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1.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) frequently co-occurs with eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa (BN). Theoretical models and empirical evidence show many overlapping risk factors for the onset and maintenance of NSSI and BN. However, among those with BN, it remains unclear what distinguishes those who do versus do not engage in NSSI. The primary objective of the present study was to identify factors predicting NSSI among women with BN. Specifically, we tested four domains of borderline personality disorder as mediators between childhood trauma and NSSI. METHOD: Using structural equation modeling we tested a parallel mediation model to predict NSSI among women with BN (N = 130). Childhood trauma (measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire at baseline) was the independent variable. The four parallel mediators (measured at baseline via the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines, Revised) were lifetime negative affect, impulsive actions, atypical cognitions (e.g., odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, quasi-psychotic thinking), and interpersonal problems. The dependent variable was instances of NSSI during a subsequent two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. RESULTS: Childhood trauma was significantly associated with all four mediators (all p values < .01), but only atypical cognitions predicted NSSI (p = .03). The indirect path from childhood trauma to NSSI, through atypical cognitions was significant (path coefficient = .001, SE < .001, p = .01). DISCUSSION: Among women with BN, childhood trauma was associated with atypical cognitions, which in turn predicted NSSI. Atypical cognitions may be a mechanism for NSSI in this population.

2.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) studies suggest that among individuals who binge eat, emotional states and binge eating are functionally related. However, it is unclear whether the trajectory of negative affect (NA) is the same across diagnostic groups or if specific changes in affect are unique to each diagnostic category. This study examined the moderating effect of diagnosis on the trajectory of negative affect before and after binge eating. METHOD: Adults with eating disorder diagnoses (anorexia nervosa [AN] = 118, bulimia nervosa [BN] = 133, binge-eating disorder [BED] = 112) completed an EMA where they reported binge eating and negative affect throughout the day. Generalized estimating equation analyses were used to model the trajectories of NA before and after binge eating. RESULTS: For all individuals, the linear trajectory of NA significantly increased before (B = 0.044, p < .001) and decreased following the binge-eating episode (B = -0.054, p < .001). However, diagnosis moderated this trajectory. Specifically, individuals with BN had a greater change in linear trajectories of NA before (B = 2.305, p < .001) and after (B = -4.149, p < .001) binge eating compared to those with BED, but not those with AN. There were no differences in the trajectory of NA between individuals with BED or AN. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that binge-eating episodes in BN may be more strongly associated with NA than in BED, but similar to binge-eating episodes in AN.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur and can share a functional relationship. The primary aim of this initial randomized controlled trial was to determine whether integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for co-occurring ED-PTSD was superior to standard CBT for ED in improving PTSD symptoms. Intervention safety and desirability, as well as the relative efficacy of the treatments in improving anxiety, depression, and ED symptomatology, were also examined. METHODS: Following a course of intensive ED treatment, individuals with ED-PTSD were recruited to participate and randomized to integrated CBT for ED-PTSD or standard CBT for ED. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with a range of ED diagnoses. Outcomes were assessed at end-of-treatment, 3-, and 6-month follow-up using interview and self-report measures. RESULTS: Mixed models revealed significant interactions of time and therapy condition on clinician-rated and self-reported PTSD symptom severity favoring Integrated CBT for ED-PTSD. Both treatments were associated with statistically significant improvements in PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Improvements were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. There was good safety with both interventions, and satisfaction with both treatments was high. However, there was a stronger preference for integrated treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating CBTs for PTSD and ED following intensive ED treatment is safe, desirable, and efficacious for improving PTSD symptoms. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to determine whether Integrated CBT for ED-PTSD provides benefits over standard CBT for ED with respect to ED outcomes.

