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1.
Nano Lett ; 20(2): 1370-1377, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960677

RESUMO

The low-temperature emission spectrum of CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) consists of two narrow lines. The high-energy line stems from the recombination of neutral excitons. The origin of the low-energy line is currently debated. We experimentally study the spectral shift, emission dynamics, and spin polarization of both lines at low temperatures down to 1.5 K and in high magnetic fields up to 60 T and show that the low-energy line originates from the recombination of negatively charged excitons (trions). This assignment is confirmed by the NPL photocharging dynamics and associated variations in the spectrum. We show that the negatively charged excitons are considerably less sensitive to the presence of surface spins than the neutral excitons. The trion binding energy in three-monolayer-thick NPLs is as large as 30 meV, which is 4 times larger than its value in the two-dimensional limit of a conventional CdSe quantum well confined between semiconductor barriers. A considerable part of this enhancement is gained by the dielectric enhancement effect, which is due to the small dielectric constant of the environment surrounding the NPLs.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927981

RESUMO

Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) of I-III-VI ternary compounds such as copper indium sulfide (CIS) and copper indium selenide (CISe) have been under intense investigation due to both their unusual photophysical properties and considerable technological utility. These materials feature a toxic-element-free composition, a tunable bandgap that covers near-infrared and visible spectral energies, and a highly efficient photoluminescence (PL) whose spectrum is located in the reabsorption-free intragap region. These properties make them attractive for light-emission and light-harvesting applications including photovoltaics and luminescent solar concentrators. Despite a large body of literature on device-related studies of CISe(S) QDs, the understanding of their fundamental photophysical properties is surprisingly poor. Two particular subjects that are still heavily debated in the literature include the mechanism(s) for strong intragap emission and the reason(s) for a poorly defined (featureless) absorption edge, which often "tails" below the nominal bandgap. Here, we address these questions by conducting comprehensive spectroscopic studies of CIS QD samples with varied Cu-to-In ratios using resonant PL and PL excitation, femtosecond transient absorption, and magnetic circular dichroism measurements. These studies reveal a strong effect of stoichiometry on the concentration of Cu1+ vs Cu2+ defects (occurring as CuIn″ and CuCu• species, respectively), and their effects on QD optical properties. In particular, we demonstrate that the increase in the relative amount of Cu2+ vs Cu1+ centers suppresses intragap absorption associated with Cu1+ states and sharpens band-edge absorption. In addition, we show that both Cu1+ and Cu2+ centers are emissive but are characterized by distinct activation mechanisms and slightly different emission energies due to different crystal lattice environments. An important overall conclusion of this study is that the relative importance of the Cu2+ vs Cu1+ emission/absorption channels can be controlled by tuning the Cu-to-In ratio, suggesting that the control of sample stoichiometry represents a powerful tool for achieving functionalities (e.g., strong intragap emission) that are not accessible with ideal, defect-free materials.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8846-8854, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651177

RESUMO

Colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) overcoated with an ultrathick CdS shell, also known as dot-in-bulk (DiB) structures, can support two types of excitons, one of which is core-localized and the other, shell-localized. In the case of weak "sub-single-exciton" pumping, emission alternates between the core- and shell-related channels, which leads to two-color light. This property makes these structures uniquely suited for a variety of photonic applications as well as ideal model systems for realizing complex excitonic quasi-particles that do not occur in conventional core/shell NCs. Here, we show that the DiB design can enable an unusual regime in which the same long-lived resident electron can endow trionlike characteristics to either of the two excitons of the DiB NC (core- or shell-based). These two spectrally distinct trion states are apparent in the measured photoluminescence (PL) and spin dynamics of core and shell excitons conducted over a wide range of temperatures and applied magnetic fields. Low-temperature PL measurements indicate that core- and shell-based trions are characterized by a nearly ideal (∼100%) emission quantum yield, suggesting the strong suppression of Auger recombination for both types of excitations. Polarization-resolved PL experiments in magnetic fields of up to 60 T reveal that the core- and the shell-localized trions exhibit remarkably similar spin dynamics, which in both cases are controlled by spin-flip processes involving a heavy hole.

