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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213531, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818620

RESUMO

Importance: Packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions are used to treat anemia in patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy (RT) owing to concerns of hypoxia-induced radioresistance. In the absence of high-quality evidence informing transfusion practices for patients receiving external beam RT (EBRT) and brachytherapy, various arbitrary hemoglobin target levels are used worldwide. Objective: To develop consensus statements to guide PRBC transfusion practices in patients with cervical cancer receiving curative-intent RT with EBRT and brachytherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This international Delphi consensus study was completed between November 1, 2019, and July 31, 2020. A total of 63 international clinical experts in gynecologic radiation oncology were invited; 39 (62%) accepted and consented to participate. Consensus building was achieved using a 3-round anonymous Delphi consensus method. Participants rated their agreement or disagreement with statements using a 5-point Likert scale. An a priori threshold of 75% or more was required for consensus. Main Outcomes and Measures: The preplanned primary outcome of this study was to assess hemoglobin transfusion thresholds and targets for both EBRT and brachytherapy by expert consensus. Results: Response rates of 100% (39 of 39), 92% (36 of 39), and 97% (35 of 36) were achieved for the first, second, and third rounds of surveys, respectively. Twenty-three experts (59%) practiced in Canada, 11 (28%) in the United States, 3 (8%) in South America, 1 (3%) in Europe, and 1 (3%) in Asia. Consensus was reached for 44 of 103 statements (43%), which were combined to form the final 27-statement consensus guideline. No specific hemoglobin transfusion threshold was agreed on by consensus for EBRT or brachytherapy. By consensus (89% [31 of 35]), a hemoglobin transfusion target for patients who receive a PRBC transfusion should be 9 g/dL or more and less than 12 g/dL. Conclusions and Relevance: This study presents the first international expert consensus guideline informing PRBC transfusion practices for patients with cervical cancer undergoing EBRT and brachytherapy. A minimum hemoglobin transfusion target of 9 g/dL was endorsed to balance tumor radiosensitivity with appropriate use of a scarce resource. Randomized clinical trials are required to evaluate the optimal transfusion threshold and target that maximize clinical benefit in this patient population.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study assessed outcomes following the nowadays standing treatment for primary vaginal cancer with radio(chemo)therapy and image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in a multicenter patient cohort. METHODS: Patients treated with computer tomography (CT)-MRI-assisted-based IGABT were included. Retrospective data collection included patient, tumor and treatment characteristics. Late morbidity was assessed by using the CTCAE 3.0 scale. RESULTS: Five European centers included 148 consecutive patients, with a median age of 63 years. At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 25-57), two- and five-year local control were 86% and 83%; disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% and 66%, and overall survival (OS) was 79% and 68%, respectively. Crude incidences of ≥ grade-three urogenital, gastro-intestinal and vaginal morbidity was 8%, 3% and 8%, respectively. Lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate analysis showed improved local control in patients with T2-T4 tumors if >80 Gy EQD2α/ß10 was delivered to the clinical target volume (CTV) at the time of brachytherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this large retrospective multicenter study, IGABT for primary vaginal cancer resulted in a high local control with acceptable morbidity. These results compared favorably with two-dimensional (2D) radiograph-based brachytherapy and illustrate that IGABT plays an important role in the treatment of vaginal cancer.

4.
Radiother Oncol ; 154: 327-353, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712263

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Guias como Assunto , Radioterapia (Especialidade) , Consenso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/radioterapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard screening of endometrial cancer (EC) for Lynch syndrome (LS) is gaining traction, however the prognostic impact of an underlying hereditary etiology is unknown. We established the prevalence, prognosis and subsequent primary cancer incidence of patients with LS-associated EC in relation to sporadic mismatch repair deficient (MMRd)-EC in the large combined PORTEC-1,-2 and -3 trial cohort. METHODS: After MMR-immunohistochemistry, MLH1-promoter methylation testing, and next-generation sequencing, tumors were classified into three groups according to the molecular cause of their MMRd-EC. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox model were used for survival analysis. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate the subsequent cancer probability. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among the 1336 ECs, 410 (30.7%) were MMRd. A total of 380 (92.7%) were fully triaged 275 (72.4%) were MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-ECs; 36 (9.5%) LS MMRd-ECs, and 69 (18.2%) MMRd-ECs due to other causes. Limiting screening of EC patients to ≤ 60 or ≤ 70 years would have resulted in missing 18 (50.0%) and 6 (16.7%) LS diagnoses. Five-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) was 91.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.1-100%; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45, 95%CI =0.16-1.24, p = .12) for LS, 95.5% (95% CI = 90.7-100%; HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05-0.55, p = .003) for 'other' versus 78.6% (95% CI = 73.8-83.7%) for MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC. The probability of subsequent LS-associated cancer at 10 years was 11.6% (95%CI = 0.0-24.7%), 1.5% (95%CI = 0.0-4.3%) and 7.0% (95%CI = 3.0-10.9%) within the LS, 'other' and MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC groups. CONCLUSION: The LS prevalence in the PORTEC-trial population was 2.8%, and among MMRd-ECs 9.5%. Patients with LS-associated ECs showed a trend towards better RFS and higher risk for second cancers compared to patients with MLH1-hypermethylated MMRd-EC.

