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1.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-11, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the sources of variation in the use of high-cost technologies is important for developing effective strategies to control costs of care. Palliative radiation therapy (RT) is a discretionary treatment and its use may vary based on patient and clinician factors. METHODS: Using data from the SEER-Medicare linked database, we identified patients diagnosed with metastatic lung, prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers in 2010 through 2015 who received RT, and the radiation oncologists who treated them. The costs of radiation services for each patient over a 90-day episode were calculated, and radiation oncologists were assigned to cost quintiles. The use of advanced technologies (eg, intensity-modulated radiation, stereotactic RT) and the number of RT treatments (eg, any site, bone only) were identified. Multivariable random-effects models were constructed to estimate the proportion of variation in the use of advanced technologies and extended fractionation (>10 fractions) that could be explained by patient fixed effects versus physician random effects. RESULTS: We identified 37,361 patients with metastatic lung cancer, 3,684 with metastatic breast cancer, 5,323 with metastatic prostate cancer, and 8,726 with metastatic colorectal cancer, with 34%, 27%, 22%, and 9% receiving RT within the first year, respectively. The use of advanced technologies and extended fractionation was associated with higher costs of care. Compared with the patient case-mix, physician variation accounted for a larger proportion of the variation in the use of advanced technologies for palliative RT and the use of extended fractionation. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in radiation oncologists' practice and choices, rather than differences in patient case-mix, accounted for a greater proportion of the variation in the use of advanced technologies and high-cost radiation services.

2.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(2): e14808, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491259

RESUMO

To compare drug survival of ixekizumab to other IL-17 inhibitors (IL-17i) and TNF inhibitors (TNFi) among patients with psoriasis (PsO) in a real-world setting. Participants included adult PsO patients enrolled in the Corrona Psoriasis Registry who initiated ixekizumab, TNFi, or other IL-17i between 16 March 2016 to 10 August 2019 and completed ≥1 follow-up visit. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to estimate the risk for drug discontinuation in the ixekizumab group relative to the other drugs. Among the 1604 drug initiations, 552 initiated ixekizumab, 450 initiated TNFi, and 602 initiated other IL-17i. Mean age was 51 years, 49% were women, and 52% were obese (BMI > 30). Ixekizumab patients had a higher proportion of patients with PASI >12 at drug initiation (24%) than TNFi (15%) and other IL-17i (19%). Over a median of 11 months of follow-up, 723/1604 (45%) drug discontinuations occurred. Persistence of ixekizumab, TNFi, and other IL-17i at 24-months were 68%, 33%, and 46%, among biologic-naïve patients (n = 543), and 46%, 23%, and 36%, for biologic-experienced patients (n = 1061), respectively. Ixekizumab patients had a 64% lower risk of discontinuation vs TNFi (HR = 0.36; 95% CI 0.27-0.47) and a 31% lower risk vs other IL-17i (HR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.87) after adjustment for biologic experience and other covariates. HRs were similar when limited to patients with moderate-to-severe PsO (BSA > 3, PASI > 3, and IGA > 1, n = 1076) at initiation. In our study of real-world patients with PsO, initiators of ixekizumab had more prolonged drug survival than both initiators of TNFi and other IL-17i up to 2 years of follow-up.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475970

