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1.
EBioMedicine ; 73: 103652, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical-stage drug candidate EBL-1003 (apramycin) represents a distinct new subclass of aminoglycoside antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. It has demonstrated best-in-class coverage of resistant isolates, and preclinical efficacy in lung infection models. However, preclinical evidence for its utility in other disease indications has yet to be provided. Here we studied the therapeutic potential of EBL-1003 in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis (cUTI/AP). METHODS: A combination of data-base mining, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, time-kill experiments, and four murine infection models was used in a comprehensive assessment of the microbiological coverage and efficacy of EBL-1003 against Gram-negative uropathogens. The pharmacokinetics and renal toxicology of EBL-1003 in rats was studied to assess the therapeutic window of EBL-1003 in the treatment of cUTI/AP. FINDINGS: EBL-1003 demonstrated broad-spectrum activity and rapid multi-log CFU reduction against a phenotypic variety of bacterial uropathogens including aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates. The basicity of amines in the apramycin molecule suggested a higher increase in positive charge at urinary pH when compared to gentamicin or amikacin, resulting in sustained drug uptake and bactericidal activity, and consequently in potent efficacy in mouse infection models. Renal pharmacokinetics, biomarkers for toxicity, and kidney histopathology in adult rats all indicated a significantly lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 than of gentamicin. INTERPRETATION: This study provides preclinical proof-of-concept for the efficacy of EBL-1003 in cUTI/AP. Similar efficacy but lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 in comparison to gentamicin may thus translate into a higher safety margin and a wider therapeutic window in the treatment of cUTI/API. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.

2.
ACS Catal ; 11: 10308-10315, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777906

RESUMO

Super-armed glycosyl donors, whose substituents are predominantly held in pseudoaxial positions, exhibit strongly increased reactivity in glycosylation through significant stabilization of oxocarbenium-like transition states. Examination of X-ray crystal structures reveals that the GH47 family of glycoside hydrolases have evolved so as to distort their substrates away from the ground state conformation in such a manner as to present multiple C-O bonds in pseudoaxial positions and so benefit from conformational super-arming of their substrates, thereby enhancing catalysis. Through analysis of literature mutagenic studies, we show that a suitably placed aromatic residue in GHs 6 and 47 sterically enforces super-armed conformations on their substrates. GH families 45, 81, and 134 on the other hand impose conformational super-arming on their substrates, by maintaining the more active ring conformation through hydrogen bonding rather than steric interactions. The recognition of substrate super-arming by select GH families provides a further parallel with synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and nature and opens further avenues for the design of improved glycosidase inhibitors.

3.
RSC Med Chem ; 12(9): 1585-1591, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671740

RESUMO

In order to further investigate the importance of the conformation of the ring I side chain in aminoglycoside antibiotic binding to the ribosomal target several derivatives of paromomycin were designed with conformationally locked side chains. By changing the size of the appended ring between O-4' and C-6' used to restrict the motion of the side chain, the position of the C-6' hydroxy group was fine tuned to probe for the optimal conformation for inhibition of the ribosome. While the changes in orientation of the 6'-hydroxy group cannot be completely dissociated from the size and hydrophobicity of the conformation-restricting ring, overall, it is apparent that the preferred conformation of the ring I side chain for interaction with A1408 in the decoding A site of the bacterial ribosome is an ideal gt conformation, which results in the highest antimicrobial activity as well as increased selectivity for bacterial over eukaryotic ribosomes.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(48): 25397-25403, 2021 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543505

RESUMO

Low-temperature NMR studies with a 4-C-methyl-4-O-benzoyl galactopyranosyl donor enable the observation and characterization of a bridged bicyclic dioxacarbenium ion arising from participation by a distal ester. Variable-temperature NMR studies reveal this bridged ion to decompose at temperatures above ≈-30 °C. In the absence of the methyl group, the formation of a bicyclic ion is not observed. It is concluded that participation by typical secondary distal esters in glycosylation reactions is disfavored in the ground state conformation of the ester from which it is stereoelectronically impossible. Methylation converts the secondary ester to a conformationally more labile tertiary ester, removes this barrier, and renders participation more favorable. Nevertheless, the minor changes in selectivity in model glycosylation reactions on going from the secondary to the tertiary esters at both low and room temperature argue against distal group participation being a major stereodirecting factor even for the tertiary system.