4.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the complex relationship between eating disorder (ED) specific psychopathology, emotion dysregulation, and their longitudinal variations in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) treated with a multidisciplinary approach including enhanced cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT-E), and to provide an integrated model which includes childhood trauma as a predictor of worse treatment outcomes. METHOD: In total, 120 female patients with AN were evaluated at admission (T0), and 105 were re-evaluated after 1 year (T1) of treatment. At T0, patients underwent a clinical assessment and filled the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL90-R), the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). SCL-90-R, EDE-Q, and DERS were readministered at T1. Variations between T0 and T1 were evaluated, and the proposed model was investigated using bivariate latent change score analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. RESULTS: An overall significant clinical amelioration was observed after treatment. A unidirectional effect of DERS scores on EDE-Q variations was outlined by SEM: patients with higher baseline DERS scores achieved less EDE-Q improvements, and EDE-Q latent change score was significantly predicted by longitudinal variations of DERS-but not vice versa. Higher CTQ scores predicted reduced treatment efficacy for ED-specific psychopathology through the mediating effect of higher baseline DERS scores. DISCUSSION: The present study sheds light on the mechanism by which early trauma compromises treatment outcome in patients with AN, underlining the crucial role of emotional dysregulation.

6.
Clin Psychol Sci ; 9(4): 752-760, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765322

RESUMO

This report examined baseline affective response to binge eating as a predictor of binge-eating disorder (BED) treatment outcome. Baseline affective response was defined as: (1) each individual's average net change (i.e., area under the curve [AUC]) of positive affect (PA) or negative affect (NA) before and after binge-eating episodes and (2) post-binge eating slope of PA or NA across seven-days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adults with BED completed Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BED) or cognitive behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh). Individuals with greater net increases in PA (AUC) following binge eating at baseline exhibited better treatment response in ICAT-BED at end-of-treatment and follow-up. NA affective response was only significant at end-of-treatment; individuals with less rapid post-binge improvements in NA (slope) did better in ICAT-BED, while individuals with lower net improvements in NA (AUC) did better in CBTgsh. Affective response to binge eating may be a marker of BED treatment response.

7.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(12): 2026-2032, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain and obesity are frequently co-morbid health conditions; thus, it is unsurprising that pain is commonly experienced by individuals seeking bariatric surgery. While pain is generally reduced in the short-term after surgery, there is also variability in pain outcomes and less is known about how unresolved or recurring pain may relate to long-term weight loss and weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated trajectories of pain scores through 7 years following bariatric surgery and whether higher pain levels related to poorer weight loss and greater weight regain. SETTING: Data were collected from 3 university hospitals, 1 private not-for-profit research institute, and 1 community hospital. METHODS: Self-report measures of pain and weight change data were utilized for 1702 adults seeking Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery from the Longitudinal Assessment for Bariatric Surgery (LABS) cohort. A series of linear mixed models examined trajectories of pain scores and the concurrent predictive relationship between pain and weight outcomes from pre-surgery through 7 years post-surgery. RESULTS: Overall bodily-, hip-, and knee-pain improved through 2 years, deteriorated from 2-5 years, and then slightly improved from 5-7 years following surgery (P < .001). Greater pain was concurrently associated with less weight loss and greater weight regain over time (P ≤ .006). CONCLUSION: Pain is evident in the long-term following bariatric surgery and associated with suboptimal weight outcomes. More research is needed to identify mechanisms underlying this relationship, which may ultimately help develop appropriate pain assessment and treatment strategies to ensure optimal post-surgery outcomes.

