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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982651

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) manifests with a variety of clinical presentations, reflecting its complex pathology. Currently, care focuses on symptom amelioration and prevention of complications, thus is generally tailored to disease severity rather than targeting specific pathophysiologic mechanisms. Chronic inflammation and mucus hypersecretion are key features of COPD. Epithelial ion channel dysfunction may be important as it results in airway dehydration and defective host defense, contributing to chronic airway inflammation. Recent evidence suggests considerable similarities between COPD and cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease in which chloride ion channel dysfunction has been extensively studied (in particular, CF transmembrane conductance regulator [CFTR]). Understanding commonalities between CF and COPD, and the role of CFTR in CF, may help in designing strategies targeting ion channel dysfunction, and lead to new treatments with potential to alter the natural history of disease progression. Here, we review the roles of airway mucus and CFTR in normal lung function, the previously underestimated contribution of mucus stasis to the development of COPD, and the evidence for targeting CFTR to counteract mucus accumulation.

2.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 316, 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an age-related condition that has been associated with early telomere attrition; the clinical implications of telomere shortening in COPD are not well known. In this study we aimed to determine the relationship of the epigenetic regulation of telomeric length in peripheral blood with the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization in patients with COPD. METHODS: Blood DNA methylation profiles were obtained from 292 patients with COPD enrolled in the placebo arm of the Macrolide Azithromycin to Prevent Rapid Worsening of Symptoms Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (MACRO) Study and who were followed for 1-year. We calculated telomere length based on DNA methylation markers (DNAmTL) and related this biomarker to the risk of exacerbation and hospitalization and health status (St. George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]) score over time using a Cox proportional hazards model. We also used linear models to investigate the associations of DNAmTL with the rates of exacerbation and hospitalization (adjusted for chronological age, lung function, race, sex, smoking, body mass index and cell composition). RESULTS: Participants with short DNAmTL demonstrated increased risk of exacerbation (P = 0.02) and hospitalization (P = 0.03) compared to those with longer DNAmTL. DNAmTL age acceleration was associated with higher rates of exacerbation (P = 1.35 × 10-04) and hospitalization (P = 5.21 × 10-03) and poor health status (lower SGRQ scores) independent of chronological age (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Telomeric age based on blood DNA methylation is associated with COPD exacerbation and hospitalization and thus a promising biomarker for poor outcomes in COPD.

3.
Biomedicines ; 9(12)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944653

RESUMO

A recently published ERS core outcome set recommends that all trials of COPD exacerbation management should assess the treatment success (or "cure" of the exacerbation), defined as a dichotomous measure of the overall outcome of an exacerbation. This methodological systematic review describes and compares the instruments that were used to assess treatment success or failure in 54 such RCTs, published between 2006-2020. Twenty-three RCTs used composite measures consisting of several undesirable outcomes of an exacerbation, together defining an overall unfavourable outcome, to define treatment failure. Thirty-four RCTs used descriptive instruments that used qualitative or semi-quantitative descriptions to define cure, marked improvement, improvement of the exacerbation, or treatment failure. Treatment success and failure rates among patients receiving guidelines-directed treatments at different settings and timepoints are described and could be used to inform power calculations in future trials. Descriptive instruments appeared more sensitive to treatment effects compared to composite instruments. Further methodological studies are needed to optimise the evaluation of treatment success/failure. In the meantime, based on the findings of this systematic review, the ERS core outcome set recommends that cure should be defined as sufficient improvement of the signs and symptoms of the exacerbation such that no additional systemic treatments are required.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972260