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Data on the characteristics of apremilast patients in real-world settings are limited. We assessed the demographics and disease characteristics of apremilast-treated patients in the Corrona Psoriasis Registry overall and by treatment history. METHODS: The Corrona Psoriasis Registry is a large, independent, prospective, observational registry of adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) who initiate an eligible systemic medication for treatment of psoriasis at or after enrollment (incident users) or within 12 months before enrollment (prevalent users). The current analyses included psoriasis patients enrolled in the Corrona Psoriasis Registry between April 1, 2015, and January 7, 2018. Patients were adults (age ≥ 18 years) with psoriasis who were enrolled between April 1, 2015, and January 7, 2018 and initiated apremilast at the time of registry enrollment or a subsequent visit (incident users) or within the 12 months prior to registry enrollment (prevalent users). Patient characteristics were evaluated descriptively at the index date, defined as the enrollment date for prevalent users and the visit when apremilast was initiated for incident users. RESULTS: Among 660 patients who initiated apremilast at registry enrollment or a visit thereafter, psoriatic arthritis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were common. There were more systemic-experienced (61.4%) versus systemic-naive (38.6%) patients; 43.8% had prior biologic exposure. Most patients were not receiving concomitant systemic treatment (70.2%); 27.4% were receiving concomitant biologic therapy. Most patients had mild or moderate disease (psoriasis-involved body surface area ≤ 10% [76.0%], Investigator Global Assessment ≤ 3 [88.3%], Psoriasis Area and Severity Index ≤ 10 [84.5%]). Dermatologist-reported psoriatic arthritis was present in 47.0% of patients; 33.9% of patients had a Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool score of ≥ 3, suggestive of psoriatic arthritis. Systemic-experienced apremilast patients had higher rates of obesity and comorbidities and experienced a greater impact on quality of life (mean Dermatology Life Quality Index, 7.3 vs. 6.5) versus systemic-naive patients. CONCLUSION: In this real-world observational study of apremilast users in the Corrona Psoriasis Registry, most patients had less-severe disease and higher rates of prior exposure to biologic treatments compared with patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis enrolled in phase 3 clinical studies.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline genetic testing is crucial to the care of ovarian cancer patients, and as part of the guideline-based care for ovarian cancer patient's adherence to this recommendation has been low. We sought to determine whether embedding a genetic counselor (GC) within a medical and gynecologic oncology clinic would increase testing rates and improve the timeliness of testing. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 358 ovarian cancer patients seen by medical and gynecologic oncologists between 2013 and 2015. Rates of referrals, completion of counseling, and genetic testing and timeliness of counseling were abstracted before and after a GC was embedded in the clinic in 2014. An additional year of data (2015) was collected to evaluate sustainability of the intervention. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, 88-92% of women were referred for genetic testing, but in 2013 only 66% completed counseling and 61% were tested. After a GC was embedded in the clinic in 2014, more than 80% of referred women completed counseling and germline genetic testing. Time to genetic counseling also decreased from a median of 107 to 40 days, irrespective of age and cancer family history (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Embedding a GC into the workflow for ovarian cancer patients is an effective way of improving access to genetic counseling, testing rates, and the timeliness of testing.

5.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 198, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay is widely used to predict distant recurrence risk and benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy among women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, the relationship between the RS and isolated locoregional recurrence (iLRR) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the association between the RS and risk of iLRR for women with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer. METHODS: We identified 1758 women captured in the national prospective Breast Cancer-Collaborative Outcomes Research Database who were diagnosed with stage I-II, HR+ breast cancer from 2006 to 2012, treated with mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, and received RS testing. Women who received neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. The association between the RS and risk of iLRR was examined using competing risks regression. RESULTS: Overall, 19% of the cohort (n = 329) had a RS ≥25. At median follow-up of 29 months, only 22 iLRR events were observed. Having a RS ≥25 was not associated with a significantly higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.39-3.36, P = 0.81). When limited to women who received adjuvant endocrine therapy without chemotherapy (n = 1199; 68% of the cohort), having a RS ≥25 (n = 74) was significantly associated with a higher risk of iLRR compared to a RS < 25 (hazard ratio 3.66, 95% confidence interval 1.07-12.5, P = 0.04). In this group, increasing RS was associated with greater risk of iLRR (compared to RS < 18, hazard ratio of 1.66, 3.59, and 7.06, respectively, for RS 18-24, 25-30, and ≥ 31; Ptrend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The RS was significantly associated with risk of iLRR in patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The utility of the RS in identifying patients who have a low risk of iLRR should be further studied.

