-factor model was supported. Test-retest reliability of total score for all versions was high over a 2-week period (child form: ICC = .82 for 27 item and ICC = .73 for 12 items; parent form: ICC = .87 for 27 item and ICC = .86 for 12 item) but agreement between child and parent forms was consistently poor (r = .24 for 27 item and r = .29 for 12 item). Overall, the results suggest that IUS-C-12 is most appropriate for preadolescent children and their parents. The reading age remains slightly high for preadolescent children so it may be beneficial for future research to consider developing a child-report version with lower reading age.

14.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(1): 76-86, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341172

RESUMO

A major barrier to improving care effectiveness for mental health is a lack of consensus on outcomes measurement. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) has already developed a consensus-based standard set of outcomes for anxiety and depression in adults (including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the WHO Disability Schedule). This Position Paper reports on recommendations specifically for anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in children and young people aged between 6 and 24 years. An international ICHOM working group of 27 clinical, research, and lived experience experts formed a consensus through teleconferences, an exercise using an adapted Delphi technique (a method for reaching group consensus), and iterative anonymous voting, supported by sequential research inputs. A systematic scoping review identified 70 possible outcomes and 107 relevant measurement instruments. Measures were appraised for their feasibility in routine practice (ie, brevity, free availability, validation in children and young people, and language translation) and psychometric performance (ie, validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change). The final standard set recommends tracking symptoms, suicidal thoughts and behaviour, and functioning as a minimum through seven primarily patient-reported outcome measures: the Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory for Children, the Children's Revised Impact of Events Scale, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the KIDSCREEN-10, the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and the Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale. The set's recommendations were validated through a feedback survey involving 487 participants across 45 countries. The set should be used alongside the anxiety and depression standard set for adults with clinicians selecting age-appropriate measures.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people's advisory groups (YPAGs) for research are comprised of children or adolescents who work with researchers to shape different stages of the research process. Their involvement is expected to ensure studies better reflect the preferences and needs of targeted youth populations. However, despite their increasing use in health research, there is little systematic evidence on the methods and impacts associated with YPAGs. METHOD: To address this gap, we conducted a scoping review of YPAGs in youth-focused health studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE for empirical studies in populations between 12 years and 18 years of age published in 2019. If a potential YPAG was identified, authors were contacted for additional information about the activities and level of involvement of the YPAG. FINDINGS: Of all studies that collected primary data from persons aged 12-18 years, only 21 studies reported using youth advice during their research. This represents less than 1% of all published empirical child and adolescent studies. There was variation in the type of research activity undertaken by YPAGs and their level of involvement. Most studies involved YPAGs in co-production of research design and/or in dissemination activities. The majority of authors that responded were positive about the impact of YPAGs. INTERPRETATION: Recommendations for consistent reporting of YPAG involvement in empirical studies include reporting on the match between YPAG and study populations, frequency/format of meetings, and the nature and level of involvement.

16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013162, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous Cochrane Reviews have shown that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective in treating childhood anxiety disorders. However, questions remain regarding the following: up-to-date evidence of the relative efficacy and acceptability of CBT compared to waiting lists/no treatment, treatment as usual, attention controls, and alternative treatments; benefits across a range of outcomes; longer-term effects; outcomes for different delivery formats; and amongst children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with intellectual impairments. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of CBT for childhood anxiety disorders, in comparison with waitlist/no treatment, treatment as usual (TAU), attention control, alternative treatment, and medication. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (all years to 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO (each to October 2019), international trial registries, and conducted grey literature searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of CBT that involved direct contact with the child, parent, or both, and included non-CBT comparators (waitlist/no treatment, treatment as usual, attention control, alternative treatment, medication). Participants were younger than age 19, and met diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder diagnosis. Primary outcomes were remission of primary anxiety diagnosis post-treatment, and acceptability (number of participants lost to post-treatment assessment), and secondary outcomes included remission of all anxiety diagnoses, reduction in anxiety symptoms, reduction in depressive symptoms, improvement in global functioning, adverse effects, and longer-term effects. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures as recommended by Cochrane. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 87 studies and 5964 participants in quantitative analyses. Compared with waitlist/no treatment, CBT probably increases post-treatment remission of primary anxiety diagnoses (CBT: 49.4%, waitlist/no treatment: 17.8%; OR 5.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.90 to 7.60; n = 2697, 39 studies, moderate quality); NNTB 3 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.57) and all anxiety diagnoses (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.89 to 6.78; n = 2075, 28 studies, moderate quality). Low-quality evidence did not show a difference between CBT and TAU in post-treatment primary anxiety disorder remission (OR 3.19, 95% CI 0.90 to 11.29; n = 487, 8 studies), but did suggest CBT may increase remission from all anxiety disorders compared to TAU (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.16 to 6.46; n = 203, 5 studies). Compared with attention control, CBT may increase post-treatment remission of primary anxiety disorders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.89; n = 822, 10 studies, low quality) and all anxiety disorders (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.22 to 6.17; n = 378, 5 studies, low quality). There was insufficient available data to compare CBT to alternative treatments on post-treatment remission of primary anxiety disorders, and low-quality evidence showed there may be little to no difference between these groups on post-treatment remission of all anxiety disorders (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35 to 2.23; n = 401, 4 studies) Low-quality evidence did not show a difference for acceptability between CBT and waitlist/no treatment (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.41; n=3158, 45 studies), treatment as usual (OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.56; n = 441, 8 studies), attention control (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.49; n = 797, 12 studies) and alternative treatment (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.13; n=515, 7 studies). No adverse effects were reported across all studies; however, in the small number of studies where any reference was made to adverse effects, it was not clear that these were systematically monitored. Results from the anxiety symptom outcomes, broader outcomes, longer-term outcomes and subgroup analyses are provided in the text. We did not find evidence of consistent differences in outcomes according to delivery formats (e.g. individual versus group; amount of therapist contact time) or amongst samples with and without ASD, and no studies included samples of children with intellectual impairments. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: CBT is probably more effective in the short-term than waiting lists/no treatment, and may be more effective than attention control. We found little to no evidence across outcomes that CBT is superior to usual care or alternative treatments, but our confidence in these findings are limited due to concerns about the amount and quality of available evidence, and we still know little about how best to efficiently improve outcomes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is common and impairing. The recommended treatment is a disorder specific form of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) that includes social skills training and, whilst they appear to be more effective than more general treatments, it is not clear whether social skills training is the critical component involved in improved outcomes, particularly given that evidence for the relationship between social anxiety and social skills deficits in children is inconsistent. This may be partly due to an overlap in their observable features, and because the nature of the association may vary in different contexts (e.g. according to child age). An alternative approach is to examine the association between social anxiety and the social cognitive capacities that underpin social skills. This paper aims to examine the association between social anxiety and social cognition in children and adolescents, and examine conceptual and methodological moderators of this relationship. METHODS: Papers published between 1980 and 2019 were screened systematically. Fifty studies were identified from which an effect size could be calculated for the relationship between social anxiety and social cognition, including 15,411 children and adolescents. RESULTS: An overall significant, but moderate effect (r = -.15) was identified, where increased social anxiety was associated with lower social cognitive ability. Moderation analyses revealed specific associations within studies examining social anxiety among participants with and without ASD who were older than 7 years old, and studies assessing the relationship between social anxiety and specific aspects of Theory of Mind (ToM). No significant association was identified between social anxiety and emotion recognition. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations between social anxiety and social cognitive abilities appear to be accounted for by elevated social anxiety among children with ASD, and those with difficulties in specific aspects of ToM but not broader social skills, such as emotion recognition. This reinforces the importance of accurately identifying and treating social anxiety within ASD populations. In addition, treatments for social anxiety among neurotypical populations may benefit from targeting particular aspects of ToM rather than emotion recognition and other broad social skills.

