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1.
Nature ; 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961296

RESUMO

One-dimensional (1D) interacting electrons are often described as a Luttinger liquid1-4 having properties that are intrinsically different from those of Fermi liquids in higher dimensions5,6. In materials systems, 1D electrons exhibit exotic quantum phenomena that can be tuned by both intra- and inter-1D-chain electronic interactions, but their experimental characterization can be challenging. Here we demonstrate that layer-stacking domain walls (DWs) in van der Waals heterostructures form a broadly tunable Luttinger liquid system, including both isolated and coupled arrays. We have imaged the evolution of DW Luttinger liquids under different interaction regimes tuned by electron density using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Single DWs at low carrier density are highly susceptible to Wigner crystallization consistent with a spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid, whereas at intermediate densities dimerized Wigner crystals form because of an enhanced magneto-elastic coupling. Periodic arrays of DWs exhibit an interplay between intra- and inter-chain interactions that gives rise to new quantum phases. At low electron densities, inter-chain interactions are dominant and induce a 2D electron crystal composed of phased-locked 1D Wigner crystal in a staggered configuration. Increased electron density causes intra-chain fluctuation potentials to dominate, leading to an electronic smectic liquid crystal phase in which electrons are ordered with algebraical correlation decay along the chain direction but disordered between chains. Our work shows that layer-stacking DWs in 2D heterostructures provides opportunities to explore Luttinger liquid physics.

2.
Nano Lett ; 24(28): 8535-8541, 2024 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968422

RESUMO

Polymorph engineering involves the manipulation of material properties through controlled structural modification and is a candidate technique for creating unique two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) nanodevices. Despite its promise, polymorph engineering of magnetic TMDC monolayers has not yet been demonstrated. Here we grow FeSe2 monolayers via molecular beam epitaxy and find that they have great promise for magnetic polymorph engineering. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS), we find that FeSe2 monolayers predominantly display a 1T' structural polymorph at 5 K. Application of voltage pulses from an STM tip causes a local, reversible transition from the 1T' phase to the 1T phase. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this single-layer structural phase transition is accompanied by a magnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic configuration. These results open new possibilities for creating functional magnetic devices with TMDC monolayers via polymorph engineering.

3.
Science ; 385(6704): 86-91, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963852

RESUMO

Semiconductor moiré superlattices provide a versatile platform to engineer quantum solids composed of artificial atoms on moiré sites. Previous studies have mostly focused on the simplest correlated quantum solid-the Fermi-Hubbard model-in which intra-atom interactions are simplified to a single onsite repulsion energy U. Here we report the experimental observation of Wigner molecular crystals emerging from multielectron artificial atoms in twisted bilayer tungsten disulfide moiré superlattices. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that Wigner molecules appear in multielectron artificial atoms when Coulomb interactions dominate. The array of Wigner molecules observed in a moiré superlattice comprises a crystalline phase of electrons: the Wigner molecular crystal, which is shown to be highly tunable through mechanical strain, moiré period, and carrier charge type.

4.
Nano Lett ; 24(23): 6838-6843, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825784

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices, constituted by two-dimensional materials, demonstrate a variety of strongly correlated and topological phenomena including correlated insulators, superconductivity, and integer/fractional Chern insulators. In the realm of topological nontrivial Chern insulators within specific moiré superlattices, previous studies usually observe a single Chern number at a given filling factor in a device. Here we present the observation of gate-tunable Chern numbers within the Chern insulator state of an ABC-stacked trilayer graphene/hexagonal boron nitride moiré superlattice device. Near quarter filling, the moiré superlattice exhibits spontaneous valley polarization and distinct ferromagnetism associated with the Chern insulator states over a range of the displacement field. Surprisingly we find a transition of the Chern number from C = 3 to 4 as the displacement field is increased. Our observation of gate-tunable correlated Chern insulators suggests new ways to control and manipulate topological states in a moiré superlattice device.

