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1.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 44, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune encephalitis is characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with brain inflammation. The differential is usually broad and Psychiatry often collaborates with Neurology in diagnostic clarification and symptom management. At least 40% of neuroencephalitis cases are of unknown etiology which adds to difficulties in making the right diagnosis and deciding on the appropriate treatment (Granerod et al., Lancet Infect Dis 10:835-44, 2010). The aim of this case series was to present four cases with complicated psychiatric symptomatology and isolated neurologic signs and symptoms, evaluated at a large tertiary medical center and treated for suspected autoimmune encephalitis, demonstrating the complexity of diagnosis and treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: Four diagnostically challenging and heterogeneous cases displayed clinical symptomatology suggestive of autoimmune encephalitis. All cases presented with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms, but had negative autoantibody panels, normal or inconclusive magnetic resonance imaging results and non-specific cerebrospinal fluid changes. All were challenged with immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory treatments with overall poor response rates. CONCLUSIONS: There is a heterogeneous presentation of autoimmune encephalitis in pediatric populations. In the absence of positive findings on testing, individuals who do not meet proposed criteria for seronegative encephalitis may be misdiagnosed, and/or may not respond adequately to treatment. In those cases, comprehensive evaluation and stringent application of consensus guidelines is necessary.

2.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(3): 333-335, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034765

RESUMO

Nearly two in five youth with major depressive disorder fail to respond to first-line interventions. As such, treatment-resistant depression represents a formidable challenge for clinicians and researchers. In fact, even considering the diagnosis of treatment-resistant depression in children and adolescents requires (a) defining treatment-resistant depression and, by extension, treatment failure; (b) defining recovery; (c) understanding its developmental trajectory; and in addition to (d) understanding the evidence for treatment interventions in this population. Accumulating data suggest that treatment-resistant depression is heterogeneous and that this heterogeneity may inform interventions. Additionally, these data suggest that substantially more nuance is needed in evaluating the 'adequacy' of prior treatments whether they are psychotherapeutic or psychopharmacologic. Last, adjunctive interventions that focus on neuromodulation, glutamatergic, GABAergic, and inflammatory pathways remain poorly understood in youth with treatment-resistant depression despite very significant advances in adults with treatment-resistant depression.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634515

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep disruption is a significant symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). To our knowledge, no prior work has examined the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on sleep disturbances in adolescents with MDD. METHODS: Seventeen adolescents with treatment-resistant depression received 30 daily sessions of 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). Clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline; after 10, 20, and 30 treatments; and at a 6-month follow-up visit. Insomnia was measured with a 3-item subscale of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Adolescent (17 Item)-Self Report (QIDS-A17-SR). Hypersomnia was measured with a single QIDS-A17-SR item. Depression severity was rated with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised (CDRS-R). The effect of rTMS on sleep was examined via linear mixed model analyses, with fixed effects of time (as a proxy of treatment), depression severity, age, and hypnotic medication use. RESULTS: No significant main effect of time was observed on the insomnia subscale (F4,43.442 = 1.078, p = 0 .379). However, there was a significant main effect of time on the QIDS-A17-SR hypersomnia score (F4,46.124 = 2.733, p = 0 .040), with significant improvement from baseline to treatment 10 (padj = 0.019) and from baseline to 6-month follow-up (padj = 0.044). In exploratory sensitivity analyses, response/nonresponse to rTMS for overall depressive symptoms had no significant effect on sleep outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: rTMS may have intrinsic effects on hypersomnia apart from its antidepressant effects in depressed adolescents. Future work should utilize sham controls and objective, quantitative measurements of sleep architecture to assess effects of rTMS in depressed adolescents. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers are NCT00587639, NCT01502033, NCT01804270.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dopaminergic-enhancing agent modafinil/armodafinil (MoArm) as adjunctive treatment for bipolar depression. METHODS: A comprehensive search of major electronic databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adjunctive MoArm that included patients with bipolar I (BP-I) or bipolar II (BP-II) depression. Data for response/remission and all-cause discontinuation were analyzed. Effect size was summarized by relative risk (RR) using a random effect model. RESULTS: Of 58 studies, five RCTs (N = 795 drug, N = 792 placebo) met inclusion criteria. Four armodafinil studies included only BP-I patients and one modafinil study included both bipolar subtypes with limited heterogeneity (I2  = 34%, P = .19; I2  = 18%, P = .30). Compared to placebo, augmentation with MoArm was associated with significantly greater rates of treatment response (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.37; P = .03) and remission (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10-1.73; P = .005). All-cause discontinuation was not different than placebo (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.30; P = .45) with no evidence of increased risk of mood switch or suicide attempts with MoArm (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.39-2.5; P = .98; RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.37-2.85; P = .97). CONCLUSION: This narrower scope meta-analysis of one drug for one disease suggests that adjunctive MoArm may represent a novel therapeutic intervention. Further studies delineating the subtypes of bipolar depression responsive to these novel dopaminergic-enhancing agents are encouraged.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 677, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620029

