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2.
Chest ; 159(1): e7-e11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931823

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality because of a lack of effective therapies. Therapeutic strategies under investigation target the overactive cytokine response with anti-cytokine or immunomodulators therapies. We present a unique case of severe cytokine storm resistant to multiple anti-cytokine therapies, but eventually responsive to etoposide. Thus, etoposide may have a role as salvage therapy in treatment of cytokine storm in COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of use of etoposide in COVID-19.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(1): 20-30, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia is often associated with hyperinflammation. Despite the disproportionate incidence of Covid-19 among underserved and racial and ethnic minority populations, the safety and efficacy of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients from these populations who are hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation to receive standard care plus one or two doses of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or placebo. Site selection was focused on the inclusion of sites enrolling high-risk and minority populations. The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or death by day 28. RESULTS: A total of 389 patients underwent randomization, and the modified intention-to-treat population included 249 patients in the tocilizumab group and 128 patients in the placebo group; 56.0% were Hispanic or Latino, 14.9% were Black, 12.7% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 12.7% were non-Hispanic White, and 3.7% were of other or unknown race or ethnic group. The cumulative percentage of patients who had received mechanical ventilation or who had died by day 28 was 12.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.5 to 16.9) in the tocilizumab group and 19.3% (95% CI, 13.3 to 27.4) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for mechanical ventilation or death, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.97; P = 0.04 by the log-rank test). Clinical failure as assessed in a time-to-event analysis favored tocilizumab over placebo (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.93). Death from any cause by day 28 occurred in 10.4% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 8.6% of those in the placebo group (weighted difference, 2.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.2 to 7.8). In the safety population, serious adverse events occurred in 38 of 250 patients (15.2%) in the tocilizumab group and 25 of 127 patients (19.7%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with Covid-19 pneumonia who were not receiving mechanical ventilation, tocilizumab reduced the likelihood of progression to the composite outcome of mechanical ventilation or death, but it did not improve survival. No new safety signals were identified. (Funded by Genentech; EMPACTA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04372186.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , /mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Respiração Artificial , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(1): 24-36, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146552

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has raised many questions about the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether modifications of their therapy are required. It has raised questions about recognizing and differentiating coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from COPD given the similarity of the symptoms. The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Science Committee used established methods for literature review to present an overview of the management of patients with COPD during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear whether patients with COPD are at increased risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2. During periods of high community prevalence of COVID-19, spirometry should only be used when it is essential for COPD diagnosis and/or to assess lung function status for interventional procedures or surgery. Patients with COPD should follow basic infection control measures, including social distancing, hand washing, and wearing a mask or face covering. Patients should remain up to date with appropriate vaccinations, particularly annual influenza vaccination. Although data are limited, inhaled corticosteroids, long-acting bronchodilators, roflumilast, or chronic macrolides should continue to be used as indicated for stable COPD management. Systemic steroids and antibiotics should be used in COPD exacerbations according to the usual indications. Differentiating symptoms of COVID-19 infection from chronic underlying symptoms or those of an acute COPD exacerbation may be challenging. If there is suspicion for COVID-19, testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be considered. Patients who developed moderate-to-severe COVID-19, including hospitalization and pneumonia, should be treated with evolving pharmacotherapeutic approaches as appropriate, including remdesivir, dexamethasone, and anticoagulation. Managing acute respiratory failure should include appropriate oxygen supplementation, prone positioning, noninvasive ventilation, and protective lung strategy in patients with COPD and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients who developed asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 should be followed with the usual COPD protocols. Patients who developed moderate or worse COVID-19 should be monitored more frequently and accurately than the usual patients with COPD, with particular attention to the need for oxygen therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas , /epidemiologia , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 203(2): 211-220, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721166