8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(11): 1989-1997, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stepped-care models of treatment are underexplored in eating disorders. To enhance treatment outcomes, and informed by literature about adaptations to family-based treatment (FBT), we developed an FBT-based stepped-care model for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) that was consistent with family preference (i.e., tailored) and responsive to adolescent needs (i.e., intensity). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this model in terms of remission at end-of-treatment. METHOD: Adolescents (N = 82), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.1, SD = 1.8) and meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition criteria for AN, were assessed at baseline, Weeks 24 and 48. FBT was tailored to family preference and clinical need, with 16-18 sessions by Week 24. This was followed by three FBT booster sessions or an extension of FBT plus booster sessions (Week 48). The primary outcome was defined as weight > 95% of %median body mass index plus within 1 SD of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score community norms. RESULTS: Remission rates were 45.1% and 52.4% at Weeks 24 and 48, respectively. Commensurable improvements were evident across secondary outcomes (e.g., EDE subscale scores). As a reference point, remission rates compared positively with results from a recent randomized clinical trial from the same center and at the same time points (Week 24:45.1% vs. 32.1% and Week 48:52.4% vs. 30.2%). Controlling for propensity score, no statistically significant differences were observed. DISCUSSION: This stepped-care model, designed to be responsive to the individual needs of adolescents and their families, achieved encouraging rates of remission. This study provides an important signal that supports future clinical trials of stepped-care models for adolescents with AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Terapia Familiar , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12851, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent sleep patterns may promote excess weight gain by increasing food cravings and loss-of-control (LOC)-eating; however, these relationships have not been elucidated in youth. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether sleep duration and timing were associated with food cravings and LOC-eating. METHOD: For 14 days, youths wore actigraphy monitors to assess sleep and reported severity of food cravings and LOC-eating using ecological momentary assessment. Generalized linear mixed models tested the associations between weekly and nightly shifts in facets of sleep (i.e., duration, onset, midpoint, and waketime) and next-day food cravings and LOC-eating. Models were re-run adjusting for relevant covariates (e.g., age, sex, adiposity). RESULTS: Among 48 youths (12.88 ± 2.69 years, 68.8% female, 33.3% with overweight/obesity), neither weekly nor nightly facets of sleep were significantly associated with food cravings (ps = 0.08-0.93). Youths with shorter weekly sleep duration (est. ß = -0.31, p = 0.004), earlier weekly midpoints (est. ß = -0.47, p = 0.010) and later weekly waketimes (est. ß = 0.49, p = 0.010) reported greater LOC-eating severity; findings persisted in adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: In youth, weekly, but not nightly, shifts in multiple facets of sleep were associated with LOC-eating severity; associations were not significant for food cravings. Sleep should be assessed as a potentially modifiable target in paediatric LOC-eating and obesity prevention programs.

10.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research shows that surgery patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are at increased risk for an alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, the mechanisms through which this increased risk is incurred are poorly understood. A host of variables have been proposed as potentially causal in developing AUDs, but empirical examination of many of these variables in human samples is lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the extent to which alcohol pharmacokinetics (PK), the rewarding effects of alcohol, and the relationship between these variables change from before to after weight loss surgery. SETTING: Large healthcare facility in the Midwest United States METHODS: Thirty-four participants completed assessments before and 1 year after RYGB. They completed laboratory sessions and provided data on the PK of alcohol and the extent to which alcohol was reinforcing to them at each timepoint. RESULTS: Findings show that the PK effects of alcohol (P < .01) and how rewarding alcohol was reported to be (P < .01) changed from before to 1 year after weight loss surgery. Further, statistically significant increases in the association between these variables were witnessed from before to 1 year after surgery (P < .01). CONCLUSION: These results implicate changes (from before surgery to one year after) in the reinforcing and PK effects of alcohol as possible mechanisms for increased risk of alcohol use disorder following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

11.
Child Abuse Negl ; 122: 105307, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with a range of health problems, yet protective factors such as self-compassion may help buffer these associations. OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations of distinct patterns of ACEs with depressive symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and disordered eating symptoms and investigated self-compassion as a potential protective factor. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data from a diverse sample of 1440 emerging adults (Mage = 22.2 years; 53.7% female; 80.3% with race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic white) came from the population-based EAT 2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) study. METHODS: Seven types of ACEs were retrospectively self-reported and used as model indicators in latent class analysis to identify patterns of ACEs. Self-compassion, depressive symptoms, height and weight (to calculate BMI), and disordered eating symptoms were also assessed. Demographic-adjusted regression models were conducted. RESULTS: Three latent classes emerged: "low ACEs" (66.5% of the sample), "household dysfunction" (24.3%), and "household dysfunction and abuse" (9.1%). Compared to participants in the "low ACEs" class, participants in either latent class involving household dysfunction demonstrated higher levels of depressive and disordered eating symptoms. Participants in the "household dysfunction and abuse" class also had higher BMI. Associations differed by self-compassion for depressive symptoms (pinteraction = 0.01), BMI (pinteraction = 0.03), and disordered eating symptoms (pinteraction = 0.005), such that associations for latent classes characterized by ACEs were weaker with higher levels of self-compassion. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest self-compassion may act as a buffer against adverse mood-, weight-, and eating-related outcomes in the face of adversity and therefore may be an important intervention target.