RESUMO

Background: In IMPACT, single-inhaler fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol (FF/UMEC/VI) reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This post hoc analysis tested the relationship between baseline health status, risk of future exacerbations and efficacy outcomes. Methods: Phase III, double-blind, 52-week trial in patients with symptomatic COPD (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score ≥10) and ≥1 moderate/severe exacerbation in the prior year randomized 2:2:1 to FF/UMEC/VI 100/62.5/25mcg, FF/VI 100/25mcg, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25mcg. Annual rate of on-treatment moderate/severe exacerbations, lung function and safety were analyzed by continuous baseline CAT score. Results: Moderate/severe exacerbation rates increased with increasing baseline CAT scores in FF/UMEC/VI and UMEC/VI arms. There was a very small increase in on-treatment pneumonia rates at higher baseline CAT scores across all treatment arms. FF/UMEC/VI reduced moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus UMEC/VI (i.e., the inhaled corticosteroid effect) consistently across the range of CAT scores. The reduction with FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI (i.e., the long-acting muscarinic-antagonist effect) was greatest at lower CAT scores and appeared lesser at higher CAT scores. Improvements in lung function were observed with FF/UMEC/VI versus FF/VI and UMEC/VI, regardless of baseline CAT score. Conclusions: CAT score was predictive of exacerbation risk. Worse baseline health status was associated with higher moderate/severe exacerbation and pneumonia rates. Irrespective of baseline CAT score, FF/UMEC/VI improved lung function, and reduced the annual moderate/severe exacerbation rates versus dual therapy. Results indicate an overall favorable benefit-risk profile of triple versus dual therapy, irrespective of CAT score.

5.
Respir Med ; 190: 106599, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease with high mortality. Lung transplant remains a cornerstone of treatment despite the advent of antifibrotic therapy. In light of the increasing number of patients on antifibrotic therapy prior to lung transplantation it is paramount to demonstrate these medications do not augment postoperative complications following transplant. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does antifibrotic therapy increase perioperative complications and mortality in lung transplant recipients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients actively listed for lung transplant at Temple University Hospital from June 2014 to April 2017 with a listing diagnosis of IPF. Subjects who received treatment with antifibrotic therapy (either pirfenidone or nintedanib) up until the time of lung transplantation were compared to subjects not on therapy. Data was collected regarding baseline demographics, pulmonary function tests, IPF exacerbations, perioperative bleeding and cardiac events, and outcomes in the postoperative period. RESULTS: A total of 94 subjects were included in the study: 42 subjects on antifibrotic therapy (28 pirfenidone, 14 nintedanib) and 52 subjects not on therapy in the pre-transplant period. Baseline characteristics were similar between study groups. Subjects treated with antifibrotic therapy pre-transplant were noted to have less FVC decline, fewer hospitalizations, and greater weight loss while on the transplant waiting list. No difference in post-transplant airway anastomosis complications, bleeding or mortality was observed between study groups. INTERPRETATION: Subjects with IPF on antifibrotic therapy prior to lung transplantation had better preservation of lung function in the pre-transplant period, and similar outcomes in the postoperative period compared to those not on antifibrotic therapy before lung transplant.

6.
Eur Respir Rev ; 30(162)2021 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789465

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have a class effect of increasing pneumonia risk in patients with COPD. However, pneumonia incidence varies widely across clinical trials of ICS use in COPD. This review clarifies methodological differences in defining and recording pneumonia events in these trials and discusses factors that could contribute to the varying pneumonia incidence. Literature searches and screening yielded 40 relevant references for inclusion. Methods used to capture pneumonia events in these studies included investigator-reported pneumonia adverse events, standardised list of signs or symptoms, radiographic confirmation of suspected cases and/or confirmation by an independent clinical end-point committee. In general, more stringent pneumonia diagnosis criteria led to lower reported pneumonia incidence rates. In addition, studies varied in design and population characteristics, including exacerbation history and lung function, factors that probably contribute to the varying pneumonia incidence. As such, cross-trial comparisons are problematic. A minimal set of standardised criteria for diagnosis and reporting of pneumonia should be used in COPD studies, as well as reporting of patients' pneumonia history at baseline, to allow comparison of pneumonia rates between trials. Currently, within-trial comparison of ICS-containing versus non-ICS-containing treatments is the appropriate method to assess the influence of ICS on pneumonia incidence.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748694

RESUMO

Rationale: High-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) has beneficial effects in patients hospitalized with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. HFNT has not been extensively studied following hospitalization for an Acute Exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Objective: We explored the feasibility of conducting a multicentered trial to evaluate the use of HFNT to increase the time to next moderate/ severe exacerbation in patients recently hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation. In this pilot study we measured the hours of home daily HFNT use, maximally tolerated flow rates and temperature, and side effects for a period of 90 days. Methods: Patients were enrolled in a 90-day open-labeled pilot study of HFNT to determine the safety and feasibility of home use for daily outpatient COPD management. Patients ≥ 40 years of age with prior hospitalization within the past 12 weeks for an acute COPD exacerbation were enrolled. COPD as the primary diagnosis in all patients. Results: Thirty patients presented for HFNT titration. Two dropped out; one after receiving a lung transplant and the other was lost to follow-up. The remaining 28 patients completed 90 days of HFNT. None withdrew from HFNT due to intolerance. Use of HFNT averaged 6.8 (2.1) hours daily. Conclusions: Daily home HFNT for up to three months is feasible in COPD patients following hospitalization for an acute exacerbation. Improvements observed in disease specific quality of life, respiratory symptoms and 6 MWD suggest the need for a prospective multicenter controlled clinical trial.