5.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 5371-5380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567475

RESUMO

Although scientists around the world have put lots of effort into the development of new treatments for COVID-19 since the outbreak, no drugs except Veklury (remdesivir) have been approved by FDA. There is an urgent need to discover some alternative antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Because polyphenols have been shown to possess antiviral activities, here we conducted a large-scale virtual screening for more than 400 polyphenols. Several lead compounds such as Petunidin 3-O-(6″-p-coumaroyl-glucoside) were identified to have promising binding affinities and convincing binding mechanisms. Analyzing the docking results and ADME properties sheds light on the potential efficacy of the top-ranked drug candidates and pinpoints the key residues on the target proteins for the future of drug development.

6.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(9): 1454-1462, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584944

RESUMO

With a view to reducing the notorious complexity and irreproducibility of glycosylation reactions, 12 guidelines for the choice of concentration, temperature, and counterions are adumbrated.

7.
ACS Catal ; 11(9): 5069-5078, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367723

RESUMO

Carbohydrate side chain conformation is an important factor in the control of reactivity at the anomeric center, ie, in the making and breaking of glycosidic bonds, whether chemically or, for hydrolysis, by glycoside hydrolases. In nature glycosidic bond formation is catalyzed out by glycosyltransferases (GTs), glycoside phosphoryases, and transglycosidases. By analysis of 118 crystal structures of sugar nucleotide dependent (Leloir) GTs, 136 crystal structures of glycoside phosphorylases, and 54 crystal structures of transglycosidases bound to hexopyranosides or their analogs at the donor site (-1 site), we determined that most enzymes that catalyze glycoside synthesis, be they GTs, glycoside phosphorylases or transglycosidases, restrict their substrate side chains to the most reactive gauche,gauche (gg) conformation to achieve maximum stabilization of the oxocarbenium ion-like transition state for glycosyl transfer. The galactose series deviates from this trend, with α-galactosyltransferases preferentially restricting their substrates to the second-most reactive gauche,trans (gt) conformation, and ß-galactosyltransferases favoring the least reactive trans,gauche (tg) conformation. This insight will help progress the design and development of improved, conformationally-restricted GT inhibitors that take advantage of these inherent side chain preferences.

8.
J Org Chem ; 86(17): 12199-12225, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343001

RESUMO

The preparation of four per-O-benzyl-d- or l-glycero-d-galacto and d- or l-glycero-d-gluco heptopyranosyl sulfoxides and the influence of their side-chain conformations on reactivity and stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions are described. The side-chain conformation in these donors is determined by the relative configuration of its point of attachment to the pyranoside ring and the two flanking centers in agreement with a recent model. In the d- and l-glycero-d-galacto glycosyl donors, the d-glycero-d-galacto isomer with the more electron-withdrawing trans,gauche conformation of its side chain was the more equatorially selective isomer. In the d- and l-glycero-d-gluco glycosyl donors, the l-glycero-d-gluco isomer with the least disarming gauche,gauche side-chain conformation was the most equatorially selective donor. Variable temperature NMR studies, while supporting the formation of intermediate glycosyl triflates at -80 °C in all cases, were inconclusive owing to a change in the decomposition mechanism with the change in configuration. It is suggested that the equatorial selectivity of the l-glycero-d-gluco isomer arises from H-bonding between the glycosyl acceptor and O6 of the donor, which is poised to deliver the acceptor antiperiplanar to the glycosyl triflate, resulting in a high degree of SN2 character in the displacement reaction.


Assuntos
Conformação Molecular , Glicosilação , Isomerismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
9.
Org Lett ; 23(16): 6396-6400, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328741

RESUMO

The reaction of magnesium amides with tert-butyl 2,6-dimethyl perbenzoate in tetrahydrofuran at 0 °C provides a method for the synthesis O-tert-butyl-N,N-disubstituted hydroxylamines by direct N-O bond formation with a broad functional group tolerance. Less sterically hindered magnesium amides require ortho,ortho-disubstitution on the perester electrophile component, whereas sterically encumbered magnesium amides perform comparably with either tert-butyl perbenzoate or tert-butyl 2,6-dimethyl perbenzoate. A reaction mechanism is presented to account for the observed reactivity.

