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1.
Nature ; 575(7781): 180-184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695210

RESUMO

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is targeted for emissions mitigation by the US state of California and other jurisdictions worldwide1,2. Unique opportunities for mitigation are presented by point-source emitters-surface features or infrastructure components that are typically less than 10 metres in diameter and emit plumes of highly concentrated methane3. However, data on point-source emissions are sparse and typically lack sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to guide their mitigation and to accurately assess their magnitude4. Here we survey more than 272,000 infrastructure elements in California using an airborne imaging spectrometer that can rapidly map methane plumes5-7. We conduct five campaigns over several months from 2016 to 2018, spanning the oil and gas, manure-management and waste-management sectors, resulting in the detection, geolocation and quantification of emissions from 564 strong methane point sources. Our remote sensing approach enables the rapid and repeated assessment of large areas at high spatial resolution for a poorly characterized population of methane emitters that often appear intermittently and stochastically. We estimate net methane point-source emissions in California to be 0.618 teragrams per year (95 per cent confidence interval 0.523-0.725), equivalent to 34-46 per cent of the state's methane inventory8 for 2016. Methane 'super-emitter' activity occurs in every sector surveyed, with 10 per cent of point sources contributing roughly 60 per cent of point-source emissions-consistent with a study of the US Four Corners region that had a different sectoral mix9. The largest methane emitters in California are a subset of landfills, which exhibit persistent anomalous activity. Methane point-source emissions in California are dominated by landfills (41 per cent), followed by dairies (26 per cent) and the oil and gas sector (26 per cent). Our data have enabled the identification of the 0.2 per cent of California's infrastructure that is responsible for these emissions. Sharing these data with collaborating infrastructure operators has led to the mitigation of anomalous methane-emission activity10.

2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357

RESUMO

California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(6): 2961-2970, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821440

RESUMO

Rapid increase in atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratios over the past century is attributable to the intensification of human activities. Information on spatially explicit source contributions is needed to develop efficient and cost-effective CH4 emission reduction and mitigation strategies to addresses near-term climate change. This study collected long-term ambient CH4 measurements at Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) in Los Angeles, California, to estimate the annual CH4 emissions from the portion of Los Angeles County that is within the South Coast Air Basin (SCLA). The measurement-based CH4 emission estimates for SCLA ranged from 3.95 to 4.89 million metric tons (MMT) carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per year between 2012 and 2016. Source apportionment of CH4, CO, CO2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements were used to evaluate source categories that contributed to ambient CH4 mixing ratio enhancements (ΔCH4) at SCLA between 2014 and 2016. Results suggested ΔCH4 contributions of 56-79% from natural gas sources, 7-31% from landfills, and 4-15% from transportation sources. The SCLA-specific CH4 emission estimate made using a research grade gridded CH4 emission inventory suggested contributions of 47% from natural gas sources and 50% from landfills. Subsequent airborne measurements determined that CH4 emissions from two major CH4 sources in SCLA were significantly smaller in magnitude than previously thought. This study highlights the importance of studying the variabilities of CH4 emissions across California for policy makers and stakeholders alike.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Los Angeles , Gás Natural
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(19): 11329-39, 2015 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340590

RESUMO

After initiating a toxic air contaminant (TAC) identification and control program in 1984, the California Air Resources Board adopted regulations to reduce TAC emissions from cars, trucks, stationary sources, and consumer products. This study quantifies ambient concentration and emission trends for the period 1990-2012 for seven TACs that are responsible for most of the known cancer risk associated with airborne exposure in California. Of these seven, diesel particulate matter (DPM) is the most important; however DPM is not measured directly. Based on a novel surrogate method, DPM concentrations declined 68%, even though the state's population increased 31%, diesel vehicle-miles-traveled increased 81%, and the gross state product (GSP) increased 74%. Based on monitoring data, concentrations of benzene, 1,3-butadiene, perchloroethylene, and hexavalent chromium declined 88-94%. Also, the ambient and emissions trends for each of these four TACs were similar. Furthermore, these declines generally occurred earlier in California than elsewhere. However, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are formed in the air photochemically from volatile organic compounds (VOCs), declined only 20-21%. The collective cancer risk from exposure to these seven reviewed TACs declined 76%. Significant reduction in cancer risk to California residents from implementation of air toxics controls (especially for DPM) is expected to continue.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(2): 1084-93, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24328112

RESUMO

To provide information for greenhouse gas reduction policies, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventories annual emissions of high-global-warming potential (GWP) fluorinated gases, the fastest growing sector of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Baseline 2008 F-gas emissions estimates for selected chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC-22), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC-134a) made with an inventory-based methodology were compared to emissions estimates made by ambient-based measurements. Significant discrepancies were found, with the inventory-based emissions methodology resulting in a systematic 42% under-estimation of CFC-12 emissions from older refrigeration equipment and older vehicles, and a systematic 114% overestimation of emissions for HFC-134a, a refrigerant substitute for phased-out CFCs. Initial, inventory-based estimates for all F-gas emissions had assumed that equipment is no longer in service once it reaches its average lifetime of use. Revised emission estimates using improved models for equipment age at end-of-life, inventories, and leak rates specific to California resulted in F-gas emissions estimates in closer agreement to ambient-based measurements. The discrepancies between inventory-based estimates and ambient-based measurements were reduced from -42% to -6% for CFC-12, and from +114% to +9% for HFC-134a.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gases/análise , Aquecimento Global , Halogenação , California
6.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 71(9-10): 588-698, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18569631