RESUMO

Rationale: Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the defining morphology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Guidelines for IPF diagnosis conditionally recommend surgical lung biopsy for histopathology diagnosis of UIP when radiology and clinical context are not definitive. A "molecular diagnosis of UIP" in transbronchial lung biopsy, the Envisia Genomic Classifier, accurately predicted histopathologic UIP.Objectives: We evaluated the combined accuracy of the Envisia Genomic Classifier and local radiology in the detection of UIP pattern.Methods: Ninety-six patients who had diagnostic lung pathology as well as a transbronchial lung biopsy for molecular testing with Envisia Genomic Classifier were included in this analysis. The classifier results were scored against reference pathology. UIP identified on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as documented by features in local radiologists' reports was compared with histopathology.Measurements and Main Results: In 96 patients, the Envisia Classifier achieved a specificity of 92.1% (confidence interval [CI],78.6-98.3%) and a sensitivity of 60.3% (CI, 46.6-73.0%) for histology-proven UIP pattern. Local radiologists identified UIP in 18 of 53 patients with UIP histopathology, with a sensitivity of 34.0% (CI, 21.5-48.3%) and a specificity of 96.9% (CI, 83.8-100%). In conjunction with HRCT patterns of UIP, the Envisia Classifier results identified 24 additional patients with UIP (sensitivity 79.2%; specificity 90.6%).Conclusions: In 96 patients with suspected interstitial lung disease, the Envisia Genomic Classifier identified UIP regardless of HRCT pattern. These results suggest that recognition of a UIP pattern by the Envisia Genomic Classifier combined with HRCT and clinical factors in a multidisciplinary discussion may assist clinicians in making an interstitial lung disease (especially IPF) diagnosis without the need for a surgical lung biopsy.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(1): 88-95, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop predictive criteria for COVID-19-associated cytokine storm (CS), a severe hyperimmune response that results in organ damage in some patients infected with COVID-19. We hypothesised that criteria for inflammation and cell death would predict this type of CS. METHODS: We analysed 513 hospitalised patients who were positive for COVID-19 reverse transcriptase PCR and for ground-glass opacity by chest high-resolution CT. To achieve an early diagnosis, we analysed the laboratory results of the first 7 days of hospitalisation. We implemented logistic regression and principal component analysis to determine the predictive criteria. We used a 'genetic algorithm' to derive the cut-offs for each laboratory result. We validated the criteria with a second cohort of 258 patients. RESULTS: We found that the criteria for macrophage activation syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and the HScore did not identify the COVID-19 cytokine storm (COVID-CS). We developed new predictive criteria, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.80, respectively, comprising three clusters of laboratory results that involve (1) inflammation, (2) cell death and tissue damage, and (3) prerenal electrolyte imbalance. The criteria identified patients with longer hospitalisation and increased mortality. These results highlight the relevance of hyperinflammation and tissue damage in the COVID-CS. CONCLUSIONS: We propose new early predictive criteria to identify the CS occurring in patients with COVID-19. The criteria can be readily used in clinical practice to determine the need for an early therapeutic regimen, block the hyperimmune response and possibly decrease mortality.


Assuntos
/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256044

RESUMO

High-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) is a unique system that delivers humidified, heated oxygen-enriched air via nasal cannula at high flow rates. It is a promising therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Several studies have examined the physiologic effects of this therapy in the patient population and have revealed that it improves mucociliary clearance, reduces nasopharyngeal dead space, and subsequently increases CO2 washout. It also improves alveolar recruitment and gas exchange. These mechanisms may explain the promising results observed in recently published studies that examined the role of HFNT in stable COPD patients.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relative roles of mucus plugs and emphysema in mechanisms of airflow limitation and hypoxemia in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are uncertain. METHODS: We analyzed computed tomography (CT) lung images and lung function in participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study. Radiologists scored mucus plugs on CT lung images and imaging software automatically quantified percent emphysema. Unadjusted and adjusted relationships between mucus plug score, percent emphysema, and lung function were determined using regression. RESULTS: Among 400 smokers, 229 (57%) had mucus plugs and 207 (52%) had emphysema and subgroups could be identified with mucus dominant and emphysema dominant disease. Only 33% of smokers with high mucus plug scores had mucus symptoms. Mucus plug score and percent emphysema were independently associated with lower values for forced expiratory volume in one second and peripheral oxygen saturation (p values < 0.001). The relationships between mucus plug score and lung function outcomes were strongest in smokers with limited emphysema (p values <0.001). Compared to smokers with low mucus plug scores, those with high scores had worse COPD Assessment Test scores (17.4 ± 7.7 vs. 14.4 ± 13.3), more frequent annual exacerbations (0.75 ± 1.1 vs. 0.43 ± 0.85), and shorter 6-minute walk distance (329 ± 115 vs. 392 ± 117 meters)(p values < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Symptomatically silent mucus plugs are highly prevalent in smokers and independently associate with lung function outcomes. These data provide rationale for targeting mucus-high/emphysema-low COPD patients in clinical trials of muco-active treatments.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211970