6.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision making regarding adjuvant therapy for high-risk endometrial cancer is complex. The aim of this study was to determine patients' and clinicians' minimally desired survival benefit to choose chemoradiotherapy over radiotherapy alone. Moreover, influencing factors and importance of positive and negative treatment effects (i.e. attribute) were investigated. METHODS: Patients with high-risk endometrial cancer treated with adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy and multidisciplinary gynaecologic oncology clinicians completed a trade-off questionnaire based on PORTEC-3 trial data. RESULTS: In total, 171 patients and 63 clinicians completed the questionnaire. Median minimally desired benefit to make chemoradiotherapy worthwhile was significantly higher for patients versus clinicians (10% vs 5%, p = 0.02). Both patients and clinicians rated survival benefit most important during decision making, followed by long-term symptoms. Older patients (OR 0.92 [95%CI 0.87-0.97]; p = 0.003) with comorbidity (OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.12-0.89]; p = 0.035) had lower preference for chemoradiotherapy, while patients with better numeracy skills (OR 1.2 [95%CI 1.05-1.36], p = 0.011) and chemoradiotherapy history (OR 25.0 [95%CI 8.8-91.7]; p < 0.001) had higher preference for chemoradiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a considerable difference in minimally desired survival benefit of chemoradiotherapy in high-risk endometrial cancer among and between patients and clinicians. Overall, endometrial cancer patients needed higher benefits than clinicians before preferring chemoradiotherapy.

7.
Virchows Arch ; 478(2): 153-190, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biópsia/normas , Carcinoma/genética , Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129910

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The survival results of the PORTEC-3 trial showed a significant improvement in both overall and failure-free survival with chemoradiation therapy versus pelvic radiation therapy alone. The present analysis was performed to compare long-term adverse events (AE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In the study, 660 women with high-risk endometrial cancer were randomly assigned to receive chemoradiation therapy (2 concurrent cycles of cisplatin followed by 4 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel) or radiation therapy alone. Toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. HRQOL was measured using EORTC QLQ-C30 and CX24/OV28 subscales and compared with normative data. An as-treated analysis was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 74.6 months; 574 (87%) patients were evaluable for HRQOL. At 5 years, grade ≥2 AE were scored for 78 (38%) patients who had received chemoradiation therapy versus 46 (24%) who had received radiation therapy alone (P = .008). Grade 3 AE did not differ significantly between the groups (8% vs 5%, P = .18) at 5 years, and only one new late grade 4 toxicity had been reported. At 3 and 5 years, sensory neuropathy toxicity grade ≥2 persisted after chemoradiation therapy in 6% (vs 0% after radiation therapy, P < .001) and more patients reported significant tingling or numbness at HRQOL (27% vs 8%, P < .001 at 3 years; 24% vs 9%, P = .002 at 5 years). Up to 3 years, more patients who had chemoradiation therapy reported limb weakness (21% vs 5%, P < .001) and lower physical (79 vs 87, P < .001) and role functioning (78 vs 88, P < .001) scores. Both treatment groups reported similar long-term global health/quality of life scores, which were better than those of the normative population. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a long-lasting, clinically relevant, negative impact of chemoradiation therapy on toxicity and HRQOL, most importantly persistent peripheral sensory neuropathy. Physical and role functioning impairments were seen until 3 years. These long-term data are essential for patient information and shared decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk endometrial cancer.