9.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(6): L1119-L1130, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668408

RESUMO

Identifying protein biomarkers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been challenging. Most previous studies have used individual proteins or preselected protein panels measured in blood samples. Mass spectrometry proteomic studies of lung tissue have been based on small sample sizes. We used mass spectrometry proteomic approaches to discover protein biomarkers from 150 lung tissue samples representing COPD cases and controls. Top COPD-associated proteins were identified based on multiple linear regression analysis with false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Correlations between pairs of COPD-associated proteins were examined. Machine learning models were also evaluated to identify potential combinations of protein biomarkers related to COPD. We identified 4,407 proteins passing quality controls. Twenty-five proteins were significantly associated with COPD at FDR < 0.05, including interleukin 33, ferritin (light chain and heavy chain), and two proteins related to caveolae (CAV1 and CAVIN1). Multiple previously reported plasma protein biomarkers for COPD were not significantly associated with proteomic analysis of COPD in lung tissue, although RAGE was borderline significant. Eleven pairs of top significant proteins were highly correlated (r > 0.8), including several strongly correlated with RAGE (EHD2 and CAVIN1). Machine learning models using Random Forests with the top 5% of protein biomarkers demonstrated reasonable accuracy (0.707) and area under the curve (0.714) for COPD prediction. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of lung tissue is a promising approach for the identification of biomarkers for COPD.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649975

RESUMO

Clinical trials evaluating the management of acute exacerbations of COPD assess heterogeneous outcomes, often omitting those that are clinically relevant or more important to patients. We have developed a core outcome set, a consensus-based minimum set of important outcomes that we recommend are evaluated in all future clinical trials on exacerbations management, to improve their quality and comparability. COPD exacerbations outcomes were identified through methodological systematic reviews and qualitative interviews with 86 patients from 11 countries globally. The most critical outcomes were prioritized for inclusion in the core outcome set through a two-round Delphi survey that was completed by 1,063 participants (256 patients, 488 health professionals and 319 clinical academics) from 88 countries in 5 continents. Two global, multi-stakeholder, virtual consensus meetings were conducted to (i) finalize the core outcome set and (ii) prioritize a single measurement instrument to be used for evaluating each of the prioritized outcomes. Consensus was informed by rigorous methodological systematic reviews. The views of patients with COPD were accounted for in all stages of the project. Survival, treatment success, breathlessness, quality of life, activities of daily living, need for higher level of care, arterial blood gases, disease progression, future exacerbations and hospital admissions, treatment safety and adherence were all included in the core outcome set. Focused methodological research was recommended to further validate and optimize some of the selected measurement instruments. The panel did not consider the prioritized set of outcomes and associated measurement instruments burdensome for patients and health professionals to use.

11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 162(6): 1605-1618.e6, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lobectomy is a standard treatment for stage I non-small cell lung cancer, but a significant proportion of patients are considered at high risk for complications, including mortality, after lobectomy and might not be candidates. Identifying who is at risk is important and in evolution. The objective of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery Clinical Practice Standards Committee expert panel was to review important considerations and factors in assessing who is at high risk among patients considered for lobectomy. METHODS: The American Association for Thoracic Surgery Clinical Practice Standards Committee assembled an expert panel that developed an expert consensus document after systematic review of the literature. The expert panel generated a priori a list of important risk factors in the determination of high risk for lobectomy. A survey was administered, and the expert panel was asked to grade the relative importance of each risk factor. Recommendations were developed using discussion and a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: The expert panel survey identified the most important factors in the determination of high risk, which included the need for supplemental oxygen because of severe underlying lung disease, low diffusion capacity, the presence of frailty, and the overall assessment of daily activity and functional status. The panel determined that factors, such as age (as a sole factor), were less important in risk assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Defining who is at high risk for lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer is challenging, but remains critical. There was impressive strong consensus on identification of important factors and their hierarchical ranking of perceived risk. The panel identified several key factors that can be incorporated in risk assessment. The factors are evolving and as the population ages, factors such as neurocognitive function and frailty become more important. A minimally invasive approach becomes even more critical in this older population to mitigate risk. The determination of risk is a clinical decision and judgement, which should also take into consideration patient perspectives, values, preferences, and quality of life.