5.
Nature ; 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926584

RESUMO

Phonon engineering at gigahertz frequencies forms the foundation of microwave acoustic filters1, acousto-optic modulators2 and quantum transducers3,4. Terahertz phonon engineering could lead to acoustic filters and modulators at higher bandwidth and speed, as well as quantum circuits operating at higher temperatures. Despite their potential, methods for engineering terahertz phonons have been limited due to the challenges of achieving the required material control at subnanometre precision and efficient phonon coupling at terahertz frequencies. Here we demonstrate the efficient generation, detection and manipulation of terahertz phonons through precise integration of atomically thin layers in van der Waals heterostructures. We used few-layer graphene as an ultrabroadband phonon transducer that converts femtosecond near-infrared pulses to acoustic-phonon pulses with spectral content up to 3 THz. A monolayer WSe2 is used as a sensor. The high-fidelity readout was enabled by the exciton-phonon coupling and strong light-matter interactions. By combining these capabilities in a single heterostructure and detecting responses to incident mechanical waves, we performed terahertz phononic spectroscopy. Using this platform, we demonstrate high-Q terahertz phononic cavities and show that a WSe2 monolayer embedded in hexagonal boron nitride can efficiently block the transmission of terahertz phonons. By comparing our measurements to a nanomechanical model, we obtained the force constants at the heterointerfaces. Our results could enable terahertz phononic metamaterials for ultrabroadband acoustic filters and modulators and could open new routes for thermal engineering.

6.
Nano Lett ; 24(20): 5937-5943, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712885

RESUMO

Advanced microelectronics in the future may require semiconducting channel materials beyond silicon. Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, with their atomically thin thickness, hold great promise for future electronic devices. One challenge to achieving high-performance 2D semiconductor field effect transistors (FET) is the high contact resistance at the metal-semiconductor interface. In this study, we develop a charge-transfer doping strategy with WSe2/α-RuCl3 heterostructures to achieve low-resistance ohmic contact for p-type monolayer WSe2 transistors. We show that hole doping as high as 3 × 1013 cm-2 can be achieved in the WSe2/α-RuCl3 heterostructure due to its type-III band alignment, resulting in an ohmic contact with resistance of 4 kΩ µm. Based on that, we demonstrate p-type WSe2 transistors with an on-current of 35 µA·µm-1 and an ION/IOFF ratio exceeding 109 at room temperature.

7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3828, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714653

RESUMO

Stabilization of topological spin textures in layered magnets has the potential to drive the development of advanced low-dimensional spintronics devices. However, achieving reliable and flexible manipulation of the topological spin textures beyond skyrmion in a two-dimensional magnet system remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the introduction of magnetic iron atoms between the van der Waals gap of a layered magnet, Fe3GaTe2, to modify local anisotropic magnetic interactions. Consequently, we present direct observations of the order-disorder skyrmion lattices transition. In addition, non-trivial topological solitons, such as skyrmioniums and skyrmion bags, are realized at room temperature. Our work highlights the influence of random spin control of non-trivial topological spin textures.

8.
Science ; 384(6698): 895-901, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781380

RESUMO

The covalent interaction of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with transition metal atoms gives rise to distinctive frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs). These emergent electronic states have spurred the widespread adoption of NHC ligands in chemical catalysis and functional materials. Although formation of carbene-metal complexes in self-assembled monolayers on surfaces has been explored, design and electronic structure characterization of extended low-dimensional NHC-metal lattices remains elusive. Here we demonstrate a modular approach to engineering one-dimensional (1D) metal-organic chains and two-dimensional (2D) Kagome lattices using the FMOs of NHC-Au-NHC junctions to create low-dimensional molecular networks exhibiting intrinsic metallicity. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory reveal the contribution of C-Au-C π-bonding states to dispersive bands that imbue 1D- and 2D-NHC lattices with exceptionally small work functions.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(23): 15879-15886, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813680