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8589-8596, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251582

RESUMO

Colloidal, two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibit quantum confinement in only one dimension, which results in an electronic structure that is significantly altered compared to that of other quantum-confined nanomaterials. Whereas it is often assumed that the lack of quantum confinement in the lateral plane yields a spatially extended exciton, reduced dielectric screening potentially challenges this picture. Here, we implement absorption spectroscopy in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T for three different CdSe NPL thicknesses and lateral areas. Based on diamagnetic shifts, we find that the exciton lateral extent is comparable to NPL thickness, indicating that the quantum confinement and reduced screening concomitant with few-monolayer thickness strongly reduces the exciton lateral extent. Atomistic electronic structure calculations of the exciton size for varying lengths, widths, and thicknesses support the substantially smaller in-plane exciton extent.

5.
Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1307-1317, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663314

RESUMO

"Charge engineering" of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) through so-called electronic impurity doping is a long-standing challenge in colloidal chemistry and holds promise for ground-breaking advancements in many optoelectronic, photonic, and spin-based nanotechnologies. To date, our knowledge is limited to a few paradigmatic studies on a small number of model compounds and doping conditions, with important electronic dopants still unexplored in nanoscale systems. Equally importantly, fine-tuning of charge engineered NCs is hampered by the statistical limitations of traditional approaches. The resulting intrinsic doping inhomogeneity restricts fundamental studies to statistically averaged behaviors and complicates the realization of advanced device concepts based on their advantageous functionalities. Here we aim to address these issues by realizing the first example of II-VI NCs electronically doped with an exact number of heterovalent gold atoms, a known p-type acceptor impurity in bulk chalcogenides. Single-dopant accuracy across entire NC ensembles is obtained through a novel non-injection synthesis employing ligand-exchanged gold clusters as "quantized" dopant sources to seed the nucleation of CdSe NCs in organic media. Structural, spectroscopic, and magneto-optical investigations trace a comprehensive picture of the physical processes resulting from the exact doping level of the NCs. Gold atoms, doped here for the first time into II-VI NCs, are found to incorporate as nonmagnetic Au+ species activating intense size-tunable intragap photoluminescence and artificially offsetting the hole occupancy of valence band states. Fundamentally, the transient conversion of Au+ to paramagnetic Au2+ (5d9 configuration) under optical excitation results in strong photoinduced magnetism and diluted magnetic semiconductor behavior revealing the contribution of individual paramagnetic impurities to the macroscopic magnetism of the NCs. Altogether, our results demonstrate a new chemical approach toward NCs with physical functionalities tailored to the single impurity level and offer a versatile platform for future investigations and device exploitation of individual and collective impurity processes in quantum confined structures.

6.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6948-6953, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244582

RESUMO

Excimers, a portmanteau of "excited dimer", are transient species that are formed from the electronic interaction of a fluorophore in the excited state with a neighbor in the ground state, which have found extensive use as laser gain media. Although common in molecular fluorophores, this work presents evidence for the formation of excimers in a new class of materials: atomically precise two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplatelets. Colloidal nanoplatelets of CdSe display two-color photoluminescence resolved at low temperatures with one band attributed to band-edge fluorescence and a second, red band attributed to excimer fluorescence. Previously reasonable explanations for two-color fluorescence, such as charging, are shown to be inconsistent with additional evidence. As with excimers in other materials systems, excimer emission is increased by increasing nanoplatelet concentration and the degree of cofacial stacking. Consistent with their promise as low-threshold gain media, amplified spontaneous emission emerges from the excimer emission line.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(32): 8119-8124, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037994

RESUMO

The interaction between light and matter has been long explored, leading to insights based on the modulation and control of electrons and/or photons within a material. An opportunity exists in optomechanics, where the conversion of radiation into material strain and actuation is currently induced at the molecular level in liquid crystal systems, or at the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device scale, producing limited potential strain energy (or force) in light-driven systems. We present here flexible material composites that, when illuminated, are capable of macroscale motion, through the interplay of optically absorptive elements and low Curie temperature magnetic materials. These composites can be formed into films, sponges, monoliths, and hydrogels, and can be actuated with light at desired locations. Light-actuated elastomeric composites for gripping and releasing, heliotactic motion, light-driven propulsion, and rotation are demonstrated as examples of the versatility of this approach.