10.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(8): 2413-2424, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114793

RESUMO

Propylamycin (4'-deoxy-4'-propylparomomycin) is a next generation aminoglycoside antibiotic that displays increased antibacterial potency over the parent, coupled with reduced susceptibility to resistance determinants and reduced ototoxicity in the guinea pig model. Propylamycin nevertheless is inactivated by APH(3')-Ia, a specific aminoglycoside phosphotransferase isozyme that acts on the primary hydroxy group of the ribofuranosyl moiety (at the 5''-position). To overcome this problem, we have prepared and studied the antibacterial and antiribosomal activity of various propylamycin derivatives carrying amino or substituted amino groups at the 5''-position in place of the vulnerable hydroxy group. We find that the introduction of an additional basic amino group at this position, while overcoming the action of the aminoglycoside phosphoryltransferase isozymes acting at the 5''-position as anticipated, results in a significant drop in selectivity for the bacterial over the eukaryotic ribosomes that is predictive of increased ototoxicity. In contrast, 5''-deoxy-5''-formamidopropylamycin retains the excellent across-the-board levels of antibacterial activity of propylamycin itself, while circumventing the action of the offending aminoglycoside phosphotransferase isozymes and affording even greater selectivity for the bacterial over the eukaryotic ribosomes. Other modifications to address the susceptibility of propylamycin to the APH(3')-Ia isozyme including deoxygenation at the 3'-position and incorporation of a 6',5''-bis(hydroxyethylamino) modification offer no particular advantage.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Cobaias , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ribossomos
11.
Carbohydr Res ; 500: 108254, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561715

RESUMO

We describe the preparation of methyl 5α-methyl-α-d-glucopyranoside and of 5α-fluoro-ß-d-glucopyranose per acetate and the NMR-based conformational analysis of their side chains. Both the 5α-methyl and 5α-fluoro substituents increase the population of the gauche,gauche side chain conformer to the extent that it becomes the predominant conformation. In the 5α-methyl series this is attributed to steric effects, whereas in the 5α-fluoro series the optimization of attractive gauche effects is the more likely reason.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/química , Pironas/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Glucosídeos/síntese química , Pironas/síntese química
12.
ChemMedChem ; 16(2): 335-339, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007139

RESUMO

We describe the convergent synthesis of a 5-O-ß-D-ribofuranosyl-based apramycin derivative (apralog) that displays significantly improved antibacterial activity over the parent apramycin against wild-type ESKAPE pathogens. In addition, the new apralog retains excellent antibacterial activity in the presence of the only aminoglycoside modifying enzyme (AAC(3)-IV) acting on the parent, without incurring susceptibility to the APH(3') mechanism that disables other 5-O-ß-D-ribofuranosyl 2-deoxystreptamine type aminoglycosides by phosphorylation at the ribose 5-position. Consistent with this antibacterial activity, the new apralog has excellent 30 nM activity (IC50 ) for the inhibition of protein synthesis by the bacterial ribosome in a cell-free translation assay, while retaining the excellent across-the-board selectivity of the parent for inhibition of bacterial over eukaryotic ribosomes. Overall, these characteristics translate into excellent in vivo efficacy against E. coli in a mouse thigh infection model and reduced ototoxicity vis à vis the parent in mouse cochlear explants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nebramicina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Cóclea/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nebramicina/síntese química , Nebramicina/química , Nebramicina/farmacologia
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(1): 17-34, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350830

RESUMO

Carbohydrate chemistry is an essential component of the glycosciences and is fundamental to their progress. This Perspective takes the position that carbohydrate chemistry, or glycochemistry, has reached three crossroads on the path to the transformation of the glycosciences, and illustrates them with examples from the author's and other laboratories. The first of these potential inflexion points concerns the mechanism of the glycosylation reaction and the role of protecting groups. It is argued that the experimental evidence supports bimolecular SN2-like mechanisms for typical glycosylation reactions over unimolecular ones involving stereoselective attack on naked glycosyl oxocarbenium ions. Similarly, it is argued that the experimental evidence does not support long-range stereodirecting participation of remote esters through bridged bicyclic dioxacarbenium ions in organic solution in the presence of typical counterions. Rational design and improvement of glycosylation reactions must take into account the roles of the counterion and of concentration. A second crossroads is that between mainstream organic chemistry and glycan synthesis. The case is made that the only real difference between glycan and organic synthesis is the formation of C-O rather than C-C bonds, with diastereocontrol, strategy, tactics, and elegance being of critical importance in both areas: mainstream organic chemists should feel comfortable taking this fork in the road, just as carbohydrate chemists should traveling in the opposite direction. A third crossroads is that between carbohydrate chemistry and medicinal chemistry, where there are equally many opportunities for traffic in either direction. The glycosciences have advanced enormously in the past decade or so, but creativity, input, and ingenuity of scientists from all fields is needed to address the many sophisticated challenges that remain, not the least of which is the development of a broader and more general array of stereospecific glycosylation reactions.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/síntese química , Química Orgânica/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Glicosilação , Estereoisomerismo
14.
J Org Chem ; 85(24): 16043-16059, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902280

