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2.
mBio ; 10(3)2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239374

RESUMO

HBsAg and HBeAg have gained traction as biomarkers of control and clearance during chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB). Improved understanding of the clearance correlates of these proteins could help inform improvements in patient-stratified care and advance insights into the underlying mechanisms of disease control, thus underpinning new cure strategies. We collected electronic clinical data via an electronic pipeline supported by the National Institute for Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative (NIHR HIC), adopting an unbiased approach to the generation of a robust longitudinal data set for adults testing HBsAg positive from a large UK teaching hospital over a 6-year period (2011 to 2016 inclusive). Of 553 individuals with CHB, longitudinal data were available for 319, representing >107,000 weeks of clinical follow-up. Among these 319 individuals, 13 (4%) cleared HBsAg completely. Among these 13, the HBsAg clearance rate in individuals on nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy (n = 4 [31%]; median clearance time,150 weeks) was similar to that in individuals not on NA therapy (n = 9 [69%]; median clearance time, 157 weeks). Those who cleared HBsAg were significantly older and less likely to be on NA therapy than nonclearers (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). Chinese ethnicity was associated with HBeAg positivity (P = 0.025). HBeAg clearance occurred in individuals both on NA therapy (n = 24; median time, 49 weeks) and off NA therapy (n = 19; median time, 52 weeks). Improved insights into the dynamics of these biomarkers can underpin better prognostication and patient-stratified care. Our systematized approach to data collection paves the way for scaling up efforts to harness clinical data to address research questions and support improvements in clinical care.IMPORTANCE Advances in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are urgently required if we are to meet international targets for elimination by the year 2030. Here we demonstrate how routine clinical data can be harnessed through an unbiased electronic pipeline, showcasing the significant potential for amassing large clinical data sets that can help to inform advances in patient care and provide insights that may help to inform new cure strategies. Our cohort from a large UK hospital includes adults from diverse ethnic groups that have previously been underrepresented in the literature. By tracking two protein biomarkers that are used to monitor chronic HBV infection, we provide new insights into the timelines of HBV clearance, both on and off treatment. These results contribute to improvements in individualized clinical care and may provide important clues into the immune events that underpin disease control.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Informática Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 58(3): 515-537, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077785

RESUMO

Therapeutic Reviews aim to provide essential independent information for health professionals about drugs used in palliative and hospice care. Additional content is available via www.palliativedrugs.com. The series editors welcome feedback on the articles.

4.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 18(3): 231-236, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858433

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with CD present with acute inflammatory exacerbations as well as acute and chronic complications. Management requires specialist input from gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, nurse specialists and pharmacists as well as general and primary care physicians to allow appropriate selection of treatment options including surgery and rapid assessment and treatment of those with acute exacerbations. Monitoring of the individual and their medication is crucial in preventing and recognising complications including those associated with treatment. This concise guideline focuses on recommendations from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) -Clinical -Guideline 152 (CG152) considered of key importance for implementation.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/terapia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/terapia , Criança , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2(12): 587-94, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16327838

RESUMO

Well-designed studies that help guide physicians to apply the optimal therapeutic strategy for the management of pyoderma gangrenosum are lacking in the literature. A multidisciplinary approach is paramount for the effective management of this condition, with close involvement of a wound-care specialist and a microbiologist. Treatment should be stepwise in nature. Local wound care, avoidance of trauma and the application of local steroid or tacrolimus ointment are the first-line treatments. Steroid therapy is the most widely published effective therapy for achieving resolution of pyoderma gangrenosum, although there is growing evidence for the efficacy of infliximab in refractory cases. Other therapies such as dapsone and clofazamine should be left as third-line agents for refractory pyoderma gangrenosum, while novel treatments such as granulocyte apheresis should only be used under trial conditions, to gain an objective evaluation of their efficacy. This article reviews the published treatment strategies in current use, and aims to guide the effective management of pyoderma gangrenosum.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pioderma Gangrenoso/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Infliximab , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
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