18.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(4): 934-944, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The mental health consequences of COVID-19 are predicted to have a disproportionate impact on certain groups. We aimed to develop a brief measure, the Pandemic Anxiety Scale, to capture the specific aspects of the pandemic that are provoking anxiety, and explore how these vary by health and demographic factors. DESIGN: Data were from a convenience sample of parents (N = 4,793) and adolescents (N = 698) recruited in the first 6 weeks of lockdown. METHODS: Factor analytic and IRT methods were used to validate the new measure in both parent and adolescent samples. Associations between scores on the new measure and age, gender, household income, and physical health status were explored using structural equation modelling (SEM). RESULTS: Two factors were identified in both samples: disease anxiety (e.g., catching, transmitting the virus) and consequence anxiety (e.g., impact on economic prospects); and unique associations with health and demographic factors were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Anxieties due to the COVID-19 are multifaceted, and the PAS is a short, reliable, and valid measure of these concerns. These anxieties are differentially associated with demographic, social, and health factors, which should be considered when developing strategies to mitigate the mental health impact of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos
19.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev ; 23(4): 483-509, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862330

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are common among adolescents and lead to poor long-term outcomes. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an evidenced-based intervention for adolescent anxiety disorders, but little is known about whether and how parents should be involved. This systematic review evaluated how parents have been involved and associated treatment outcomes in studies of CBT for adolescent anxiety disorders. Electronic systematic searches were conducted in PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, Medline, AMED databases, to identify studies investigating CBT for adolescent anxiety disorder(s) that included parents in treatment. Twenty-three papers were identified. Parents were involved in treatment in a number of different ways: by attending separate parent sessions, joint parent-adolescent sessions, or both, or through provision of a workbook while attending some adolescent sessions. Content varied but was most typically aimed at the parent developing an understanding of core CBT components and skills to help them manage their adolescent's anxiety and avoidance. Treatment outcomes indicate that CBT with parental involvement is an effective intervention for adolescent anxiety disorders; however, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding whether parental involvement (generally or in any particular form) enhances treatment outcomes. Poor reporting and methodological issues also limit the conclusions. Further research is required to identify whether there are particular types of parental involvement in CBT that bring clinical benefits to adolescents with anxiety disorders generally, as well as in particular circumstances.

20.
Br J Psychol ; 111(4): 603-629, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683689

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents the greatest international biopsychosocial emergency the world has faced for a century, and psychological science has an integral role to offer in helping societies recover. The aim of this paper is to set out the shorter- and longer-term priorities for research in psychological science that will (a) frame the breadth and scope of potential contributions from across the discipline; (b) enable researchers to focus their resources on gaps in knowledge; and (c) help funders and policymakers make informed decisions about future research priorities in order to best meet the needs of societies as they emerge from the acute phase of the pandemic. The research priorities were informed by an expert panel convened by the British Psychological Society that reflects the breadth of the discipline; a wider advisory panel with international input; and a survey of 539 psychological scientists conducted early in May 2020. The most pressing need is to research the negative biopsychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to facilitate immediate and longer-term recovery, not only in relation to mental health, but also in relation to behaviour change and adherence, work, education, children and families, physical health and the brain, and social cohesion and connectedness. We call on psychological scientists to work collaboratively with other scientists and stakeholders, establish consortia, and develop innovative research methods while maintaining high-quality, open, and rigorous research standards.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Psicologia/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa
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