12.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(6): 543-562, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475351

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The availability of psychometrically sound assessment instruments for assessing eating disorder symptomatology is crucial for both clinical practice and research. The purpose of the current review is to provide the reader with a list of psychometrically validated assessments for adults that are available within the field of eating disorders. Eating disorder interviews and self-report questionnaires were identified using online literature searches, reviewing previous review articles, and via research and/or clinical experience of the authors. The focus of the review was on (1) standard assessments that were frequently used in eating disorder research (such as the Eating Disorder Examination and Eating Attitudes Test), and (2) newer assessments that were developed over the past 5 years. Information compiled on each instrument included the purpose of the assessment, scores that can be derived, psychometric information, translations in other languages, and availability for use in research and clinical settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent trends in assessment instruments were identified including updates based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria, briefer assessments, assessments for specific populations, and assessment of specific clinical features observed in people with eating disorders. SUMMARY: The current review provides eating disorder clinicians and researchers a guide for making informed decisions about the selection of eating disorder assessments.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 109, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are amongst the deadliest of all mental disorders, however detection and early intervention rates remain extremely low. Current standardised screening questionnaires can be arduous or confronting and are ill-validated for online use, despite a universal shift to digital healthcare. The present study describes the development and pilot validation of a novel digital screening tool (the InsideOut Institute-Screener) for high risk and early stage eating disorders to drive early intervention and reduced morbidity. METHODS: We utilised a mixed cross-sectional and repeated measures longitudinal survey research design to assess symptom severity and recognised parameters of statistical validity. Participants were recruited through social media and traditional advertising, and through MTurk. An Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score of 2.3 and assessment of eating disorder behaviours was used to determine probable ED. 1346 participants aged 14-74 (mean [SE] age 26.60 [11.14] years; 73.8% female, 22.6% male) completed the survey battery. 19% were randomised to two-week follow-up for reliability analysis. RESULTS: Strong positive correlations between the IOI-S and both the EDE-Q global (rs = .88) and SCOFF (rs = .75) total score were found, providing support for the concurrent validity of the scale. Inter-item correlations were moderate to strong (rs = .46-.73). Correlations between the IOI-S and two measures of social desirability diverged, providing support for the discriminant validity of the scale. The IOI-S demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .908, ω = .910) and excellent two-week test-retest reliability (.968, 95% CI 0.959-0.975; p ≤ 0.1). The IOI-S accurately distinguished probable eating disorders (sensitivity = 82.8%, specificity = 89.7% [AUC = .944], LR+ = 8.04, LR- = 0.19) and two stepped levels of risk. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study provides excellent initial support for the psychometric validity of the InsideOut Institute digital screening tool, which has the potential to streamline early intervention in the hopes of reducing current high morbidity and mortality. Further validation should be undertaken in known clinical populations. Eating disorders are amongst the deadliest of all mental disorders, however detection and early intervention rates remain extremely low. The present study describes the initial psychometric validation of a novel digital screening tool (the InsideOut Institute Screener) for high risk and early stage eating disorders, for self-referral and/or use in primary care. 1346 participants aged 14-74 of all genders completed a survey battery designed to assess common parameters of statistical validity. Strong support was found for the screener's ability to accurately measure eating disorder risk and symptomatology. The screener was highly positively correlated with a well known and extensively validated long form self-report questionnaire for eating disorder symptomatology. This study is a pilot validation and the genesis of a project that aims ultimately to drive early intervention leading to reduced morbidity and mortality rates in this illness group.