6.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(5): 547-554, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients diagnosed with stage IA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the incidence of occult brain metastasis is low, and several professional societies recommend against brain imaging for staging purposes. The goal of this study was to characterize the use of brain imaging among Medicare patients diagnosed with stage IA NSCLC. METHODS: Using data from linked SEER-Medicare claims, we identified patients diagnosed with AJCC 8th edition stage IA NSCLC in 2004 through 2013. Patients were classified as having received brain imaging if they underwent head CT or brain MRI from 1 month before to 3 months after diagnosis. We identified factors associated with receipt of brain imaging using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 13,809 patients with stage IA NSCLC, 3,417 (25%) underwent brain imaging at time of diagnosis. The rate of brain imaging increased over time, from 23.5% in 2004 to 28.7% in 2013 (P=.0006). There was significant variation in the use of brain imaging across hospital service areas, with rates ranging from 0% to 64.0%. Factors associated with a greater likelihood of brain imaging included older age (odds ratios [ORs] of 1.16 for 70-74 years, 1.13 for 75-79 years, 1.31 for 80-84 years, and 1.46 for ≥85 years compared with 65-69 years; all P<.05), female sex (OR, 1.09; P<.05), black race (OR 1.23; P<.05), larger tumor size (ORs of 1.23 for 11-20 mm and 1.28 for 21-30 mm tumors vs 1-10 mm tumors; all P<.05), and higher modified Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score (OR, 1.28 for score >1 vs score of 0; P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Roughly 1 in 4 patients with stage IA NSCLC received brain imaging at the time of diagnosis despite national recommendations against the practice. Although several patient factors are associated with receipt of brain imaging, there is significant geographic variation across the United States. Closer adherence to clinical guidelines is likely to result in more cost-effective care.

7.
Cancer ; 126(2): 416-424, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many parents of children with advanced cancer pursue curative goals when cure is no longer possible. To the authors' knowledge, no pediatric studies to date have prospectively evaluated prognosis communication or influences on decision making in poor-prognosis childhood cancer. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective cohort study at 9 pediatric cancer centers that enrolled 95 parents of children with recurrent or refractory, high-risk neuroblastoma (63% of those who were approached), a condition for which cure rarely is achieved. Parents were surveyed regarding the child's likelihood of cure; their primary goal of care; the child's symptoms, suffering, and quality of life; and regret concerning the last treatment decision. Medical records identified care and treatment decisions. RESULTS: Only 26% of parents recognized that the chance of cure was <25%. When asked to choose a single most important goal of care, approximately 72% chose cure, 10% chose longer life, and 18% chose quality of life. Parents were more likely to prioritize quality of life when they recognized the child's poor prognosis (P = .002). Approximately 41% of parents expressed regret about the most recent treatment decision. Parents were more likely to experience regret if the child had received higher intensity medical care (odds ratio [OR], 3.14; 95% CI, 1.31-7.51), experienced suffering with limited benefit from the most recent treatment (OR, 4.78; 95% CI, 1.16-19.72), or experienced suffering from symptoms (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.18-7.16). CONCLUSIONS: Parents of children with poor-prognosis cancer frequently make decisions based on unrealistic expectations. New strategies for effective prognosis communication are needed.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neuroblastoma/mortalidade , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/psicologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neuroblastoma/psicologia , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapias em Estudo/psicologia
9.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(11): 1367-1371, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are at increased risk for developing a second breast cancer (SBC). A prior meta-analysis of randomized studies of radiotherapy (RT) for DCIS has shown a trend toward increased breast cancer-specific mortality after SBC, but it did not have the power needed to detect a significant difference, due to a limited number of recurrences. This study sought to evaluate the impact of RT for DCIS on mortality after SBC in a larger cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the SEER database, 3,407 patients were identified who received breast-conserving therapy with or without RT for primary DCIS in 2000 through 2013 and subsequently developed a stage I-III invasive SBC within the same time period. Fine-Gray competing risk models were used to study the association between receipt of RT and mortality after SBC. RESULTS: Prior RT was found to be associated with higher rates of breast cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18-2.45; P=.005), even after controlling for cancer stage. Interaction analysis suggested that this risk trended higher in patients with ipsilateral versus contralateral SBC (HR, 2.07 vs 1.26; P=.16). Furthermore, compared with patients who developed contralateral SBC, those with ipsilateral SBC were younger (P<.001) and more often lacked estrogen receptor expression (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who previously received RT for DCIS had higher mortality after developing an invasive SBC than those who did not receive RT. This finding may have implications for initial treatment decisions in the management of DCIS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/secundário , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/radioterapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2781-2790, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) enters the clinic, there is an urgent need to understand the psychological effects of test result disclosure. Through a Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER), phase 1 (CSER1) Consortium collaboration, we evaluated participants' psychological outcomes across multiple clinical settings. METHODS: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of state anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]/Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item), depressive symptoms (HADS/Personal Health Questionnaire 9-item), and multidimensional impact (i.e., test-related distress, uncertainty and positive impact: modified Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment/Feelings About Genomic Testing Results scale). RESULTS: Anxiety and depression did not increase significantly following test result disclosure. Meta-analyses examining mean differences from pre- to postdisclosure revealed an overall trend for a decrease in participants' anxiety. We observed low levels of test-related distress and perceptions of uncertainty in some populations (e.g., pediatric patients) and a wide range of positive responses. CONCLUSION: Our findings across multiple clinical settings suggest no clinically significant psychological harms from the return of ES/GS results. Some populations may experience low levels of test-related distress or greater positive psychological effects. Future research should further investigate the reasons for test-related psychological response variation.