RESUMO

The integration of low-energy states into bottom-up engineered graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a robust strategy for realizing materials with tailored electronic band structure for nanoelectronics. Low-energy zero-modes (ZMs) can be introduced into nanographenes (NGs) by creating an imbalance between the two sublattices of graphene. This phenomenon is exemplified by the family of [n]triangulenes (n ∈ N). Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of [3]triangulene-GNRs, a regioregular one-dimensional (1D) chain of [3]triangulenes linked by five-membered rings. Hybridization between ZMs on adjacent [3]triangulenes leads to the emergence of a narrow band gap, Eg,exp ∼ 0.7 eV, and topological end states that are experimentally verified using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Tight-binding and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the local density approximation corroborate our experimental observations. Our synthetic design takes advantage of a selective on-surface head-to-tail coupling of monomer building blocks enabling the regioselective synthesis of [3]triangulene-GNRs. Detailed ab initio theory provides insights into the mechanism of on-surface radical polymerization, revealing the pivotal role of Au-C bond formation/breakage in driving selectivity.

10.
Nano Converg ; 11(1): 14, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622355

RESUMO

Tunability of interfacial effects between two-dimensional (2D) crystals is crucial not only for understanding the intrinsic properties of each system, but also for designing electronic devices based on ultra-thin heterostructures. A prerequisite of such heterostructure engineering is the availability of 2D crystals with different degrees of interfacial interactions. In this work, we report a controlled epitaxial growth of monolayer TaSe2 with different structural phases, 1H and 1 T, on a bilayer graphene (BLG) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy, and its impact on the electronic properties of the heterostructures using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. 1H-TaSe2 exhibits significant charge transfer and band hybridization at the interface, whereas 1 T-TaSe2 shows weak interactions with the substrate. The distinct interfacial interactions are attributed to the dual effects from the differences of the work functions as well as the relative interlayer distance between TaSe2 films and BLG substrate. The method demonstrated here provides a viable route towards interface engineering in a variety of transition-metal dichalcogenides that can be applied to future nano-devices with designed electronic properties.

11.
Rep Prog Phys ; 87(4)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518359

RESUMO

Charge density wave (CDW is one of the most ubiquitous electronic orders in quantum materials. While the essential ingredients of CDW order have been extensively studied, a comprehensive microscopic understanding is yet to be reached. Recent research efforts on the CDW phenomena in two-dimensional (2D) materials provide a new pathway toward a deeper understanding of its complexity. This review provides an overview of the CDW orders in 2D with atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) as the materials platform. We mainly focus on the electronic structure investigations on the epitaxially grown TMDC samples with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy as complementary experimental tools. We discuss the possible origins of the 2D CDW, novel quantum states coexisting with them, and exotic types of charge orders that can only be realized in the 2D limit.

12.
Small ; : e2400473, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412424

RESUMO

Carbon-based quantum dots (QDs) enable flexible manipulation of electronic behavior at the nanoscale, but controlling their magnetic properties requires atomically precise structural control. While magnetism is observed in organic molecules and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), GNR precursors enabling bottom-up fabrication of QDs with various spin ground states have not yet been reported. Here the development of a new GNR precursor that results in magnetic QD structures embedded in semiconducting GNRs is reported. Inserting one such molecule into the GNR backbone and graphitizing it results in a QD region hosting one unpaired electron. QDs composed of two precursor molecules exhibit nonmagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or antiferromagnetic ground states, depending on the structural details that determine the coupling behavior of the spins originating from each molecule. The synthesis of these QDs and the emergence of localized states are demonstrated through high-resolution atomic force microscopy (HR-AFM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging, and spectroscopy, and the relationship between QD atomic structure and magnetic properties is uncovered. GNR QDs provide a useful platform for controlling the spin-degree of freedom in carbon-based nanostructures.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 19(5): 618-623, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286875