RESUMO

With a view to facilitating prediction of the exocyclic bond to the pyranoside ring in higher carbon sugars, a model is advanced that relates the relative configuration of the three stereogenic centers comprised of the branchpoint and of the two flanking centers (C4-C5-C6 in aldoheptoses and higher and C5-C6-C7 in sialic and ulosonic acids) to that of the simple ring-opened pentoses. Assignment of a given stereotriad as arabino, lxyo, ribo, or xylo by inspection of the Fischer projection formulas permits prediction of conformation of the exocyclic bond by comparison with the known solution (= crystal in all cases) conformations of the simple pentitols. More remote stereogenic centers in the side chain, as in the 8-position of N-acetylneuraminic acid, have little impact on the conformation of the exocyclic bond. On the basis of this model the conformation of the exocyclic bond in ring I of 6'-homologated 4,5-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine class aminoglycoside antibiotics was predicted and was borne out by NMR analysis of newly synthesized derivatives in D2O at pD5. The antiribosomal and antibacterial activity of these derivatives is briefly presented and discussed in terms of preorganization of the side chain for binding to the ribosomal decoding A site. It is anticipated that this predictive analysis will also find use in the prediction of the conformation of the exocyclic bonds in other 2-(1-hydroxyalkyl)-3-hydroxytetrahydropyrans and tetrahydrofurans.


Assuntos
Aminoglicosídeos , Açúcares , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbono , Conformação Molecular
15.
J Org Chem ; 85(24): 16035-16042, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897074

RESUMO

The preparation of glycosyl dibutyl phosphates in the 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO) and pseudaminic acid series and their application to the formation of C-glycosides are described. Both donors were obtained from the corresponding thioglycosides by treatment with dibutylphosphoric acid and N-iodosuccinimide. As with the thioglycosides, both donors adopted very predominantly the strongly electron-withdrawing tg conformation of their side chains, which is reflected in the excellent equatorial selectivity of both donors in the formation of exemplary O-glycosides. With respect to C-glycoside formation on the other hand, contrasting results were observed: the KDO donor was either relatively unselective or selective for the formation of the axial C-glycoside, while the pseudaminic acid donor was selective for the formation of the equatorial C-glycoside. These observations are rationalized in terms of the greater electron-withdrawing ability of the azides in the pseudaminic acid donor compared to the corresponding acetoxy groups in the KDO series, resulting in a reaction through tighter ion pairs even at the SN1 end of the general glycosylation mechanism. The contrast in the axial versus the equatorial selectivity between C- and O-glycosylation cautions against the extrapolation of models for SN1-type glycosylation with weak nucleophiles for the explanation of O-glycosylation.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos , Açúcares Ácidos , Estereoisomerismo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(40): 16965-16973, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877175

RESUMO

Carbohydrate side chain conformation confers a significant influence on reactivity during glycosylation and anomeric bond hydrolysis due to stabilization of the oxocarbenium-like transition state. By analysis of 513 pyranoside-bound glycoside hydrolase (GH) crystal structures, we determine that most glucosidases and ß-mannosidases preferentially bind their substrates in the most reactive gauche,gauche (gg) conformation, thereby maximizing stabilization of the corresponding oxocarbenium ion-like transition state during hydrolysis. α-Galactoside hydrolases mostly show a preference for the second most activating gauche,trans (gt) conformation to avoid the energy penalty that would arise from imposing the gg conformation on galacto-configured ligands. These preferences stand in stark contrast to the side chain populations observed for these sugars both in free solution and bound to nonhydrolytic proteins, where for the most part a much greater diversity of side chain conformations is observed. Analysis of sequences of GH-ligand complexes reveals that side chain restriction begins with the enzyme-substrate complex and persists through the transition state until release of the hydrolysis product, despite changes in ring conformation along the reaction coordinate. This work will inform the design of new generations of glycosidase inhibitors with restricted side chains that confer higher selectivity and/or affinity.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Indolizinas/química , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Neuramínicos/química , Transição de Fase , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica
17.
Carbohydr Res ; 496: 108100, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755675