13.
Pulm Ther ; 7(2): 533-547, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Telemonitoring is a promising self-management strategy to improve health care outcomes. This study evaluated real-world adoption of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Co-Pilot daily symptom monitoring tool by patients and primary care providers (PCPs). METHODS: An open-label, 6-month, single-arm, multicenter, noninterventional feasibility study enrolled 97 patients aged ≥ 40 years with symptomatic or poorly controlled COPD and ≥ 10 pack-year smoking history. Patients received smartphones and training to use the COPD Co-Pilot application. During the study, patients tracked symptoms daily; an increase in symptom score of ≥ 1.0 point from baseline (symptom alert) prompted patients to contact their PCP via toll-free number. The primary endpoint was time to clinical recommendation (TTCR) from a symptom alert; adherence to completing daily symptom reports through the COPD Co-Pilot application and patient satisfaction were also measured. RESULTS: Overall, 87 of 96 patients (90.6%) received 2142 symptom alerts; 42 alerts (equivalent to 2% of all symptom alerts) resulted in 23 patients contacting their PCP. Median TTCR was 7.1 h (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0-29.9). Among 15 patients using the toll-free number, median TTCR was 2.1 h (IQR 0.0-7.2) versus 19.6 h (IQR 4.5-45.2) for eight patients using other contact methods. Average COPD Co-Pilot adherence overall was 75.2% (95% CI 74.6-75.9). Patients responded favorably regarding the application's ease of use, functionality, and information provided. CONCLUSIONS: The COPD Co-Pilot tool was associated with relatively high levels of adherence, suggesting patients' willingness to monitor symptoms daily. Although a limited number of patients initiated PCP contact, patients who used the study-provided toll-free number had substantially shorter median TTCR, suggesting that this tool could help empower patients to better manage their COPD.

14.
JCI Insight ; 6(19)2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464355

RESUMO

A role for hereditary influences in the susceptibility for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is widely recognized. Cytotoxic lymphocytes are implicated in COPD pathogenesis, and functions of these leukocytes are modulated by interactions between their killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) and human leukocyte antigen-Class I (HLA-Class I) molecules on target cells. We hypothesized HLA-Class I and KIR inheritance affect risks for COPD. HLA-Class I alleles and KIR genotypes were defined by candidate gene analyses in multiple cohorts of patients with COPD (total n = 392) and control smokers with normal spirometry (total n = 342). Compared with controls, patients with COPD had overrepresentations of HLA-C*07 and activating KIR2DS1, with underrepresentations of HLA-C*12. Particular HLA-KIR permutations were synergistic; e.g., the presence of HLA-C*07 + KIR2DS1 + HLA-C12null versus HLAC*07null + KIR2DS1null + HLA-C12 was associated with COPD, especially among HLA-C1 allotype homozygotes. Cytotoxicity of COPD lymphocytes was more enhanced by KIR stimulation than those of controls and was correlated with lung function. These data show HLA-C and KIR polymorphisms strongly influence COPD susceptibility and highlight the importance of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in COPD pathogenesis. Findings here also indicate that HLA-KIR typing could stratify at-risk patients and raise possibilities that HLA-KIR axis modulation may have therapeutic potential.