RESUMO

Currently the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires the demonstration of airflow limitation, defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7, a measurement that remains methodologically robust and widely available. FEV1 is one of the most powerful predictors of clinically relevant outcomes including symptoms, exacerbations and mortality. However, reliable data suggest that respiratory symptoms, in particular chronic bronchitis, airway abnormality and emphysema detected using modern imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), and certain physiologic measures including rapid decline in FEV1 and DLCO are present among individuals who do not meet spirometric criteria for COPD. These abnormalities may help to identify individuals at increased risk for developing airflow limitation in the future. Here, we review the evidence that support the use of the term "pre-COPD" in individuals with symptoms (e.g., "Non-Obstructive Chronic Bronchitis" (NOCB)), physiologic (e.g., low DLCO) and/or imaging abnormalities (e.g. CT emphysema) but spirometry in the normal range, who are at risk of developing COPD defined by a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. We acknowledge, however, that further research on early disease in young individuals will be critical to develop a clinically operable definition of "pre-COPD" that demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

10.
Pulm Ther ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the IMPACT trial, single-inhaler triple therapy fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI or UMEC/VI dual therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, pneumonia incidence was higher in FF-containing arms. As COPD is a growing problem in Asia, we compared the efficacy and safety of FF/UMEC/VI in Asia versus non-Asia regions. METHODS: IMPACT was a double-blind, 52-week trial in symptomatic COPD patients with ≥ 1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year. This pre-specified analysis evaluated the annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, mortality, and safety (including pneumonia) in Asia versus non-Asia regions. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population comprised 10,355 patients (Asia n = 1644 [16%]). Rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for moderate/severe exacerbations with FF/UMEC/VI were 0.89 (0.76-1.05) versus FF/VI and 0.86 (0.71-1.04) versus UMEC/VI in Asia, and 0.84 (0.79-0.90) and 0.74 (0.68-0.80) in non-Asia. Efficacy of FF/UMEC/VI on other endpoints was similar in both regions. There was an increased incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia in patients in Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 13%; FF/VI: 14%; UMEC/VI: 6%) compared with non-Asia (FF/UMEC/VI: 6%; FF/VI: 5%; UMEC/VI: 4%). The increased risk of pneumonia in patients in Asia was most marked in patients with lower body mass index, lower lung function, and taking inhaled corticosteroids. In post hoc analysis of adjudicated on-treatment all-cause mortality, probabilities of death were numerically lower in both regions with FF/UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.16%; non-Asia: 1.35%) and FF/VI (Asia: 1.77%; non-Asia: 1.21%) versus UMEC/VI (Asia: 1.91%; non-Asia: 2.23%). CONCLUSIONS: FF/UMEC/VI provides similar benefits in COPD patients in Asia and non-Asia regions. Clinical benefits of treatment, including reduction in mortality risk, should be weighed against risk of pneumonia, taking account of all known risk factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identification, NCT02164513.

11.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043049

RESUMO

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by constant threat of acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF). It would be significant to identify risk factors of AE-IPF. We sought to determine the prognostic value of lung transplantation candidacy testing for AE-IPF and describe explant pathology of recipients with and without AE-IPF before lung transplantation. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 89 IPF patients listed for lung transplantation. Data included pulmonary function testing, echocardiography, right heart catheterisation, imaging, oesophageal pH/manometry and blood tests. Explanted tissue was evaluated by pulmonary pathologists and correlated to computed tomography (CT) findings. Results: Out of 89 patients with IPF, 52 were transplanted during stable IPF and 37 had AE-IPF before transplantation (n=28) or death (n=9). There were no substantial differences in candidacy testing with and without AE-IPF. AE-IPF had higher rate of decline of forced vital capacity (FVC) (21±22% versus 4.8±14%, p=0.00019). FVC decline of >15% had a hazard ratio of 7.2 for developing AE-IPF compared to FVC decline of <5% (p=0.004). AE-IPF had more secondary diverse histopathology (82% versus 29%, p<0.0001) beyond diffuse alveolar damage. There was no correlation between ground-glass opacities (GGO) on chest CT at any point to development of AE-IPF (p=0.077), but GGO during AE-IPF predicted secondary pathological process beyond diffuse alveolar damage. Conclusions: Lung transplantation candidacy testing including reflux studies did not predict AE-IPF besides FVC absolute decline. CT did not predict clinical or pathological AE-IPF. Secondary diverse lung pathology beyond diffuse alveolar damage was present in most AE-IPF, but not in stable IPF.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007162