14.
Eat Disord ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383627

RESUMO

The acquired preparedness (AP) model of eating disorder (ED) risk suggests transaction between impulsive traits and eating expectancies, though there remains a lack of research investigating distinct facets of impulsivity within this framework. This study examined how different facets of impulsivity moderate associations between eating expectancies and binge-eating severity in daily life. Women with binge-eating symptoms (N = 40) completed surveys followed by 10 days of ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized estimating equations examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsivity facets and eating expectancies on EMA-measured binge-eating severity. Significant interactions were found between eating expectancies and emotional and behavioral impulsivity, but not a cognitive facet. Results suggest that among women high in emotional impulsivity, those with greater eating expectancies report higher binge-eating severity. Conversely, among those with lower behavioral impulsivity, those with lower eating expectancies report lower binge-eating severity. Future prospective work is needed with non-clinical samples.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458883

RESUMO

Background: Rumination is linked to negative affect (NA), and there is accumulating support for an association between rumination and eating disorder (ED) behaviors. However, no research has examined the dynamic interrelationships between negative affect, rumination, and binge eating in naturalistic settings. Methods: The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess the hypotheses that momentary rumination would mediate relationships between NA and binge eating, and momentary NA would mediate relationships between rumination and binge eating. Given that rumination may be focused on weight, shape, and food in ED samples, models were examined separately for general and ED-specific rumination. Forty women completed a 10-day EMA protocol that included measures of NA, general and ED-specific rumination, and binge eating. Results: Multilevel mediation models indicated significant within-subjects indirect effects, such that momentary general rumination mediated the association between NA and binge eating, and NA also mediated the association between general but not ED-specific rumination and binge eating. Between-subjects effects indicated women with higher overall NA reported greater ED-specific rumination, which was associated with greater binge eating. Limitations: The study was limited by a modest sample size, and the design precludes causal inferences. Conclusions: Results highlight the momentary interplay between rumination and NA as a mechanism underlying binge eating, as well as the specificity of ruminative thought content in relationship to binge eating. Future work is needed to address the construct of rumination in the context of eating disorder interventions.

16.
Body Image ; 39: 139-145, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358817

RESUMO

Body dissatisfaction (BD) and preoccupation with thoughts of food (PTF) are intertwined and are components of thought-shape fusion. Thought-shape fusion describes the process by which PTF lead to beliefs about weight and shape. To study thought-shape fusion in daily life and explore various transitions between BD and PTF, 30 women with binge eating completed ecological momentary assessment for 14 days. BD and PTF were assessed using continuous rating scales at each prompt. Multi-state modeling, which analyzes micro-temporal transitions between discrete states, was used to examine transitions among four states created with BD and PTF ratings. The four states included low BD/low PTF, low BD/high PTF, high BD/low PTF, and high BD/high PTF. Affect and disordered eating were examined as covariates of state transitions. Results showed high BD states were self-perpetrating, such that when in high BD states, transition to low BD states were less likely. Regarding covariates, positive affect buffered against maladaptive transitions whereas negative affect and disordered eating increased risk. Findings highlighted high BD states as influential, and negative affect and disordered eating as risk factors and positive affect as preventive. This study enhances theory of thought-shape fusion and implicates transitions from BD to PTF as possible underlying transitions.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175963

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and 12-month eating disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders among U.S. adults. METHODS: This study used data collected between 2001 and 2003 from 2914 participants in the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (mean age = 44.9 years; 53.4% female). Twelve-month food insecurity was assessed with a modified version of the Short Form U.S. Household Food Security Scale. Twelve-month DSM-IV diagnoses of mental disorders were based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Modified Poisson regression models were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income-to-poverty ratio. RESULTS: Food insecurity was experienced by 11.1% of participants. Food insecurity was associated with greater prevalence of bulimic-spectrum eating disorders (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.26-6.42), mood disorders (PR = 2.53; 95% CI 1.96-3.29), and anxiety disorders (PR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.39-2.07). CONCLUSION: Results indicate that food insecurity is associated with a range of internalizing mental disorders, though these findings should be confirmed with contemporary data to reflect DSM-5 diagnostic updates and the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings from this study emphasize the need to expand food insecurity interventions and improve access to mental health services for food-insecure populations.