11.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(12): 1508-1519, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999003

RESUMO

Optimum risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer combines clinicopathologic factors and the molecular endometrial cancer classification defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). It is unclear whether analysis of intratumoral immune infiltrate improves this. We developed a machine-learning, image-based algorithm to quantify density of CD8+ and CD103+ immune cells in tumor epithelium and stroma in 695 stage I endometrioid endometrial cancers from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials. The relationship between immune cell density and clinicopathologic/molecular factors was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multiple regression. The prognostic value of immune infiltrate by cell type and location was analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression, incorporating the molecular endometrial cancer classification. Tumor-infiltrating immune cell density varied substantially between cases, and more modestly by immune cell type and location. Clustering revealed three groups with high, intermediate, and low densities, with highly significant variation in the proportion of molecular endometrial cancer subgroups between them. Univariable analysis revealed intraepithelial CD8+ cell density as the strongest predictor of endometrial cancer recurrence; multivariable analysis confirmed this was independent of pathologic factors and molecular subgroup. Exploratory analysis suggested this association was not uniform across molecular subgroups, but greatest in tumors with mutant p53 and absent in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cancers. Thus, this work identified that quantification of intraepithelial CD8+ cells improved upon the prognostic utility of the molecular endometrial cancer classification in early-stage endometrial cancer.

12.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 2002-2007, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal brachytherapy is currently recommended as adjuvant treatment in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer to maximize local control and has only mild side effects and no or limited impact on quality of life. However, there is still considerable overtreatment and also some undertreatment, which may be reduced by tailoring adjuvant treatment to the patients' risk of recurrence based on molecular tumor characteristics. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To compare the rates of vaginal recurrence in women with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, treated after surgery with molecular-integrated risk profile-based recommendations for either observation, vaginal brachytherapy or external pelvic beam radiotherapy or with standard adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Adjuvant treatment based on a molecular-integrated risk profile provides similar local control and recurrence-free survival as current standard adjuvant brachytherapy in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, while sparing many patients the morbidity of adjuvant treatment and reducing healthcare costs. TRIAL DESIGN: A multicenter, international phase III randomized trial (2:1) of molecular-integrated risk profile-based adjuvant treatment (experimental arm) or adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (standard arm). MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Women aged 18 years and over with a histological diagnosis of high-intermediate risk endometrioid endometrial cancer after total abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. High-intermediate risk factors are defined as: (i) International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA (with invasion) and grade 3; (ii) stage IB grade 1 or 2 with age ≥60 and/or lymph-vascular space invasion; (iii) stage IB, grade 3 without lymph-vascular space invasion; or (iv) stage II (microscopic and grade 1). ENDPOINTS: The primary endpoint is vaginal recurrence. Secondary endpoints are recurrence-free and overall survival; pelvic and distant recurrence; 5-year vaginal control (including treatment for relapse); adverse events and patient-reported symptoms and quality of life; and endometrial cancer-related healthcare costs. SAMPLE SIZE: 500 eligible and evaluable patients. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: Estimated date for completing accrual will be late 2021. Estimated date for presentation of (first) results is expected in 2023. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03469674) and ISRCTN (11659025).

13.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082238

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is primarily treated with surgery. Adjuvant treatment strategies for endometrial cancer, such as external beam pelvic radiotherapy, vaginal brachytherapy, chemotherapy, and combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have been studied in several randomized trials. Adjuvant treatment is currently based on the presence of clinico-pathological risk factors. Low-risk disease is adequately managed with surgery alone. In high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy is recommended to maximize local control, with only mild side effects and without impact on quality of life. For high-risk endometrial cancer, recent large randomized trials support the use of pelvic radiotherapy, especially in stage I-II endometrial cancer with risk factors. For women with serous cancers and those with stage III disease, chemoradiation increased both recurrence-free and overall survival, while GOG-258 showed similar recurrence-free survival compared with six cycles of chemotherapy alone, but with better pelvic and para-aortic nodal control with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent molecular studies, most notably the work from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, have shown that four endometrial cancer molecular classes can be distinguished; POLE ultra-mutated, microsatellite instable hypermutated, copy-number-low, and copy-number-high. Subsequent studies, using surrogate markers to identify groups analogous to TCGA sub-classes, showed that all four endometrial cancer sub-types are found across all stages, histological types, and grades. Moreover, the molecular sub-groups have proved to have a stronger prognostic impact than histo-pathological tumor characteristics. This introduces an new era of molecular classification based diagnostics and treatment approaches. Integration of the molecular factors and new therapeutic targets will lead to molecular-integrated adjuvant treatment including targeted treatments, which are the rationale of new and ongoing trials. This review presents an overview of current adjuvant treatment strategies in endometrial cancer, highlights the development and evaluation of a molecular-integrated risk profile, and briefly discusses ongoing developments in targeted treatment.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905846