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenide-based moiré superlattices exhibit strong electron-electron correlations, thus giving rise to strongly correlated quantum phenomena such as generalized Wigner crystal states. Evidence of Wigner crystals in transition metal dichalcogenide moire superlattices has been widely reported from various optical spectroscopy and electrical conductivity measurements, while their microscopic nature has been limited to the basic lattice structure. Theoretical studies predict that unusual quasiparticle excitations across the correlated gap between upper and lower Hubbard bands can arise due to long-range Coulomb interactions in generalized Wigner crystal states. However, the microscopic proof of such quasiparticle excitations is challenging because of the low excitation energy of the Wigner crystal. Here we describe a scanning single-electron charging spectroscopy technique with nanometre spatial resolution and single-electron charge resolution that enables us to directly image electron and hole wavefunctions and to determine the thermodynamic gap of generalized Wigner crystal states in twisted WS2 moiré heterostructures. High-resolution scanning single-electron charging spectroscopy combines scanning tunnelling microscopy with a monolayer graphene sensing layer, thus enabling the generation of individual electron and hole quasiparticles in generalized Wigner crystals. We show that electron and hole quasiparticles have complementary wavefunction distributions and that thermodynamic gaps of ∼50 meV exist for the 1/3 and 2/3 generalized Wigner crystal states in twisted WS2.

14.
Nat Mater ; 23(5): 633-638, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172545

RESUMO

Moiré superlattices provide a highly tuneable and versatile platform to explore novel quantum phases and exotic excited states ranging from correlated insulators to moiré excitons. Scanning tunnelling microscopy has played a key role in probing microscopic behaviours of the moiré correlated ground states at the atomic scale. However, imaging of quantum excited states in moiré heterostructures remains an outstanding challenge. Here we develop a photocurrent tunnelling microscopy technique that combines laser excitation and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly visualize the electron and hole distribution within the photoexcited moiré exciton in twisted bilayer WS2. The tunnelling photocurrent alternates between positive and negative polarities at different locations within a single moiré unit cell. This alternating photocurrent originates from the in-plane charge transfer moiré exciton in twisted bilayer WS2, predicted by our GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations, that emerges from the competition between the electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the moiré potential landscape. Our technique enables the exploration of photoexcited non-equilibrium moiré phenomena at the atomic scale.

15.
Adv Mater ; 36(9): e2308555, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016700

RESUMO

2D layered materials with broken inversion symmetry are being extensively pursued as  spin source layers to realize high-efficiency magnetic switching. Such low-symmetry layered systems are, however, scarce. In addition, most layered magnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy show a low Curie temperature. Here, the experimental observation of spin-orbit torque magnetization self-switching at room temperature in a layered polar ferromagnetic metal, Fe2.5 Co2.5 GeTe2 is reported. The spin-orbit torque is generated from the broken inversion symmetry along the c-axis of the crystal. These results provide a direct pathway toward applicable 2D spintronic devices.

16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 8264, 2023 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092731

RESUMO

Coupled two-dimensional electron-hole bilayers provide a unique platform to study strongly correlated Bose-Fermi mixtures in condensed matter. Electrons and holes in spatially separated layers can bind to form interlayer excitons, composite Bosons expected to support high-temperature exciton condensates. The interlayer excitons can also interact strongly with excess charge carriers when electron and hole densities are unequal. Here, we use optical spectroscopy to quantitatively probe the local thermodynamic properties of strongly correlated electron-hole fluids in MoSe2/hBN/WSe2 heterostructures. We observe a discontinuity in the electron and hole chemical potentials at matched electron and hole densities, a definitive signature of an excitonic insulator ground state. The excitonic insulator is stable up to a Mott density of ~0.8 × 1012 cm-2 and has a thermal ionization temperature of ~70 K. The density dependence of the electron, hole, and exciton chemical potentials reveals strong correlation effects across the phase diagram. Compared with a non-interacting uniform charge distribution, the correlation effects lead to significant attractive exciton-exciton and exciton-charge interactions in the electron-hole fluid. Our work highlights the unique quantum behavior that can emerge in strongly correlated electron-hole systems.