18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(8): 1426-1437, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Among youth with overweight, food cravings (FC) are associated with loss-of-control (LOC)-eating, but the impact of sex-associated biological characteristics on this relationship is unknown. We examined whether sex and gonadal hormone concentrations moderated the relationships between FC and LOC-eating severity among healthy boys and girls across the weight strata in natural and laboratory environments. METHOD: Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), FC, and LOC-eating severity were reported 3-5 times a day for 2 weeks. In the laboratory, participants reported FC, consumed lunch from a buffet test meal designed to simulate LOC-eating, and rated LOC-eating severity during the meal. RESULTS: Eighty-seven youth (13.0 ± 2.7 years, 58.6% female, 32.2% with overweight/obesity) participated. EMA measured general and momentary FC were positively associated with LOC-eating severity (ps < .01), with no differences by sex (ps = .21-.93). Estradiol and progesterone significantly moderated the relationships between FC and LOC-eating such that general FC and LOC-eating severity were only positively associated among girls with greater (vs. lower) estradiol (p = .01), and momentary FC and LOC-eating severity were only positively associated among girls with greater (vs. lower) progesterone (p = .01). Boys' testosterone did not significantly moderate the associations between FC and LOC-eating severity (ps = .36-.97). At the test meal, pre-meal FC were positively related to LOC-eating severity (p < .01), without sex or hormonal moderation (ps = .20-.64). DISCUSSION: FC were related to LOC-eating severity in boys and girls. In the natural environment, gonadal hormones moderated this relationship in girls, but not boys. The mechanisms through which gonadal hormones might affect the relationship between FC and LOC-eating warrant investigation.


Assuntos
Fissura , Sobrepeso , Adolescente , Ingestão de Alimentos , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hormônios Gonadais , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056136

RESUMO

The purpose of this investigation is to identify the anticipatory reward mechanisms that maintain binge eating and purging in bulimia nervosa. Emerging data indicate the importance of reward and anticipatory processes as maintenance mechanisms of bulimia nervosa that can be targeted in treatment. The proposed research will identify neurobiological and psychological anticipatory mechanisms of binge eating and purging using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in the natural environment. In this investigation, 60 adults (30 with bulimia nervosa and 30 matched comparison participants) will undergo negative and positive mood inductions followed by an fMRI food selection task (and a comparison shopping task) to examine neurobiological and affective responses to food and non-food reward anticipation. Participants with bulimia nervosa will complete two weeks of EMA examining real-time affect changes in relation to the anticipation of binge eating and purging. These methods will facilitate rigorous assessment of the links between neurobiological (fMRI) and naturalistic (EMA) data in anticipatory reward processes. Findings from this investigation will inform the conceptualization and treatment of bulimia nervosa by identifying the role of reward anticipation in symptom maintenance, providing a crucial framework for targeting these anticipatory processes in existing and novel interventions.

20.
Psychiatry ; 84(2): 137-149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33944699

RESUMO

Objective: Suicide attempts and self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) are known to be elevated among people with bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of the current study was to examine the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) as a framework for understanding, assessing, and mitigating suicidal behavior among women with BN. The IPTS suggests that for individuals to enact lethal suicide attempts, they must have both the desire to die (consisting of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) as well as the capability to die (often acquired through repeated exposure to provocative or painful experiences).Method: Two-hundred and four women with eating disorders, the majority of whom met criteria for a current DSM-IV diagnosis of BN, completed measures from which proxies for IPTS variables were formed. Bivariate correlations and multiple regressions tested main effects and interactions of study variables. Tests of the difference between dependent correlations probed differential associations between study variables and suicidal ideation versus suicidal behavior.Results and Conclusions: Results yielded considerable but not unalloyed support for the theory, with desire to die variables (particularly perceived burdensomeness) more strongly associating with suicidal ideation than behavior, and the opposite holding true regarding capability. These findings suggest that the IPTS may provide a useful framework for understanding, assessing, and mitigating suicide risk among individuals with BN.


Assuntos
Bulimia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio
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