Assuntos
Revelação/ética , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/ética , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Exoma , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/ética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Incerteza
12.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(6): 625.e1-625.e14, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer develop recurrent disease, despite maximal surgical cytoreduction and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. In observational studies, secondary cytoreductive surgery has been associated with improved survival; however its use is controversial, because there are concerns that the improved outcomes may reflect selection bias rather than the superiority of secondary surgery. OBJECTIVE: To compare the overall survival of women with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer treated at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers who receive secondary surgery vs chemotherapy. STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study included women from 6 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers diagnosed with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2011. The primary outcome was overall survival. Propensity score matching was used to compare similar women who received secondary surgery vs chemotherapy. Additional analyses examined how these findings may be influenced by the prevalence of unobserved confounders at the time of recurrence. RESULTS: Among 626 women, 146 (23%) received secondary surgery and 480 (77%) received chemotherapy. In adjusted analyses, patients who received secondary surgery were younger (P = 0.001), had earlier-stage disease at diagnosis (P = 0.002), and had longer disease-free intervals (P < 0.001) compared with those receiving chemotherapy. In the propensity score-matched groups (n = 244 patients), the median overall survival was 54 months in patients who received secondary surgery and 33 months in those treated with chemotherapy (P < 0.001). Among patients who received secondary surgery, 102 (70%) achieved optimal secondary cytoreduction. There were no significant differences in complication rates between the 2 groups. In sensitivity analyses, the survival advantage associated with secondary surgery could be explained by the presence of more multifocal recurrences (if 4.3 times more common), ascites (if 2.7 times more common), or carcinomatosis (if 2.1 times more common) among patients who received chemotherapy instead of secondary surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer who received secondary surgery had favorable surgical characteristics and were likely to have minimal residual disease following secondary surgery. These patients had a superior median overall survival compared with patients who received chemotherapy, although unmeasured confounders may explain this observed difference.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Reoperação/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Increasing use of genomic tumor profiling may blur the line between research and clinical care. We aimed to describe research participants' perspectives on the purpose of genomic tumor profiling research in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We surveyed 45 participants (response rate 85%) in a pilot study of genomic profiling in pediatric solid tumors at four academic cancer centers following return of sequencing results. We defined understanding according to a one-item ("basic") definition (recognizing that the primary purpose was not to improve the patient's treatment) and a four-item ("comprehensive") definition (primary purpose was not to improve patient's treatment; primary purpose was to improve treatment of future patients; there may not be direct medical benefit; most likely result of participation was not increased likelihood of cure). RESULTS: Sixty-eight percent of respondents (30/44) demonstrated basic understanding of the study purpose; 55% (24/44) demonstrated comprehensive understanding. Understanding was more frequently seen in those with higher education and greater genetic knowledge according to basic (81% vs 50%, p=0.05; and 82% vs 46%, p=0.03, respectively) and comprehensive definitions (73% vs 28%, p=0.01; 71% vs 23%, p=0.01). Ninety-three percent of respondents who believed the primary purpose was to improve the patient's care simultaneously stated that the research also aimed to benefit future patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most participants in pediatric tumor profiling research understand that the primary goal of this research is to improve care for future patients, but many express dual goals when participating in sequencing research. Some populations demonstrate increased rates of misunderstanding. Nuanced participant views suggest further work is needed to assess and improve participant understanding, particularly as tumor sequencing moves beyond research into clinical practice.