8.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(2): 145-151, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255289

RESUMO

Electronic doping of colloidal semiconductor nanostructures holds promise for future device concepts in optoelectronic and spin-based technologies. Ag+ is an emerging electronic dopant in III-V and II-VI nanostructures, introducing intragap electronic states optically coupled to the host conduction band. With its full 4d shell Ag+ is nonmagnetic, and the dopant-related luminescence is ascribed to decay of the conduction-band electron following transfer of the photoexcited hole to Ag+. This optical activation process and the associated modification of the electronic configuration of Ag+ remain unclear. Here, we trace a comprehensive picture of the excitonic process in Ag-doped CdSe nanocrystals and demonstrate that, in contrast to expectations, capture of the photohole leads to conversion of Ag+ to paramagnetic Ag2+. The process of exciton recombination is thus inextricably tied to photoinduced magnetism. Accordingly, we observe strong optically activated magnetism and diluted magnetic semiconductor behaviour, demonstrating that optically switchable magnetic nanomaterials can be obtained by exploiting excitonic processes involving nonmagnetic impurities.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(11)2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117137

RESUMO

In this work, we review single mode SiO2 fiber Bragg grating techniques for dilatometry studies of small single-crystalline samples in the extreme environments of very high, continuous, and pulsed magnetic fields of up to 150 T and at cryogenic temperatures down to <1 K. Distinct millimeter-long materials are measured as part of the technique development, including metallic, insulating, and radioactive compounds. Experimental strategies are discussed for the observation and analysis of the related thermal expansion and magnetostriction of materials, which can achieve a strain sensitivity (ΔL/L) as low as a few parts in one hundred million (≈10-8). The impact of experimental artifacts, such as those originating in the temperature dependence of the fiber's index of diffraction, light polarization rotation in magnetic fields, and reduced strain transfer from millimeter-long specimens, is analyzed quantitatively using analytic models available in the literature. We compare the experimental results with model predictions in the small-sample limit, and discuss the uncovered discrepancies.

10.
Nano Lett ; 16(11): 7054-7060, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27718588

RESUMO

Excitons in atomically thin semiconductors necessarily lie close to a surface, and therefore their properties are expected to be strongly influenced by the surrounding dielectric environment. However, systematic studies exploring this role are challenging, in part because the most readily accessible exciton parameter-the exciton's optical transition energy-is largely unaffected by the surrounding medium. Here we show that the role of the dielectric environment is revealed through its systematic influence on the size of the exciton, which can be directly measured via the diamagnetic shift of the exciton transition in high magnetic fields. Using exfoliated WSe2 monolayers affixed to single-mode optical fibers, we tune the surrounding dielectric environment by encapsulating the flakes with different materials and perform polarized low-temperature magneto-absorption studies to 65 T. The systematic increase of the exciton's size with dielectric screening, and concurrent reduction in binding energy (also inferred from these measurements), is quantitatively compared with leading theoretical models. These results demonstrate how exciton properties can be tuned in future 2D optoelectronic devices.

11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10643, 2016 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26856412

RESUMO

In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately -230 µeV T(-1) (g-factor ≃-4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ∼1.53 and ∼1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.

12.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 11(2): 137-42, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595331

RESUMO

Strong quantum confinement in semiconductors can compress the wavefunctions of band electrons and holes to nanometre-scale volumes, significantly enhancing interactions between themselves and individual dopants. In magnetically doped semiconductors, where paramagnetic dopants (such as Mn(2+), Co(2+) and so on) couple to band carriers via strong sp-d spin exchange, giant magneto-optical effects can therefore be realized in confined geometries using few or even single impurity spins. Importantly, however, thermodynamic spin fluctuations become increasingly relevant in this few-spin limit. In nanoscale volumes, the statistical fluctuations of N spins are expected to generate giant effective magnetic fields Beff, which should dramatically impact carrier spin dynamics, even in the absence of any applied field. Here we directly and unambiguously reveal the large Beff that exist in Mn(2+)-doped CdSe colloidal nanocrystals using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. At zero applied magnetic field, extremely rapid (300-600 GHz) spin precession of photoinjected electrons is observed, indicating Beff ∼ 15 -30 T for electrons. Precession frequencies exceed 2 THz in applied magnetic fields. These signals arise from electron precession about the random fields due to statistically incomplete cancellation of the embedded Mn(2+) moments, thereby revealing the initial coherent dynamics of magnetic polaron formation, and highlighting the importance of magnetization fluctuations on carrier spin dynamics in nanomaterials.