RESUMO

As many as one in four preschool-aged children are estimated to struggle with psychosocial stress and social-emotional issues; yet, interventions are often postponed until older ages when change is actually more difficult. Reasons for this include limited interventions, paucity of FDA approved medications for young children, as well as the dearth of clinicians adequately trained in psychotherapeutic approaches for young children. This commentary outlines indications of the four most commonly used evidence-based dyadic psychotherapies for young children: Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), used primarily for young children with trauma, and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and Child Parent Relationship Therapy (CPRT), used mostly for children with behavioral issues. Rooted in attachment theory and further supported by the premise that the quality of the child-caregiver dyad is paramount to psychological wellbeing, these therapies focus on strengthening this relationship. Literature indicates that insecure or disorganized early attachments adversely affect an individual's lifelong trajectory. These therapies have demonstrated efficacy leading to positive behavioral changes and improved parent-child interactions. The major challenges of clinical practice focused on young children and their families include proper diagnosis and determining the best therapeutic strategy, especially for families who have not benefited from prior interventions. At this time, it is still unclear which therapy is best indicated for which type of patients and it mostly has been driven by convenience and provider preference or training. Further research is required to tailor treatments more successfully to the child's needs.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 258: 66-73, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional treatments for youth depression, such as antidepressants, have modest efficacy, side effects, and ongoing controversies regarding safety. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), specifically theta burst stimulation (TBS), applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of depression in adults. However, the feasibility and clinical response to TBS for youth depression has yet to be explored. METHODS: Twenty participants between the ages of 16 to 24 years old with MDD were recruited. The intervention consisted of 10 treatment sessions over the course of two weeks, in which participants received intermittent TBS and continuous TBS stimulation to the left and right DLPFC, respectively. Change in the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) score was the primary outcome. Clinical assessments occurred at baseline, after the fifth treatment session, and within a week after treatment completion. RESULTS: Of the twenty participants, eighteen received all TBS sessions, and seventeen completed all clinical assessments. There was a significant reduction in depressive symptoms following treatment completion (p < 0.001). Four of the twenty patients had more than 50% reduction in their depressive symptoms, two of whom achieved remission. All participants received and tolerated at least six daily TBS treatments with no major adverse events. LIMITATIONS: Study was an uncontrolled, open-label design. CONCLUSION: Ten sessions of TBS was feasible, well tolerated, and appeared to have clinical effects for the treatment of depressed youth. Future sham-controlled randomized trials are warranted to validate these findings in a larger cohort of youth depression.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424700

RESUMO

Background: Opioid use is a significant national crisis impacting individuals struggling with addiction and their families. The majority of individuals who abuse opioids are of child-rearing age, and critical knowledge gaps remain regarding how this abuse impacts their offspring. Fortunately, treatment for opioid use disorders is available. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate both physical and psychiatric diagnoses of children who have at least 1 parent participating in a buprenorphine-assisted treatment program. Methods: This retrospective study is based on chart review (January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2018). Children with parents receiving care in a buprenorphine clinic were identified and matched on sex, race, and age in a ratio of 1:5 with controls from the general pediatric clinic population. Data related to health outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Results: Compared to controls (n = 120), children of parents receiving buprenorphine-assisted treatment (n = 24) were more likely to have been born premature (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, P = .035), had jaundice after birth (OR = 2.7, P = .034), had enuresis/encopresis (P < .001), and had been the victims of abuse or neglect (OR = 19.7, P = .0005). Children of parents with opioid use disorders were also more likely to utilize emergency services (ie, being seen in the emergency department for fussiness; OR = 4.0, P = .046) and were less likely to be covered by private insurance compared to state-funded insurance (OR = 0.2, P = .0013). Conclusions: Parental opioid use disorder impacts children. More research is needed to better describe long-term effects of treatment of parental opioid use on their offspring and to help design addiction treatment programs to support whole family units.