14.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(7): e616-e627, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Spending for patients with advanced cancer is substantial. Past efforts to characterize this spending usually have not included patients with recurrence (who may differ from those with de novo stage IV disease) or described which services drive spending. METHODS: Using SEER-Medicare data from 2008 to 2013, we identified patients with breast, colorectal, and lung cancer with either de novo stage IV or recurrent advanced cancer. Mean spending/patient/month (2012 US dollars) was estimated from 12 months before to 11 months after diagnosis for all services and by the type of service. We describe the absolute difference in mean monthly spending for de novo versus recurrent patients, and we estimate differences after controlling for type of advanced cancer, year of diagnosis, age, sex, comorbidity, and other factors. RESULTS: We identified 54,982 patients with advanced cancer. Before diagnosis, mean monthly spending was higher for recurrent patients (absolute difference: breast, $1,412; colorectal, $3,002; lung, $2,805; all P < .001), whereas after the diagnosis, it was higher for de novo patients (absolute difference: breast, $2,443; colorectal, $4,844; lung, $2,356; all P < .001). Spending differences were driven by inpatient, physician, and hospice services. Across the 2-year period around the advanced cancer diagnosis, adjusted mean monthly spending was higher for de novo versus recurrent patients (spending ratio: breast, 2.39 [95% CI, 2.05 to 2.77]; colorectal, 2.64 [95% CI, 2.31 to 3.01]; lung, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.30 to 1.65]). CONCLUSION: Spending for de novo cancer was greater than spending for recurrent advanced cancer. Understanding the patterns and drivers of spending is necessary to design alternative payment models and to improve value.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Medicare , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos
15.
J Palliat Med ; 22(6): 677-684, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907686

RESUMO

Background: Although blood cancers are accompanied by a high level of prognostic uncertainty, little is known about when and how hematologic oncologists discuss prognosis. Objectives: Characterize reported practices and predictors of prognostic discussions for a cohort of hematologic oncologists. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey in 2015. Setting/Subjects: U.S.-based hematologic oncologists providing clinical care for adult patients with blood cancers. Measurements: We conducted univariable and multivariable analyses assessing the association of clinician characteristics with reported frequency of initiation of prognostic discussions, type of terminology used, and whether prognosis is readdressed. Results: We received 349 surveys (response rate = 57.3%). The majority of respondents (60.3%) reported conducting prognostic discussions with "most" (>95%) of their patients. More than half (56.8%) preferred general/qualitative rather than specific/numeric terms when discussing prognosis. Although 91.3% reported that they typically first initiate prognostic discussions at diagnosis, 17.7% reported routinely never readdressing prognosis or waiting until death is imminent to revisit the topic. Hematologic oncologists with ≤15 years since medical school graduation (odds ratio [OR] 0.51; confidence interval (95% CI) 0.30-0.88) and those who considered prognostic uncertainty a barrier to quality end-of-life care (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.35-0.90) had significantly lower odds of discussing prognosis with "most" patients. Conclusions: Although the majority of hematologic oncologists reported discussing prognosis with their patients, most prefer general/qualitative terms. Moreover, even though prognosis evolves during the disease course, nearly one in five reported never readdressing prognosis or only doing so near death. These findings suggest the need for structured interventions to improve prognostic communication for patients with blood cancers.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Neoplasias Hematológicas/enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Oncologistas/psicologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Prognóstico , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-9, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869998