13.
Nano Lett ; 15(12): 8250-4, 2015 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26554897

RESUMO

We report a systematic study of coherent spin precession and spin dephasing in electron-doped monolayer MoS2. Using time-resolved Kerr rotation spectroscopy and applied in-plane magnetic fields, a nanosecond time scale Larmor spin precession signal commensurate with g-factor |g0| ≃ 1.86 is observed in several different MoS2 samples grown by chemical vapor deposition. The dephasing rate of this oscillatory signal increases linearly with magnetic field, suggesting that the coherence arises from a subensemble of localized electron spins having an inhomogeneously broadened distribution of g-factors, g0 + Δg. In contrast to g0, Δg is sample-dependent and ranges from 0.042 to 0.115.

14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9573, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25924953

RESUMO

Interacting multi-component spin systems are ubiquitous in nature and in the laboratory. As such, investigations of inter-species spin interactions are of vital importance. Traditionally, they are studied by experimental methods that are necessarily perturbative: e.g., by intentionally polarizing or depolarizing one spin species while detecting the response of the other(s). Here, we describe and demonstrate an alternative approach based on multi-probe spin noise spectroscopy, which can reveal inter-species spin interactions--under conditions of strict thermal equilibrium--by detecting and cross-correlating the stochastic fluctuation signals exhibited by each of the constituent spin species. Specifically, we consider a two-component spin ensemble that interacts via exchange coupling, and we determine cross-correlations between their intrinsic spin fluctuations. The model is experimentally confirmed using "two-color" optical spin noise spectroscopy on a mixture of interacting Rb and Cs vapors. Noise correlations directly reveal the presence of inter-species spin exchange, without ever perturbing the system away from thermal equilibrium. These non-invasive and noise-based techniques should be generally applicable to any heterogeneous spin system in which the fluctuations of the constituent components are detectable.

15.
Nano Lett ; 15(4): 2685-92, 2015 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25793644

RESUMO

We conduct spectroscopic and theoretical studies of photoluminescence (PL) from Ge quantum dots (QDs) fabricated via colloidal synthesis. The dynamics of late-time PL exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature and applied magnetic field, which can be explained by radiative decay involving two closely spaced, slowly emitting exciton states. In 3.5 nm QDs, these states are separated by ∼1 meV and are characterized by ∼82 µs and ∼18 µs lifetimes. By using a four-band formalism, we calculate the fine structure of the indirect band-edge exciton arising from the electron-hole exchange interaction and the Coulomb interaction of the Γ-point hole with the anisotropic charge density of the L-point electron. The calculations suggest that the observed PL dynamics can be explained by phonon-assisted recombination of excitons thermally distributed between the lower-energy "dark" state with the momentum projection J = ± 2 and a higher energy "bright" state with J = ± 1. A fairly small difference between lifetimes of these states is due to their mixing induced by the exchange term unique to crystals with a highly symmetric cubic lattice such as Ge.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(23): 4105-9, 2014 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26278940

RESUMO

We compare the absorption, photoluminescence, and magneto-optical properties of colloidal CuInS2 (CIS) nanocrystals with two closely related and well-understood binary analogs: Cu-doped ZnSe nanocrystals and CdSe nanocrystals. In contrast with conventional CdSe, both CIS and Cu-doped ZnSe nanocrystals exhibit a substantial energy separation between emission and absorption peaks (Stokes shift) and a marked asymmetry in the polarization-resolved low-temperature magneto-photoluminescence, both of which point to the role of localized dopant/defect states in the forbidden gap. Surprisingly, we find evidence in CIS nanocrystals of spin-exchange coupling between paramagnetic moments in the nanocrystal and the conduction/valence bands of the host lattice, a behavior also observed in Cu-doped ZnSe nanocrystals, where the copper atoms incorporate as paramagnetic Cu(2+) ions.