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate target definition is critical for the appropriate application of radiation therapy. In 2008, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) published an international collaborative atlas to define the clinical target volume (CTV) for intensity modulated pelvic radiation therapy in the postoperative treatment of endometrial and cervical cancer. The current project is an updated consensus of CTV definitions, with removal of all references to bony landmarks and inclusion of the para-aortic and inferior obturator nodal regions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An international consensus guideline working group discussed modifications of the current atlas and areas of controversy. A document was prepared to assist in contouring definitions. A sample case abdominopelvic computed tomographic image was made available, on which experts contoured targets. Targets were analyzed for consistency of delineation using an expectation-maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation with kappa statistics as a measure of agreement between observers. RESULTS: Sixteen participants provided 13 sets of contours. Participants were asked to provide separate contours of the following areas: vaginal cuff, obturator, internal iliac, external iliac, presacral, common iliac, and para-aortic regions. There was substantial agreement for the common iliac region (sensitivity 0.71, specificity 0.981, kappa 0.64), moderate agreement in the external iliac, para-aortic, internal iliac and vaginal cuff regions (sensitivity 0.66, 0.74, 0.62, 0.59; specificity 0.989, 0.966, 0.986, 0.976; kappa 0.60, 0.58, 0.52, 0.47, respectively), and fair agreement in the presacral and obturator regions (sensitivity 0.55, 0.35; specificity 0.986, 0.988; kappa 0.36, 0.21, respectively). A 95% agreement contour was smoothed and a final contour atlas was produced according to consensus. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement among the participants was most consistent in the common iliac region and least in the presacral and obturator nodal regions. The consensus volumes formed the basis of the updated NRG/RTOG Oncology postoperative atlas. Continued patterns of recurrence research are encouraged to refine these volumes.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 649-656, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is great need for better risk stratification in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Our aim was to define the prognostic significance of stratifying VSCC based on p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as surrogate markers for HPV and TP53 mutations. METHODS: A large retrospective cohort of surgically treated women with primary VSCC was used. VSCC were classified into three subtypes: HPV-positive (HPVpos), HPV-negative/p53 mutant (HPVneg/p53mut), and HPV-negative/p53 wildtype (HPVneg/p53wt). Overall survival (OS), relative survival (RS), and recurrence-free period (RFP) were depicted using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves for relative survival; associations were studied using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of the 413 VSCCs, 75 (18%) were HPVpos, 63 (15%) HPVneg/p53wt, and 275 (66%) HPVneg/p53mut VSCC. Patients with HPVneg/p53mut VSCC had worse OS and RS (HR 3.43, 95%CI 1.80-6.53, and relative excess risk (RER) of 4.02; 95%CI 1.48-10.90, respectively, and worse RFP (HR 3.76, 95%CI 2.02-7.00). HPVpos VSCC patients showed most favorable outcomes. In univariate analysis, the molecular subtype of VSCC was a prognostic marker for OS, RS and RFP (p = 0.003, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively) and remained prognostic for RFP even after adjusting for known risk factors (p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Stratification of VSCC by p16- and p53-IHC has potential to be used routinely in diagnostic pathology. It results in the identification of three clinically distinct subtypes and may be used to guide treatment and follow-up, and in stratifying patients in future clinical trials.

16.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3388-3397, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The randomized Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC-3) trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CTRT) versus radiotherapy alone (RT) for women with high-risk endometrial cancer (EC). Because The Cancer Genome Atlas defined an EC molecular classification with strong prognostic value, we investigated prognosis and impact of chemotherapy for each molecular subgroup using tissue samples from PORTEC-3 trial participants. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues of 423 consenting patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and DNA sequencing for POLE exonuclease domain were done to classify tumors as p53 abnormal (p53abn), POLE-ultramutated (POLEmut), MMR-deficient (MMRd), or no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox model were used for analysis. RESULTS: Molecular analysis was successful in 410 high-risk EC (97%), identifying the 4 subgroups: p53abn EC (n = 93; 23%), POLEmut (n = 51; 12%), MMRd (n = 137; 33%), and NSMP (n = 129; 32%). Five-year RFS was 48% for patients with p53abn EC, 98% for POLEmut EC, 72% for MMRd EC, and 74% for NSMP EC (P < .001). The 5-year RFS with CTRT versus RT for p53abn EC was 59% versus 36% (P = .019); 100% versus 97% for patients with POLEmut EC (P = .637); 68% versus 76% (P = .428) for MMRd EC; and 80% versus 68% (P = .243) for NSMP EC. CONCLUSION: Molecular classification has strong prognostic value in high-risk EC, with significantly improved RFS with adjuvant CTRT for p53abn tumors, regardless of histologic type. Patients with POLEmut EC had an excellent RFS in both trial arms. EC molecular classification should be incorporated in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in future trials to target specific subgroups of patients.