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We previously developed and validated informatic algorithms that used International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD9)-based diagnostic and procedure codes to detect the presence and timing of cancer recurrence (the RECUR Algorithms). In 2015, ICD10 replaced ICD9 as the worldwide coding standard. To understand the impact of this transition, we evaluated the performance of the RECUR Algorithms after incorporating ICD10 codes. METHODS: Using publicly available translation tables along with clinician and other expertise, we updated the algorithms to include ICD10 codes as additional input variables. We evaluated the performance of the algorithms using gold standard recurrence measures associated with a contemporary cohort of patients with stage I to III breast, colorectal, and lung (excluding IIIB) cancer and derived performance measures, including the area under the receiver operating curve, average absolute prediction error, and correct classification rate. These values were compared with the performance measures derived from the validation of the original algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 659 colorectal, 280 lung, and 2,053 breast cancer cases were identified. Area under the receiver operating curve derived from the updated algorithms was 89.0% (95% CI, 82.3% to 95.7%), 88.9% (95% CI, 79.3% to 98.2%), and 80.5% (95% CI, 72.8% to 88.2%) for the colorectal, lung, and breast cancer algorithms, respectively. Average absolute prediction errors for recurrence timing were 2.7 (SE, 11.3%), 2.4 (SE, 10.4%), and 5.6 months (SE, 21.8%), respectively, and timing estimates were within 6 months of actual recurrence for more than 80% of colorectal, more than 90% of lung, and more than 50% of breast cancer cases using the updated algorithm. CONCLUSION: Performance measures derived from the updated and original algorithms had overlapping confidence intervals, suggesting that the ICD9 to ICD10 transition did not affect the RECUR Algorithm performance.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/terapia , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 10(3): 486-489, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared the performance of two frailty scoring systems in predicting survival among older patients with multiple myeloma: the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) frailty score (which includes age), and the Fried model for frailty (which does not). METHODS: From 2015 to 2018, all patients aged 75 years and older presenting at our institution with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma were approached for a frailty screening assessment. We first categorized patients' frailty using the Fried model. Then, using available deficit measures, we reclassified frailty using the IMWG approach. We compared the performance of the IMWG strategy to the Fried model in terms of association with overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 98 (92%) patients who consented to a baseline frailty assessment, we found 57% discordance among frailty classification between the two scoring systems. Using the IMWG strategy, 9% of the cohort was "fit," 29% "intermediate-fit," and 62% "frail." Using the Fried model, 29% of the cohort was "robust," 52% "pre-frail," and 19% "frail." Frailty category in the Fried model was predictive of overall survival among our cohort, while frailty category in the IMWG strategy was not (log-rank p = 0.04 vs. 0.34). CONCLUSION: Among our cohort of older patients with myeloma (aged 75 and higher), the Fried model appears to be a better predictor of survival compared to the IMWG strategy. These results suggest that using age as a criterion to identify frailty in older patients with multiple myeloma may limit treatment options for the functionally vigorous.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Mieloma Múltiplo/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 173(3): 709-717, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30406869