8.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 770-781, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207865

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is now widely available for the clinical treatment of depression, but the associated financial and time burdens are problematic for patients. Accelerated TMS (aTMS) protocols address these burdens and attempt to increase the efficiency of standard TMS. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine accelerated TMS studies for depressive disorders in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies with full text publications available in English describing more than one session of TMS (repetitive or theta burst stimulation) per day. Studies describing accelerated TMS protocols for conditions other than depression or alternative neuromodulation methods, preclinical studies, and neurophysiology studies regarding transcranial stimulation were excluded. Eighteen articles describing eleven distinct studies (seven publications described overlapping samples) met eligibility criteria. A Hedges' g effect size and confidence intervals were calculated. The summary analysis of three suitable randomized control trials revealed a cumulative effect size of 0.39 (95% CI 0.005-0.779). A separate analysis including open-label trials and active arms of suitable RCTs revealed a g of 1.27 (95% CI 0.902-1.637). Overall, the meta-analysis suggested that aTMS improves depressive symptom severity. In general, study methodologies were acceptable, but future efforts could enhance sham techniques and blinding.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 29(10): 746-752, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233343

RESUMO

Background: Social media use is now a central aspect of adolescent life and development. Little is known about the clinical implications of social media use in children and adolescents presenting in acute crisis for psychiatric admission. This study sought to compare the potential effects of social media use among middle and high school students on outcomes of psychiatric morbidity. It was hypothesized that among social media users, high school students would have greater psychiatric morbidity compared with middle school students. Methods: The research team extracted clinical and demographic data from adolescents (aged 12-17 years) presenting for acute psychiatric admission who also had documented social media use (N = 56). Educational status, middle school (n = 21) versus high school (n = 35), was examined as an independent variable. Psychotropic medication use, self-injurious behavior, suicide risk, and suicidal ideation were examined as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Results: High school students using social media had significantly greater predicted odds of psychotropic medication use and self-injurious behavior compared with students in middle school who used social media. High school students using social media had greater, although not statistically significant, predicted odds of suicide risk and suicidal ideation compared with middle school students using social media. Conclusions: Social media use is likely an important factor to consider in psychiatric evaluations. The present findings suggest that social media use in high school students is associated with greater psychiatric morbidity compared with middle school students. Further research could illuminate the developmental lines of social media use and age-specific risks.

10.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 22(7): 435-444, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to examine baseline transcranial magnetic stimulation measures of cortical inhibition and excitability in depressed patients and characterize their longitudinal posttreatment changes. METHODS: Fifteen adolescents (age 13-17 years) with moderate to severe major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls (age 9-17) underwent single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and clinical assessments. Transcranial magnetic stimulation measures included short-interval intracortical inhibition (2 and 4 milliseconds), long-interval intracortical inhibition (100, 150, and 200 milliseconds), cortical silent period, and intracortical facilitation (10, 15, and 20 milliseconds). Ten participants with major depressive disorder initiated antidepressant treatment or had dose adjustments. These participants were reassessed after treatment. Depression symptom severity was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised. Robust regression modeling compared healthy and depressed adolescents at baseline. Relationships between changes in cortical inhibition and changes in depressive symptom severity were assessed in the depressed adolescents receiving antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: Our results revealed that at baseline, short-interval intracortical inhibition-2 was significantly reduced (Padj = .01) in depressed participants, suggesting impaired cortical inhibition compared with healthy controls. At follow-up, improvement in Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised scores correlated with improvement in short-interval intracortical inhibition-4 amplitude (greater inhibition) after antidepressant treatment (R2 = 0.63; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cortical inhibition measures may have promise as biomarkers in adolescents treated for depression.