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Black adults have worse health outcomes compared to white adults in certain chronic diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is unclear if, and to what degree, disadvantage by individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in COPD outcomes. METHODS: Individual and neighborhood-scale sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 2649 current or former adult smokers, with and without COPD, at recruitment into the SPIROMICS study. We assessed whether racial differences in symptom, functional and imaging outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score; modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] dyspnea scale; six-minute walk test distance [6MWD], CT scan metrics) and severe exacerbation risk were explained by individual or neighborhood SES. Using generalized linear mixed models regression, we compared respiratory outcomes by race, adjusting for confounders and individual-level and neighborhood-level descriptors of SES, both separately and sequentially. RESULTS: After adjusting for COPD risk factors, black participants had significantly worse respiratory symptoms and quality of life (mMRC, CAT and SGRQ), higher risk of severe exacerbations and higher percent emphysema, thicker airways (Pi10), and more air trapping on CT metrics compared to whites. Additionally, the association between black race and respiratory outcomes was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual-level SES, which explained up to 12% to 35% of racial disparities. Further adjustment showed that neighborhood-level SES explained another 26% to 54% of the racial disparities in respiratory outcomes. Even after accounting for both individual and neighborhood SES factors, black individuals continued to have increased severe exacerbation risk and persistently worse CT outcomes (emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness). CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantages by individual and neighborhood-level SES each partly explain disparities in respiratory outcomes between black individuals and whites. Strategies to narrow the gap in SES disadvantages may help to reduce race-related health disparities in COPD; however, further work is needed to identify additional risk factors contributing to persistent disparities.

13.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108212

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In the Informing the Pathway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) trial, single-inhaler fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) triple therapy reduced exacerbation risk versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI and mortality risk versus UMEC/VI. However, pneumonia incidence was higher in the inhaled corticosteroid (FF)-containing arms raising questions about the relative benefit of exacerbation reduction compared with the increased risk of pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: Determine benefit-risk of the three treatments by evaluating time-to-first and rates of composite exacerbation or pneumonia outcomes. METHODS: We evaluated time-to-first (pre-specified) and rates (post hoc) of investigator-reported pneumonia, serious pneumonia leading to hospitalization or death, and the composite endpoints of 1) moderate (required antibiotics/corticosteroids)/severe (hospitalized) exacerbation or pneumonia and 2) severe exacerbation or serious (hospitalized) pneumonia. Analyses were repeated for radiographically confirmed pneumonia (post hoc). RESULTS: Moderate/severe exacerbations occurred in 47%, 49%, and 50% of patients randomized to FF/UMEC/VI, FF/VI and UMEC/VI, and pneumonias in 8%, 7%, and 5%, respectively. FF/UMEC/VI reduced the risk of combined moderate/severe exacerbation or pneumonia (time-to-first) versus FF/VI (hazard ratio 0.87 [95%CI 0.82-0.92]) and UMEC/VI (0.87 [0.81-0.94]), as well as the risk of combined severe exacerbation or serious pneumonia versus UMEC/VI (0.83 [0.72-0.96]). FF/UMEC/VI reduced the rate of combined moderate/severe exacerbation or pneumonia (rate ratio 0.78 [0.72-0.84]) and combined severe exacerbation or serious pneumonia (rate ratio 0.76 [0.65-0.89]) versus UMEC/VI. Results were similar for radiographically confirmed pneumonia endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher incidence of pneumonia in FF-containing arms, these composite exacerbation/pneumonia outcomes support a favorable benefit-risk profile of FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of exacerbations. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTT116855/NCT02164513.