RESUMO

This guidance document is a reference for air quality policymakers and managers providing state-of-the-art, evidence-based information on key determinants of air quality management decisions. The document reflects the findings of five annual meetings of the NERAM (Network for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management) International Colloquium Series on Air Quality Management (2001-2006), as well as the results of supporting international research. The topics covered in the guidance document reflect critical science and policy aspects of air quality risk management including i) health effects, ii) air quality emissions, measurement and modeling, iii) air quality management interventions, and iv) clean air policy challenges and opportunities.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 54(1): 8-23, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14871009

RESUMO

The Coordinating Research Council held its thirteenth Vehicle Emissions Workshop in April 2003, when results of the most recent on-road vehicle emissions research were presented. Ongoing work from researchers who are engaged in improving understanding of the contribution of mobile sources to ambient air quality and emission inventories is summarized here. Participants in the workshop discussed efforts to improve mobile source emission models, the role of on-board diagnostic systems in inspection and maintenance programs, light- and heavy-duty vehicle emissions measurements, on- and off-road emissions measurements, effects of fuels and lubricating oils on emissions, as well as topics for future research.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Cooperação Internacional , Veículos Automotores , Óleos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
8.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(7): 876-88, 2003 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12880074

RESUMO

This paper analyzes day-of-week variations in concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in California. Because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are not only precursors of ozone (O3) but also of secondary PM, it is useful to know whether the variations by day of week in these precursors are also evident in PM data. Concentrations of PM < or = 10 microm (PM10) and < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) were analyzed. PM concentrations exhibit a general weekly pattern, with the maximum occurring late in the workweek and the minimum occurring on weekends (especially Sunday); however, this pattern does not prevail at all sites and areas. PM nitrate (NO3-) data from Size Selective Inlet (SSI) samplers in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) tend to be somewhat lower on weekends compared with weekdays. During 1988-1991, the weekend average was lower than the weekday average at 8 of 13 locations, with an average decrease of 1%. During 1997-2000, the weekend average was lower than the weekday average at 10 of 13 locations, with an average decrease of 6%. The weekend averages are generally lower than weekday averages for sulfates, organic carbon, and elemental carbon. Because heavy-duty trucks typically represent a major source of elemental carbon, the weekend decrease in heavy-duty truck traffic may also result in a decrease in ambient elemental carbon concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Emissões de Veículos/análise
9.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(12): 1509-16, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14700137

RESUMO

It will be many years before the recently deployed network of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers produces information on nonattainment areas, trends, and source impacts. However, data on PM2.5 and its major constituents have been routinely collected in California for the past 20 years. The California Air Resources Board operated as many as 20 dichotomous (dichot) samplers for PM2.5 and coarse PM (PM10-2.5). The California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program (CADMP) collected 12-h-average PM2.5 and PM10 from 1988 to 1995 at ten urban and rural sites and 24-h-average PM2.5 at five urban sites since 1995. Beginning in 1994, the Children's Health Study collected 2-week averages of PM2.5 in 12 communities in southern California using the Two-Week Sampler (TWS). Comparisons of collocated samples establish relationships between the dichot, CADMP, and TWS samplers and the 82-site network of PM2.5 FRM samplers deployed since 1999 in California. PM mass data from the different monitoring programs have modest to high correlation to FRM mass data, fairly small systematic biases and negative proportional biases ranging from 7 to 22%. If the biases are taken into account, all of the programs should be considered comparable with the FRM program. Thus, historical data can be used to develop long-term PM trends in California.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , California , Redes Comunitárias , Meio Ambiente , Tamanho da Partícula , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 53(12): 1517-30, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14700138

RESUMO

Geographic and temporal variations in the concentration and composition of particulate matter (PM) provide important insights into particle sources, atmospheric processes that influence particle formation, and PM management strategies. In the nonurban areas of California, annual-average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations range from 3 to 10 microg/m3 and from 5 to 18 microg/m3, respectively. In the urban areas of California, annual-averages for PM2.5 range from 7 to 30 microg/m3, with observed 24-hr peaks reaching levels as high as 160 microg/m3. Within each air basin, exceedances are a mixture of isolated events as well as periods of elevated PM2.5 concentrations that are more prolonged and regional in nature. PM2.5 concentrations are generally highest during the winter months. The exception is the South Coast Air Basin, where fairly high values occur throughout the year. Annual-average PM2.5 mass, as well as the concentrations of major components, declined from 1988 to 2000. The declines are especially pronounced for the sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nitrate (NO3-) components of PM2.5 and PM10) and correlate with reductions in ambient levels of oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Annual averages for PM10-2.5 and PM10 exhibited similar downwind trends from 1994 to 1999, with a slightly less pronounced decrease in the coarse fraction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis , California , Poeira , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Volatilização
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