11.
Front Neurol ; 10: 488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133978

RESUMO

Background: We compared resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among limbic and temporal lobe regions between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and healthy control subjects to identify imaging evidence of functional networks related to seizure frequency, age of seizure onset, and duration of epilepsy. Methods: Twelve patients with drug-resistant, unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy and 12 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and handedness participated in the imaging experiments. We used network-based statistics to compare functional connectivity graphs in patients with mTLE and healthy controls to investigate the relationship between functional connectivity abnormalities and seizure frequency. Results: Among mTLE patients, we found functional network abnormalities throughout the limbic system, but primarily in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the seizure focus. The RSFCs between ipsilateral hypothalamus and ventral anterior cingulate cortex and between ipsilateral subiculum and contralateral posterior cingulate cortex were highly correlated with seizure frequency. Discussion: These findings suggest that in mTLE, changes in limbic networks ipsilateral to the epileptic focus are common. The pathological changes in connectivity between cingulate cortex, hypothalamus and subiculum ipsilateral to the seizure focus were correlated with increased seizure frequency.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984044

RESUMO

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in youth and treatment options are limited. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in adolescents and transitional aged youth with treatment resistant MDD. Methods: Thirty-two outpatients with moderate to severe, treatment-resistant MDD, aged 13-21 years underwent a three-week, open-label, single center trial of rTMS (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01731678). rTMS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using neuronavigation and administered for 15 consecutive week days (120% rest motor threshold; 40 pulses over 4 s [10 Hz]; inter-train interval, 26 s; 75 trains; 3,000 pulses). The primary outcome measure was change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). Treatment response was defined as a >50% reduction in Ham-D scores. Safety and tolerability were also examined. Results: rTMS was effective in reducing MDD symptom severity (t = 8.94, df = 31, p < 0.00001). We observed 18 (56%) responders (≥ 50% reduction in Ham-D score) and 14 non-responders to rTMS. Fourteen subjects (44%) achieved remission (Ham-D score ≤ 7 post-rTMS). There were no serious adverse events (i.e., seizures). Mild to moderate, self-limiting headaches (19%) and mild neck pain (16%) were reported. Participants ranked rTMS as highly tolerable. The retention rate was 91% and compliance rate (completing all study events) was 99%. Conclusions: Our single center, open trial suggests that rTMS is a safe and effective treatment for youth with treatment resistant MDD. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01731678.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 110, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846682

RESUMO

Cortical excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalances contribute to various clinical symptoms observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the detailed pathophysiologic underpinning of E/I imbalance remains uncertain. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor-evoked potentials (MEP) are a non-invasive tool for examining cortical inhibition in ASD. Here, we conducted a systematic review on TMS neurophysiology in motor cortex (M1) such as MEPs and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) between individuals with ASD and controls. Out of 538 initial records, we identified six articles. Five studies measured MEP, where four studies measured SICI. There were no differences in MEP amplitudes between the two groups, whereas SICI was likely to be reduced in individuals with ASD compared with controls. Notably, SICI largely reflects GABA(A) receptor-mediated function. Conversely, other magnetic resonance spectroscopy and postmortem methodologies assess GABA levels. The present review demonstrated that there may be neurophysiological deficits in GABA receptor-mediated function in ASD. In conclusion, reduced GABAergic function in the neural circuits could underlie the E/I imbalance in ASD, which may be related to the pathophysiology of clinical symptoms of ASD. Therefore, a novel treatment that targets the neural circuits related to GABA(A) receptor-mediated function in regions involved in the pathophysiology of ASD may be promising.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Inibição Neural , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Humanos , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia
14.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837869