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine whether pre-diagnosis patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and depressive symptoms are associated with local treatment for older women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and stage I breast cancer (BC). METHODS: Using the SEER-MHOS dataset, we identified women ≥ 65 years old with DCIS or stage I BC diagnosed 1998-2011 who completed surveys ≤ 24 months before diagnosis. Depressive symptoms were measured by major depressive disorder (MDD) risk and HRQOL was measured by Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively) of the SF-36/VR-12. Associations with treatment choice (breast-conserving surgery [BCS] and radiation therapy [RT], BCS alone, mastectomy) were assessed with multivariable multinomial logistic regression, controlling for patient characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 425 women with DCIS and 982 with stage I BC. Overall, 20.4% endorsed depressive symptoms placing them at risk for MDD pre-diagnosis; mean MCS and PCS scores were 52.3 (SD = 10.1) and 40.5 (SD = 11.5), respectively. Among women with DCIS, those at risk for MDD were more likely to receive BCS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.04, 95% CI 1.04-4.00, p = 0.04) or mastectomy (AOR 1.88, 95% CI 0.91-3.86, p = 0.09) compared to BCS + RT. For DCIS, MCS score was not associated with treatment; higher PCS score was associated with decreased likelihood of receiving mastectomy versus BCS + RT (AOR 0.71 per 10-point increase, 95% CI 0.54-0.95, p = 0.02). For BC, none of the measures were significantly associated with treatment. CONCLUSION: Older women at risk for MDD before DCIS diagnosis were less likely to receive RT after BCS, compared to BCS alone or mastectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/complicações , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Programa de SEER , Avaliação de Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer ; 124(23): 4529-4537, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents of children with cancer have unmet information needs regarding future limitations resulting from cancer or its treatment. Prior research has demonstrated that, in early care discussions, clinicians focus on the acute effects of therapy rather than long-term limitations, partly due to worries of causing distress. The validity of concerns regarding distress is unknown. In the current study, the authors evaluated parental distress associated with information regarding future limitations, and the extent to which distress is associated with information preferences. METHODS: The authors surveyed 355 parents of children with cancer within 3 months of diagnosis, and the children's physicians at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The primary outcome was parental distress associated with information regarding long-term limitations. RESULTS: Approximately 46% of parents found information regarding future limitations to be extremely or very upsetting. In multivariate analysis, parents were more likely to consider information regarding future limitations distressing if they also found prognostic information upsetting (odds ratio [OR], 5.36; P<.001), struggled to accept their child's illness (OR, 2.57; P<.001), or had depression (OR, 1.79; P=.01). However, approximately 92% of parents considered information regarding potential future limitations to be extremely/very important. Those who found information regarding future limitations distressing were more likely to consider it important (96% vs 89%; P=.03) and to desire a precise understanding of their child's risks (92% vs 80%; P=.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although information regarding future limitations caused by cancer treatment is upsetting to many parents, the majority of them desire this information, and those who are distressed are more likely to value this information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 3(3): 382-390, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202806

RESUMO

Purpose: Palliative radiation therapy (RT) can improve quality of life but also incurs time and financial costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with use and intensity of palliative RT for incurable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and materials: This was a retrospective analysis of Medicare's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. We identified patients who were diagnosed with incurable (American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition stage IIIB with malignant effusion or stage IV) NSCLC between 2004 and 2011. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with the receipt of palliative RT and the use of >10 fractions during the first course of radiation. Among patients who were treated with radiation, freestanding versus hospital-based center information was collected on the basis of the location of the RT delivery claim. Results: Among 55,258 patients with incurable NSCLC, 38% (21,053 patients) received palliative RT during the first year after diagnosis. Among patients who received RT, 56% (11,717 patients) received >10 fractions. On multivariable analysis, factors associated with greater RT use included younger age group (overall P < .01), lower modified Charlson comorbidity score (overall P < .01), female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 1.1; P < .01), marital status (OR: 1.1; P < .01), and chemotherapy use (OR: 3.6; P < .01). Predictors for >10 fractions were chemotherapy use (OR: 1.7; P < .01) and treatment at a freestanding versus hospital-based facility (58% vs 43%; OR: 1.7; P < .01). Conclusions: More than a third of patients diagnosed with incurable lung cancer receive palliative RT and 56% received >10 fractions. The use of RT varied by region and patient characteristics, and patients treated at freestanding RT centers were more likely to receive >10 fractions. Further research into factors that influence treatment decisions including potential financial incentives may contribute to the high value and strategic utilization of palliative RT.

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