15.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 8(4): 414-426, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339598

RESUMO

The Losartan Effects on Emphysema Progression (LEEP) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that losartan slows progression of emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (NCT00720226). It was conducted by the Pulmonary Trials Cooperative consortium, in collaboration with the American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Centers network. We describe the design of the trial and challenges for recruitment and follow-up of participants. LEEP is a placebo-controlled, parallel randomized trial, allocation ratio of 1:1, with a planned sample size of 220. Primary eligibility criteria were mild emphysema based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans with 5% to 35% voxels <-950 Hounsfield units (HU), airway obstruction based on spirometry, and not taking an angiotensin receptor blocker or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Participants received either losartan or placebo for 48 weeks. A total of 2779 individuals were screened to enroll 220 eligible participants at 26 clinical sites, all located in the continental United States. Recruitment took 45% longer than planned (32 months versus 22 months), with an average accrual rate of 6.7 participants per month. Recruitment challenges included identification of eligible participants who were not already taking or who did not have an established clinical indication for an angiotensin receptor blocker or ACE inhibitor drug and recalls of contaminated lots of losartan by the Food and Drug Administration. A number of recruitment initiatives were launched in response. Recruitment was completed in February 2020, just prior to a nationwide shutdown of research activities due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

16.
Chest ; 160(5): e389-e397, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339684

RESUMO

This document summarizes the work of the COPD Technical Expert Panel working group. For patients with COPD, the most pressing current coverage barriers identified were onerous diagnostic requirements focused on oxygenation (rather than ventilation) and difficulty obtaining bilevel devices with backup rate capabilities. Because of these difficulties, many patients with COPD were instead sometimes prescribed home mechanical ventilators. Critical evidence supports changes to current policies, including randomized controlled trial evidence suggesting a mortality benefit from bilevel positive airway pressure with backup rate and updated clinical practice guidelines from the American Thoracic Society as well as the European Respiratory Society. To achieve optimal access to noninvasive ventilation for patients with COPD, we make the following key recommendations: (1) removal of the need for overnight oximetry testing; (2) the ability to initiate therapy using bilevel devices with backup rate capability; and (3) increased duration of time to meet adherence criteria (ie, a second 90-day trial period) in those patients actively engaged in their care. Clear guidelines based on medical necessity are also included for patients who require initiation of or switch to a home mechanical ventilator. Adoption of these proposed recommendations would result in the right device, for the right type of patient with COPD, at the right time. Finally, we emphasize the need for adequate clinical support during initiation and maintenance of home noninvasive ventilation in such patients.

17.
Biomedicines ; 9(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356843

RESUMO

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells proliferate and restore the injured epithelium. It has been described that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diffuse alveolar damage in the lungs. However, host factors facilitating virus infection in ATII cells are not well known. We determined the SARS-CoV-2-related genes and protein expression using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, in ATII cells isolated from young and elderly non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Cells were also obtained from lung transplants of emphysema patients. ACE2 has been identified as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and we found significantly increased levels in young and elderly smokers and emphysema patients. The viral entry depends on TMPRSS2 protease activity, and a higher expression was detected in elderly smokers and ex-smokers and emphysema patients. Both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA levels were higher in this disease in comparison with non-smokers. CD209L serves as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, and we found increased levels in ATII cells obtained from smokers and in emphysema patients. Also, our data suggest CD209L regulation by miR142. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was detected in ATII cells in this disease. Our results suggest that upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors in ATII cells in aging, smokers, and emphysema patients may facilitate infection.

20.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 18(9): 823-832, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314290

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emphysema affects millions of people; the underlying pathophysiology is hyperinflation due to destruction of lung parenchyma. The mainstay of treatment is medical therapy however there are two surgical treatment strategies approved by the FDA to reduce lung hyperinflation. First being lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS), which carries higher risk of mortality versus bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR). BLVR has reduced peri-operative morbidity without compromising improvement in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume 1s (FEV1) and patient-reported outcomes. The added benefit of BLVR is that older adults who have end-stage emphysema who otherwise would not be appropriate surgical candidates for LVRS or transplant have an alternative treatment option. AREAS COVERED: This is a review paper focusing on Zephyr® endobronchial valves (EBV). Specifically, clinical outcomes of major trials, selection criteria, valve/deployment catheter features, description of procedure, discussing the Chartis™ Pulmonary Assessment System and StratX report, management of complications and discussing next steps in protocolizing post-EBV care. EXPERT OPINION: The expert opinion section focuses on outcomes from the LIBERATE Trial and 1-yr post-hoc analysis. Further 5-year follow-up post Zephyr® EBV placement along with protocolization post-EBV placement are needed to minimize adverse events and/or be able to manage, especially with high risk of pneumothorax (PTX).


Assuntos
Enfisema , Enfisema Pulmonar , Idoso , Broncoscopia , Humanos , Pneumonectomia , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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