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacogenomic testing, specifically for pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) genetic variation, may contribute to a better understanding of baseline genetic differences in patients seeking treatment for depression, which may further impact clinical antidepressant treatment recommendations. This study evaluated PK and PD genetic variation and the clinical use of such testing in treatment seeking patients with bipolar disorder (BP) and major depressive disorder (MDD) and history of multiple drug failures/treatment resistance. Methods: Consecutive depressed patients evaluated at the Mayo Clinic Depression Center over a 10-year study time frame (2003-2013) were included in this retrospective analysis. Diagnoses of BP or MDD were confirmed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Clinical rating scales included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD24), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questionnaire. Clinically selected patients underwent genotyping of cytochrome P450 CYP2D6/CYP2C19 and the serotonin transporter SLC6A4. PK and PD differences and whether clinicians incorporated test results in providing recommendations were compared between the two patient groups. Results: Of the 1795 patients, 167/523 (31.9%) with BP and 446/1272 (35.1%) with MDD were genotyped. Genotyped patients had significantly higher self-report measures of depression and anxiety compared to non-genotyped patients. There were significantly more CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes in BP (9.3%) vs. MDD patients (1.7%, p = 0.003); among participants with an S-allele, the rate of CYP2C19 PM phenotype was even higher in the BP (9.8%) vs. MDD (0.6%, p = 0.003). There was a significant difference in the distribution of SLC6A4 genotypes between BP (l/l = 28.1%, s/l = 59.3%, s/s = 12.6%) and MDD (l/l = 31.4%, s/l = 46.1%, s/s = 22.7%) patients (p < 0.01). Conclusion: There may be underlying pharmacogenomic differences in treatment seeking depressed patients that potentially have impact on serum levels of CYP2C19 metabolized antidepressants (i.e., citalopram / escitalopram) contributing to rates of efficacy vs. side effect burden with additional potential risk of antidepressant response vs. induced mania. The evidence for utilizing pharmacogenomics-guided therapy in MDD and BP is still developing with a much needed focus on drug safety, side effect burden, and treatment adherence.

15.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 29(4): 250-255, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810350

RESUMO

Objective: To guide clinicians in selecting the "next line" selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for adolescents with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, we sought to compare response rates among SSRIs in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study and to jointly model tolerability and efficacy for the specific SSRI comparisons. Methods: Efficacy and tolerability data for paroxetine, citalopram, and fluoxetine were extracted from the TORDIA study. Using a joint bivariate normal likelihood for response and tolerability (based on the maximum implied variance from the 95% credible intervals previously reported for the three SSRIs), a Monte Carlo pseudorandom sample (100,000 draws) was obtained, from which credible intervals, means, posterior tail probabilities, etc. were determined. Joint null hypotheses of no difference in efficacy and tolerability were then evaluated with regard to superiority of each SSRI over the others. Results: No significant differences in response were observed for citalopram compared with fluoxetine (p = 0.247) or for fluoxetine compared with paroxetine (p = 0.110), although citalopram trended toward being superior to paroxetine (mean difference: 0.2, p = 0.055). For efficacy-tolerability models, citalopram and fluoxetine were superior to paroxetine (p = 0.029 and p = 0.022, respectively) but did not differ between each other (p = 0.146). Conclusions: Joint efficacy-tolerability models suggest that citalopram and fluoxetine were statistically significantly superior to paroxetine while citalopram trended toward superiority over paroxetine in the efficacy model. These findings provide a more granular and practical evidence base for clinicians faced with treatment sequencing decisions in adolescents with SSRI-resistant depression.

16.
Autism ; 23(7): 1614-1629, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663323

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, are common in children and adolescents, but treatment strategies remain limited. Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has been studied for neurodevelopmental disorders, there is no clear consensus on its therapeutic effects. This systematic review examined literature on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders published up to 2018 using the PubMed database. The search identified 264 articles and 14 articles met eligibility criteria. Twelve of these studies used conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and two studies used theta burst stimulation. No severe adverse effects were reported in these studies. In patients with autism spectrum disorder, low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intermittent theta burst stimulation applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may have therapeutic effects on social functioning and repetitive behaviors. In patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may target inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In patients with tic disorders, low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the bilateral supplementary motor area improved tic symptom severity. This systematic review suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising intervention for children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders. The results warrant further large randomized controlled trials of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651753

RESUMO

Background: Between 2009 and 2014, nearly 3% of US children (age ≤ 17 years) lived in households with at least 1 parent with substance use disorder. The present systematic review aimed to evaluate effects of parental opioid use disorder on the parent-child relationship and child developmental and behavioral outcomes. Methods: Several databases were comprehensively searched for studies published from January 1980 through February 2018 that reviewed effects of parental opioid addiction on parent-child relationships and outcomes of children (age, 0-16 years). Results: Of 304 unique studies, 12 evaluated effects of parental opioid addiction on the parent-child relationship as the primary outcome and on children's outcomes, including behaviors and development. Observation of mother-child interaction showed that mothers with opioid use disorders are more irritable, ambivalent, and disinterested while showing greater difficulty interpreting children's cues compared with the control group. Children of parents with opioid use disorders showed greater disorganized attachment; they were less likely to seek contact and more avoidant than children in the control group. The children also had increased risk of emotional and behavioral issues, poor academic performance, and poor social skills. Younger children had increased risk of abuse or neglect, or both, that later in life may lead to such difficulties as unemployment, legal issues, and substance abuse. Conclusions: Current evidence shows association between parental opioid addiction and poorer mother-child attachment and suboptimal child developmental and behavioral outcomes. Further research and treatment targeting children and families with parental opioid use are needed to prevent difficulties later in life.