17.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 1878-1886, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the evolving role of the addition of chemotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy on oncological outcomes and toxicity in patients with early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with stage IB1-IIB FIGO 2009 cervical cancer treated from November 1999 to May 2015 by primary surgery and radiotherapy (46-50.4 Gy in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions) with or without concurrent cisplatin (40 mg/m2, 5-6 weekly cycles) with or without a brachytherapy boost. Chemotherapy was allocated depending on the risk factors for recurrence. Incidences of all outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier's methodology and compared by log-rank tests. Risk factors for recurrence and survival were identified using Cox's proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients were included, median follow-up was 9.6 years (IQR: 6.1-12.8). Five-year pelvic recurrence-free survival was 75.3%; 74.7% in patients with high-risk factors treated with radiotherapy; and 77.3% in those treated with chemoradiation (P=0.43). Distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 63.4%; 63.6% in high-risk patients after radiotherapy; and 57.1% after chemoradiation (P=0.36). Five-year overall survival was 63.9%: 66.8% and 51.6% after radiotherapy and after chemoradiation in patients with high-risk factors (P=0.37), respectively. Large tumor size was a risk factor for vaginal and pelvic recurrence, ≥2 involved lymph nodes was a significant risk factor for para-aortic recurrence and death. Mild treatment-related late toxicity was observed in 53.9% of the patients. Five-year severe (grade 3-5) late rectal, bladder, bowel, and vaginal toxicities were, respectively, 1.3%, 0%, 3.4%, and 0.9%. Any late severe toxicity was observed in 5.5% of patients treated with radiotherapy and in 15.3% of those treated with chemoradiation (P=0.07). CONCLUSION: Postoperative (chemo)radiation for early-stage cervical cancer patients with risk factors for recurrence yields adequate pelvic tumor control, but overall survival is limited due to distant metastasis.

18.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 152: 102973, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497971

RESUMO

The prognosis of recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer is poor, with five-year survival of only 10-20 %. First-line therapy consists of either platinum-based chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. No standard subsequent-line therapy has been identified. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the knowledge on underlying molecular biology of endometrial cancer and potential targets for therapy have been identified. Targeted therapies as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and immunotherapy as PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors have the potential to be effective against specific subtypes of endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies have shown that combining these agents may result in a synergistic effect. In this review, we focus on the molecular basis of checkpoint inhibition and targeted therapy as PARP inhibition in endometrial cancer and summarize available clinical data, and ongoing and planned clinical trials that investigate these agents as mono- or combination therapies in endometrial cancer and where relevant, other gynecological cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Antígeno B7-H1 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Poli Adenosina Difosfato Ribose , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Proteínas
19.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the management of conjunctival melanoma with local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data of all patients who received local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy for conjunctival melanoma between 1999 and 2016 in a Dutch national referral centre were reviewed. A protocol with Sr-90 was used until 2012, a protocol with Ru-106 was used hereafter. Local recurrence, metastasis, survival, visual acuity and treatment complications were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients was identified: 32 patients were treated with Sr-90 and 26 with Ru-106. Mean follow-up time was 97.3 months (143.1 months after Sr-90, and 40.2 months after Ru-106). All lesions were epibulbar, the median tumour thickness was 0.9 mm. Local recurrence occurred in 13/58 cases (22%), with a 5-year recurrence rate of 21%. Local recurrence occurred equally often in both protocols, with 5-year recurrence rates of 19% (Sr-90) versus 23% (Ru-106) (p = 0.68). Metastasis developed in 3/58 cases (5%), with 2 cases after Sr-90, and 1 after Ru-106 (p = 1.00). The most reported complications were pain (29%), dry eyes (21%), symblepharon (9%), ptosis (12%) and cataract (9%). No severe corneal or scleral complications were observed. Median visual acuity was 1.00 pre-surgery, at the end of follow-up this was 1.00 (Sr-90) and 0.95 (Ru-106). CONCLUSION: Local excision with adjuvant brachytherapy provides good tumour control with excellent visual outcome and mild side effects in patients with limited conjunctival melanoma. Results after Sr-90 or Ru-106 were comparable; a choice for either treatment may be based on experience of the clinician and availability of materials.

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