14.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 370-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108110

RESUMO

Ratrionale: The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, also known in humans as LL-37, is a defensin secreted by immune and airway epithelial cells. Deficiencies in this peptide may contribute to adverse pulmonary outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: Using clinical and biological samples from the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we assessed the associations of plasma cathelicidin levels with cross-sectional and longitudinal COPD outcomes. Methods: A total of 1609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD and available plasma samples were analyzed. Cathelicidin was modeled dichotomously (lowest quartile [< 50 ng/ml] versus highest 75% [≥ 50 ng/ml]) and continuously per 10 ng/ml. Fixed-effect multilevel regression analyses were used to assess associations between cathelicidin and cross-sectional as well as longitudinal lung function. The associations between cathelicidin and participant-reported retrospective and prospective COPD exacerbations were assessed via logistic regression. Measurements and Main Results: Cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml (N=383) was associated with female sex, black race, and lower body mass index (BMI).At baseline,cathelicidin < 50 ng/ml was independently associated with 3.55% lower % predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)(95% confidence interval [CI] -6.22% to -0.88% predicted; p=0.01), while every 10 ng/ml lower cathelicidin was independently associated with 0.65% lower % predicted FEV1 (95% CI -1.01% to -0.28% predicted; p< 0.001). No independent associations with longitudinal lung function decline or participant-reported COPD exacerbations were observed. Conclusions: Reduced cathelicidin is associated with lower lung function at baseline. Plasma cathelicidin may potentially identify COPD patients at increased risk for more severe lung disease.

15.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Informing the Pathway of COPD Treatment (IMPACT) trial, single-inhaler triple-therapy fluticasone furoate (FF), umeclidinium (UMEC), and vilanterol (VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates vs FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with symptomatic COPD and a history of exacerbations, with a similar safety profile. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does age have an effect on trial outcomes? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: IMPACT was a phase III, double-blind, 52-week trial. Patients ≥ 40 years of age with symptomatic COPD and ≥ 1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the previous year were randomly assigned 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25 µg, FF/VI 100/25 µg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg. End points assessed by age included annual rate of moderate/severe exacerbations, change from baseline (CFB) in trough FEV1, proportion of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) responders (≥ 4 units decrease from baseline in SGRQ total score), and safety. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population comprised 10,355 patients; 4,724 (46%), 4,225 (41%), and 1,406 (14%) were ≤ 64, 65 to 74, and ≥ 75 years of age, respectively. FF/UMEC/VI reduced on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbation rates vs FF/VI (% reduction [95% CI]: ≤ 64 years, 8% [-1 to 16]; P = .070; 65-74 years, 22% [14-29]; P < .001; ≥ 75 years, 18% [3-31]; P = .021) and vs UMEC/VI (≤ 64 years, 16% [7-25]; P = .002; 65-74 years, 33% [25-41]; P < .001; ≥ 75 years, 24% [6-38]; P = .012), with greatest rate reduction seen in the 65 to 74 and ≥ 75 years subgroups. Post hoc analyses of CFB in trough FEV1 and proportion of SGRQ responders at week 52 were significantly greater with FF/UMEC/VI than with FF/VI or UMEC/VI in all subgroups. No new safety signals were identified. INTERPRETATION: FF/UMEC/VI reduced the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations and improved lung function and health status vs FF/VI and UMEC/VI irrespective of age for most end points, with a similar safety profile. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02164513; URL: www.clinicaltrials.govCTT116855.