17.
Nano Lett ; 13(2): 430-5, 2013 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23324028

RESUMO

We demonstrate all-electrical spin injection, transport, and detection in heavily n-type-doped Si nanowires using ferromagnetic Co/Al(2)O(3) tunnel barrier contacts. Analysis of both local and nonlocal spin valve signals at 4 K on the same nanowire device using a standard spin-transport model suggests that high spin injection efficiency (up to ~30%) and long spin diffusion lengths (up to ~6 µm) are achieved. These values exceed those reported for spin transport devices based on comparably doped bulk Si. The spin valve signals are found to be strongly bias and temperature dependent and can invert sign with changes in the dc bias current. The influence of the nanowire morphology on field-dependent switching of the contacts is also discussed. Owing to their nanoscale geometry, ~5 orders of magnitude less current is required to achieve nonlocal spin valve voltages comparable to those attained in planar microscale spin transport devices, suggesting lower power consumption and the potential for applications of Si nanowires in nanospintronics.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(6): 067402, 2011 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21902367

RESUMO

We report magnetophotoluminescence studies of strongly quantum-confined 0D diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), realized in Mn(2+)-doped ZnSe/CdSe core-shell colloidal nanocrystals. In marked contrast to their 3D (bulk), 2D (quantum well), 1D (quantum wire), and 0D (self-assembled quantum dot) DMS counterparts, the ubiquitous yellow emission band from internal d-d ((4)T(1)→(6)A(1)) transitions of the Mn(2+) ions in these nanocrystals is not suppressed in applied magnetic fields and does become circularly polarized. This polarization tracks the Mn(2+) magnetization, and is accompanied by a sizable energy splitting between right- and left-circular emission components that scales with the exciton-Mn sp-d coupling strength (which, in turn, is tunable with nanocrystal size). These data highlight the influence of strong quantum confinement on both the excitation and the emission mechanisms of magnetic ions in DMS nanomaterials.

19.
Nano Lett ; 11(11): 4753-8, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21942276

RESUMO

We have developed a new class of colloidal nanocrystals composed of Cu-doped ZnSe cores overcoated with CdSe shells. Via spectroscopic and magneto-optical studies, we conclusively demonstrate that Cu impurities represent paramagnetic +2 species and serve as a source of permanent optically active holes. This implies that the Fermi level is located below the Cu(2+)/Cu(1+) state, that is, in the lower half of the forbidden gap, which is a signature of a p-doped material. It further suggests that the activation of optical emission due to the Cu level requires injection of only an electron without a need for a valence-band hole. This peculiar electron-only emission mechanism is confirmed by experiments in which the titration of the nanocrystals with hole-withdrawing molecules leads to enhancement of Cu-related photoluminescence while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic, band-edge exciton emission. In addition to containing permanent optically active holes, these newly developed materials show unprecedented emission tunability from near-infrared (1.2 eV) to the blue (3.1 eV) and reduced losses from reabsorption due to a large Stokes shift (up to 0.7 eV). These properties make them very attractive for applications in light-emission and lasing technologies and especially for the realization of novel device concepts such as "zero-threshold" optical gain.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Refratometria/métodos , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade
20.
ACS Nano ; 5(8): 6686-94, 2011 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21790146

RESUMO

A general challenge in generating functional materials from nanoscale components is integrating them into useful composites that retain or enhance their properties of interest. Development of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) materials for optoelectronics and sensing has been especially challenging in that SWNT optical and electronic properties are highly sensitive to environmental interactions, which can be particularly severe in composite matrices. Percolation of SWNTs into aqueous silica gels shows promise as an important route for exploiting their properties, but retention of the aqueous and surfactant environment still impacts and limits optical response, while also limiting the range of conditions in which these materials may be applied. Here, we present for the first time an innovative approach to obtain highly fluorescent solution-free SWNT-silica aerogels, which provides access to novel photophysical properties. Strongly blue-shifted spectral features, revelation of new diameter-dependent gas-phase adsorption phenomena, and significant increase (approximately three times that at room temperature) in photoluminescence intensities at cryogenic temperatures all indicate greatly reduced SWNT-matrix interactions consistent with the SWNTs experiencing a surfactant-free environment. The results demonstrate that this solid-state nanomaterial will play an important role in further revealing the true intrinsic SWNT chemical and photophysical behaviors and represent for the first time a promising new solution- and surfactant-free material for advancing SWNT applications in sensing, photonics, and optoelectronics.

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