RESUMO

The adamantanyl thioglycosides of 5-isothiocyano and 5-azido 5-desamino-4,7,8,9-tetra-O-acetylneuraminic acid methyl ester were converted into the corresponding dibutyl phosphates, which proved to be excellent α-selective donors for O-sialidation with a range of typical acceptors, and good donors for reaction with allyltributylstannane, albeit without significant anomeric selectivity. In the KDN series the dibuylphosphate derived from a donor carrying a 4,5-cyclic carbonate protecting group afforded the corresponding C-glycoside with excellent α-selectivity on activation in the presence of allyltributylstannane, whereas the corresponding donor carrying acetate esters at the 4- and 5-positions was unselective. Overall, it is revealed that while the strongly electron-withdrawing isothiocyanato and azido groups are sufficient to promote highly α-selective O-sialidation, they are inadequate when faced with less reactive nucleophiles when mixtures of anomers are obtained.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Oxigênio/química , Fosfatos/química , Glicosilação , Estereoisomerismo , Tioglicosídeos/química
18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(35): 14820-14825, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803971

RESUMO

Magnesium dialkylamides react with alcohol-derived 2-methyl-2-tetrahydropyranyl alkyl peroxides (MTHPs) in tetrahydrofuran at 0 °C to give N,N,O-trisubstituted hydroxylamines suitable for medicinal chemistry purposes in good to excellent yields. A wide range of secondary alkyl and aryl amines and primary and secondary alcohol-derived MTHPs are compatible with the described reaction which, coupled with the enormous diversity of commercially available alcohols and secondary amines, suggests broad applicability of the reaction in fragment-based library design.

19.
Chem Rev ; 120(15): 7104-7151, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627532

RESUMO

This review is the counterpart of a 2018 Chemical Reviews article (Adero, P. O.; Amarasekara, H.; Wen, P.; Bohé, L.; Crich, D. Chem. Rev. 2018, 118, 8242-8284) that examined the mechanisms of chemical glycosylation in the absence of stereodirecting participation. Attention is now turned to a critical review of the evidence in support of stereodirecting participation in glycosylation reactions by esters from either the vicinal or more remote positions. As participation by esters is often accompanied by ester migration, the mechanism(s) of migration are also reviewed. Esters are central to the entire review, which accordingly opens with an overview of their structure and their influence on the conformations of six-membered rings. Next the structure and relative energetics of dioxacarbeniun ions are covered with emphasis on the influence of ring size. The existing kinetic evidence for participation is then presented followed by an overview of the various intermediates either isolated or characterized spectroscopically. The evidence supporting participation from remote or distal positions is critically examined, and alternative hypotheses for the stereodirecting effect of such esters are presented. The mechanisms of ester migration are first examined from the perspective of glycosylation reactions and then more broadly in the context of partially acylated polyols.


Assuntos
Ésteres/química , Glicosídeos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Ésteres/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Cinética , Conformação Molecular , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Álcoois Açúcares/química , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(20): 9147-9151, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364709

RESUMO

We describe the synthesis of 10-aza-9-oxakalkitoxin, an N,N,O-trisubstituted hydroxylamine-based analog, or hydroxalog, of the cytotoxic marine natural product kalkitoxin in which the -NMe-O- moiety replaces a -CHMe-CH2- unit in the backbone of the natural product. 10-Aza-9-oxakalkitoxin displays potent and selective cytotoxicity (IC50 2.4 ng mL-1) comparable to that of kalkitoxin itself (IC50 3.2 ng mL-1) against the human hepato-carcinoma cell line HepG2 over both the human leukemia cell line CEM and the normal hematopoietic CFU-GM. Like kalkitoxin, and contrary to the common expectation for hydroxylamines, 10-aza-9-oxakalkitoxin is not mutagenic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
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