16.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983862

RESUMO

We report four individuals admitted for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 who demonstrated significant clinical improvement prior to discharge and subsequently were readmitted with worsening respiratory failure, elevated inflammatory markers and worsening chest imaging. We propose a multi-disciplinary discharge criterion to establish a safer discharge process including trending inflammatory markers, daily imaging and pursuing follow up CT chest, particularly in individuals with significant morbidities and health disparities.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state. Emerging data from China and Europe have consistently shown an increased incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to identify the VTE incidence and early predictors of VTE at our high-volume tertiary care center. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 147 patients who had been admitted to Temple University Hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from April 1, 2020 to April 27, 2020. We first identified the VTE (pulmonary embolism [PE] and deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) incidence in our cohort. The VTE and no-VTE groups were compared by univariable analysis for demographics, comorbidities, laboratory data, and treatment outcomes. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the early predictors of VTE. RESULTS: The 147 patients (20.9% of all admissions) admitted to a designated COVID-19 unit at Temple University Hospital with a high clinical suspicion of acute VTE had undergone testing for VTE using computed tomography pulmonary angiography and/or extremity venous duplex ultrasonography. The overall incidence of VTE was 17% (25 of 147). Of the 25 patients, 16 had had acute PE, 14 had had acute DVT, and 5 had had both PE and DVT. The need for invasive mechanical ventilation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-9.55) and the admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL (adjusted odds ratio, 3.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-9.78) were independent markers associated with VTE. The all-cause mortality in the VTE group was greater than that in the non-VTE group (48% vs 22%; P = .007). CONCLUSION: Our study represents one of the earliest reported from the United States on the incidence rate of VTE in patients with COVID-19. Patients with a high clinical suspicion and the identified risk factors (invasive mechanical ventilation, admission D-dimer level ≥1500 ng/mL) should be considered for early VTE testing. We did not screen all patients admitted for VTE; therefore, the true incidence of VTE could have been underestimated. Our findings require confirmation in future prospective studies.

19.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 236, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous pneumothorax is an uncommon complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The exact incidence and risk factors are still unknown. Herein we review the incidence and outcomes of pneumothorax in over 3000 patients admitted to our institution for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of COVID-19 cases admitted to our hospital. Patients who were diagnosed with a spontaneous pneumothorax were identified to calculate the incidence of this event. Their clinical characteristics were thoroughly documented. Data regarding their clinical outcomes were gathered. Each case was presented as a brief synopsis. RESULTS: Three thousand three hundred sixty-eight patients were admitted to our institution between March 1st, 2020 and June 8th, 2020 for suspected COVID 19 pneumonia, 902 patients were nasopharyngeal swab positive. Six cases of COVID-19 patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax were identified (0.66%). Their baseline imaging showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and consolidations, mostly in the posterior and peripheral lung regions. 4/6 cases were associated with mechanical ventilation. All patients required placement of a chest tube. In all cases, mortality (66.6%) was not directly related to the pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare complication of COVID-19 viral pneumonia and may occur in the absence of mechanical ventilation. Clinicians should be vigilant about the diagnosis and treatment of this complication.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/terapia , Pneumotórax/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 362-369, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926607

RESUMO

Background: The effect of high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) in individuals with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapnia is not well studied. We assessed patient tolerance and impact of air-gas therapy delivered by humidified HFNT (20-35 L/min) on gas exchange in hypercapnic COPD patients during hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. We hypothesized that HFNT use would be safe and well tolerated in individuals hospitalized for COPD exacerbation regardless of the degree of hypercapnia. Methods: Patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation were included if they were hypercapnic (arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PaCO2] > 45 mmHg), ≥ 10 pack-year history, and agreed to treatment with HFNT, along with daily arterial blood gas (ABG) samples and bedside spirometry. They were placed on a HFNT system following admission for at least 3 days with an air-gas blend to maintain a flow rate between 20-35 L/min and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) titrated to keep oxygen saturation (SaO2) values > 90%. Patient tolerance of HFNT and evidence of clinical deterioration as defined by worsening hypoxia or hypercapnia was the primary endpoint. Results: Ten consecutive patients participated in the study. The patients had frequent prior exacerbations, were hypercapnic, dyspneic, and gas trapped. Participants received an air-gas flow rate (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 25 (IQR 20-30) L/min and FiO2 of 30 (IQR 30-30) %. There was no increase in PaCO2- levels (p = 0.26) or dyspnea (Borg scale, p= 0.52) while using HFNT. No patient discontinued HFNT, had further decompensation, required non-invasive ventilation or intubation during the study period. Conclusion: In a pilot study, patients experiencing a severe COPD exacerbation were able to tolerate continuous HFNT safely regardless of degree of hypercapnia.

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