17.
ACS Nano ; 17(24): 24901-24909, 2023 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38051766

RESUMO

The low-energy electronic structure of nanographenes can be tuned through zero-energy π-electron states, typically referred to as zero-modes. Customizable electronic and magnetic structures have been engineered by coupling zero-modes through exchange and hybridization interactions. Manipulation of the energy of such states, however, has not yet received significant attention. We find that attaching a five-membered ring to a zigzag edge hosting a zero-mode perturbs the energy of that mode and turns it into an off-zero mode: a localized state with a distinctive electron-accepting character. Whereas the end states of typical 7-atom-wide armchair graphene nanoribbons (7-AGNRs) lose their electrons when physisorbed on Au(111) (due to its high work function), converting them into off-zero modes by introducing cyclopentadienyl five-membered rings allows them to retain their single-electron occupation. This approach enables the magnetic properties of 7-AGNR end states to be explored using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on a gold substrate. We find a gradual decrease of the magnetic coupling between off-zero mode end states as a function of GNR length, and evolution from a more closed-shell to a more open-shell ground state.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(35): 19338-19346, 2023 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37611208

RESUMO

Substitutional heteroatom doping of bottom-up engineered 1D graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is a versatile tool for realizing low-dimensional functional materials for nanoelectronics and sensing. Previous efforts have largely relied on replacing C-H groups lining the edges of GNRs with trigonal planar N atoms. This type of atomically precise doping, however, only results in a modest realignment of the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) energies. Here, we report the design, bottom-up synthesis, and spectroscopic characterization of nitrogen core-doped 5-atom-wide armchair GNRs (N2-5-AGNRs) that yield much greater energy-level shifting of the GNR electronic structure. Here, the substitution of C atoms with N atoms along the backbone of the GNR introduces a single surplus π-electron per dopant that populates the electronic states associated with previously unoccupied bands. First-principles DFT-LDA calculations confirm that a sizable shift in Fermi energy (∼1.0 eV) is accompanied by a broad reconfiguration of the band structure, including the opening of a new band gap and the transition from a direct to an indirect semiconducting band gap. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) lift-off charge transport experiments corroborate the theoretical results and reveal the relationship among substitutional heteroatom doping, Fermi-level shifting, electronic band structure, and topological engineering for this new N-doped GNR.

19.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3595, 2023 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37328471

RESUMO

In recent years, correlated insulating states, unconventional superconductivity, and topologically non-trivial phases have all been observed in several moiré heterostructures. However, understanding of the physical mechanisms behind these phenomena is hampered by the lack of local electronic structure data. Here, we use scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy to demonstrate how the interplay between correlation, topology, and local atomic structure determines the behaviour of electron-doped twisted monolayer-bilayer graphene. Through gate- and magnetic field-dependent measurements, we observe local spectroscopic signatures indicating a quantum anomalous Hall insulating state with a total Chern number of ±2 at a doping level of three electrons per moiré unit cell. We show that the sign of the Chern number and associated magnetism can be electrostatically switched only over a limited range of twist angle and sample hetero-strain values. This results from a competition between the orbital magnetization of filled bulk bands and chiral edge states, which is sensitive to strain-induced distortions in the moiré superlattice.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Grafite , Análise Espectral , Campos Magnéticos , Microscopia de Tunelamento
20.
Adv Mater ; 35(39): e2300542, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37317869

RESUMO

Solid-liquid phase transitions are basic physical processes, but atomically resolved microscopy has yet to capture their full dynamics. A new technique is developed for controlling the melting and freezing of self-assembled molecular structures on a graphene field-effect transistor (FET) that allows phase-transition behavior to be imaged using atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy. This is achieved by applying electric fields to 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane-decorated FETs to induce reversible transitions between molecular solid and liquid phases at the FET surface. Nonequilibrium melting dynamics are visualized by rapidly heating the graphene substrate with an electrical current and imaging the resulting evolution toward new 2D equilibrium states. An analytical model is developed that explains observed mixed-state phases based on spectroscopic measurement of solid and liquid molecular energy levels. The observed nonequilibrium melting dynamics are consistent with Monte Carlo simulations.

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