18.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 28(1): 33-43, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389074

RESUMO

Adolescent depression is a substantial global public health problem that contributes to academic failure, occupational impairment, deficits in social functioning, substance use disorders, teen pregnancy, and completed suicide. Existing treatment options often have suboptimal results and uncertain safety profiles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a promising, brain-based intervention for adolescents with depression. Existing work has methodological weaknesses, and larger, neurodevelopmentally informed studies are urgently needed. Treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation may modulate cortical GABAergic and glutamatergic imbalances. Future study will inform dosing approaches for TMS based on GABAergic and glutamatergic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adolescente , Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública
19.
J Affect Disord ; 244: 21-24, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death among youth. Prior research using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has implicated deficits in GABAergic cortical inhibition in adolescent suicidal behavior, yet no studies have assessed whether cortical inhibition varies over time in conjunction with changes in suicidal ideation (SI). This study examined dynamic changes in long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), a TMS measure of GABAB-mediated inhibition, and their relationship with changes in SI in a small sample of adolescents undergoing pharmacologic treatment for depression. METHODS: Ten depressed adolescents (aged 13-17) underwent clinical assessment and TMS testing at baseline and again at follow-up. All were treated with antidepressant medication in the interim. SI was measured with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) Intensity of Ideation subscale. LICI was measured at interstimulus intervals of 100 and 150 ms. RESULTS: There was a significant partial correlation, controlling for change in depression severity, between ΔLICI-100 and change in SI as measured by ΔC-SSRS (ρ = .746, df = 7, p = .021), which remained after also controlling for time to follow-up assessment (ρ = .752, df = 6, p = .032). No significant correlation was observed between ΔLICI-150 and change in SI. LIMITATIONS: Sample size; variable follow-up interval; inability to control for age, sex, and potential treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: These data offer preliminary signal of an association between increases in GABAB-mediated cortical inhibition and reduction in SI over time in adolescents treated for depression. Further studies are warranted to explore the role of cortical inhibition in adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
20.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 29(1): 34-40, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified (PHQ-9M) is a self-report tool used to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms in teenagers. Despite widespread use in primary care clinics and psychiatric settings, the PHQ-9M has not been validated nor are its psychometric properties adequately understood for the adolescent population. This study sought to examine the psychometrics of the PHQ-9M in treatment-seeking, depressed adolescents at a psychiatric psychopharmacology clinic who were concurrently assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale Revised (CDRS-R) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Adolescent (17-item) Self-Report (QIDS-A17-SR). METHODS: Adolescents (N = 160) aged 13 through 18 years with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder, determined on the basis of a clinical interview and semi-structured interview using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, were assessed for severity of depressive symptoms with the PHQ-9M, CDRS-R (adolescent interview only), and QIDS-A17-SR assessments at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. Classical test theory analysis was used to evaluate the internal consistency and dimensionality of the PHQ-9M. Convergent validity was evaluated via intraclass correlations of the PHQ-9M with the CDRS-R and QIDS-A17-SR. Sensitivity to treatment response was also evaluated. RESULTS: The internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α) at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks was 0.879, 0.859, and 0.827 for the PHQ-9M; 0.739, 0.835, and 0.867 for CDRS-R; and 0.712, 0.777, and 0.804 for QIDS-A17-SR, respectively. The PHQ-9M had moderate convergent validity with the CDRS-R but good convergent validity with the QIDS-A17-SR. The PHQ-9M was less sensitive to changes in symptom severity than the CDRS-R and QIDS-A17-SR. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9M appears to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for the severity of depressive symptoms in a psychiatric clinic setting. However, its utility as a treatment outcome measure may be limited compared with other available rating scales.

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