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Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210


Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.

Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , California , Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Metano/química , Metano/metabolismo , Gás Natural , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/métodos , Petróleo , Águas Residuárias
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 54(1): 8-23, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14871009


The Coordinating Research Council held its thirteenth Vehicle Emissions Workshop in April 2003, when results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. Ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories is summarized here. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, the role of on-board diagnostic systems in inspection and maintenance programs, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research.

Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Cooperação Internacional , Veículos Automotores , Óleos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(7): 876-88, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12880074


This paper analyzes day-of-week variations in concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in California. Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are not only precursors of ozone (O3) but also of secondary PM, it is useful to know whether the variations by day of week in these precursors are also evident in PM data. Concentrations of PM < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were analyzed. PM concentrations exhibit a general weekly pattern, with the maximum occurring late in the workweek and the minimum occurring on weekends (especially Sunday); however, this pattern does not prevail at all sites and areas. PM nitrate (NO3-) data from Size Selective Inlet (SSI) samplers in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) tend to be somewhat lower on weekends compared with weekdays. During 1988-1991, the weekend average was lower than the weekday average at 8 of 13 locations, with an average decrease of 1%. During 1997-2000, the weekend average was lower than the weekday average at 10 of 13 locations, with an average decrease of 6%. The weekend averages are generally lower than weekday averages for sulfates, organic carbon, and elemental carbon. Because heavy-duty trucks typically represent a major source of elemental carbon, the weekend decrease in heavy-duty truck traffic may also result in a decrease in ambient elemental carbon concentrations.

Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Emissões de Veículos/análise
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(12): 1509-16, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14700137


It will be many years before the recently deployed network of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers produces information on nonattainment areas, trends, and source impacts. However, data on PM2.5 and its major constituents have been routinely collected in California for the past 20 years. The California Air Resources Board operated as many as 20 dichotomous (dichot) samplers for PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5). The California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (CADMP) collected 12-h-average PM2.5 and PM10 from 1988 to 1995 at ten urban and rural sites and 24-h-average PM2.5 at five urban sites since 1995. Beginning in 1994, the Children's Health Study collected 2-week averages of PM2.5 in 12 communities in southern California using the Two-Week Sampler (TWS). Comparisons of collocated samples establish relationships between the dichot, CADMP, and TWS samplers and the 82-site network of PM2.5 FRM samplers deployed since 1999 in California. PM mass data from the different monitoring programs have modest to high correlation to FRM mass data, fairly small systematic biases and negative proportional biases ranging from 7 to 22%. If the biases are taken into account, all of the programs should be considered comparable with the FRM program. Thus, historical data can be used to develop long-term PM trends in California.

Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , California , Redes Comunitárias , Meio Ambiente , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(12): 1517-30, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14700138


Geographic and temporal variations in the concentration and composition of particulate matter (PM) provide important insights into particle sources, atmospheric processes that influence particle formation, and PM management strategies. In the nonurban areas of California, annual-average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations range from 3 to 10 microg/m3 and from 5 to 18 microg/m3, respectively. In the urban areas of California, annual-averages for PM2.5 range from 7 to 30 microg/m3, with observed 24-hr peaks reaching levels as high as 160 microg/m3. Within each air basin, exceedances are a mixture of isolated events as well as periods of elevated PM2.5 concentrations that are more prolonged and regional in nature. PM2.5 concentrations are generally highest during the winter months. The exception is the South Coast Air Basin, where fairly high values occur throughout the year. Annual-average PM2.5 mass, as well as the concentrations of major components, declined from 1988 to 2000. The declines are especially pronounced for the sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nitrate (NO3-) components of PM2.5 and PM10) and correlate with reductions in ambient levels of oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Annual averages for PM10-2.5 and PM10 exhibited similar downwind trends from 1994 to 1999, with a slightly less pronounced decrease in the coarse fraction.

Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis , California , Poeira , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Volatilização