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Gesnerus ; 71(2): 187-203, 2014.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707095


This article examines the place that has been reserved for medicine in the historiography of the sciences. More precisely, it focuses on the motifs that have lead historians of science to grant only a minor role to medicine within the movement commonly designated by the notion of the "scientific revolution". Among those motifs, the persistent and late application of teleological schemas in the thinking of the biological and the difficulties in "mathematizing" anatomy are often invoked. Starting with an overview of the critical literature on the topic, this bibliographical essay shows how the situation has changed over the last decades. The opposition between, on the one hand, the physical sciences founded on a model of mechanistic explanation of nature and, on the other hand, the life sciences that remained guided by a finalist mode of thinking are today much put into question. What we find today is more open reflection on the diversity of "models" for understanding the living, and on how to integrate them into more complex schemas than those that simply oppose mechanism and teleology. The essay is finally based on discussions and debates among medical doctors and philosophers in the modern period, and insists on the importance of studying this "medico-philosophical" tradition in order to avoid reconstructing a posteriori a mythical history that trends to consecrate a single model of rationality.

Historiografia , História da Medicina , Ciência/história , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Filosofia Médica/história
Gesnerus ; 68(1): 5-25, 2011.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22303770


The discovery of the principle of blood circulation by William Harvey is generally considered as one of the major events of the "scientific revolution" of the 17th century. This paper reconsiders the question by taking in account the way Harvey's discovery was discussed by some contemporary philosophers and physicians, in particular Fontenelle, who insisted on the necessity of redefining methods and principles of medical knowledge, basing themselves on the revival of anatomy and physiology, and of its consequences on the way it permits to think about the human nature. This return allows us to consider the opportunity of substituting the kuhnian scheme of "structure of scientific revolutions" for the bachelardian concept of "refonte".

Circulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Filosofia Médica/história , Inglaterra , França , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos