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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36063305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC); however, there is limited knowledge on whether changing alcohol drinking habits during adulthood modifies CRC risk. OBJECTIVE: Leveraging longitudinal exposure assessments on alcohol intake at different ages, we examined the relationship between change in alcohol intake and subsequent CRC risk. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, changes in alcohol intake comparing follow-up with baseline assessments were investigated in relation to CRC risk. The analysis included 191,180, participants and 1530 incident CRC cases, with exclusion of the first three years of follow-up to minimize reverse causation. Trajectory profiles of alcohol intake, assessed at ages 20, 30, 40, 50 years, at baseline and during follow-up, were estimated using latent class mixed models and related to CRC risk, including 407,605 participants and 5,008 incident CRC cases. RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 50.2 years and the follow-up assessment occurred on average 7.1 years later. Compared to stable intake, a 12 g/day increase in alcohol intake during follow-up was positively associated with CRC risk (HR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04, 1.25), while a 12 g/day reduction was inversely associated with CRC risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78, 0.95). Trajectory analysis showed that compared to low alcohol intake, men who increased their alcohol intake from early- to mid- and late-adulthood by up to 30 g/day on average had significantly increased CRC risk (HR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.08, 1.42), while no associations were observed in women. Results were consistent by anatomical subsite. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake during mid-to-late adulthood raised CRC risk, while reduction lowered risk.

2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD015196, 2022 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications with anticholinergic properties are commonly prescribed to older adults with a pre-existing diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment. The cumulative anticholinergic effect of all the medications a person takes is referred to as the anticholinergic burden because of its potential to cause adverse effects. It is possible that a high anticholinergic burden may be a risk factor for further cognitive decline or neuropsychiatric disturbances in people with dementia. Neuropsychiatric disturbances are the most frequent complication of dementia that require hospitalisation, accounting for almost half of admissions; hence, identification of modifiable prognostic factors for these outcomes is crucial. There are various scales available to measure anticholinergic burden but agreement between them is often poor. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to assess whether anticholinergic burden, as defined at the level of each individual scale, was a prognostic factor for further cognitive decline or neuropsychiatric disturbances in older adults with pre-existing diagnoses of dementia or cognitive impairment. Our secondary objective was to investigate whether anticholinergic burden was a prognostic factor for other adverse clinical outcomes, including mortality, impaired physical function, and institutionalisation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched these databases from inception to 29 November 2021: MEDLINE OvidSP, Embase OvidSP, PsycINFO OvidSP, CINAHL EBSCOhost, and ISI Web of Science Core Collection on ISI Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective and retrospective longitudinal cohort and case-control observational studies, with a minimum of one-month follow-up, which examined the association between an anticholinergic burden measurement scale and the above stated adverse clinical outcomes, in older adults with pre-existing diagnoses of dementia or cognitive impairment.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, and undertook data extraction, risk of bias assessment, and GRADE assessment. We summarised risk associations between anticholinergic burden and all clinical outcomes in a narrative fashion. We also evaluated the risk association between anticholinergic burden and mortality using a random-effects meta-analysis.  We established adjusted pooled rates for the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale; then, as an exploratory analysis, established pooled rates on the prespecified association across scales.  MAIN RESULTS: We identified 18 studies that met our inclusion criteria (102,684 older adults). Anticholinergic burden was measured using five distinct measurement scales: 12 studies used the ACB scale; 3 studies used the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS); 1 study used the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS); 1 study used the Anticholinergic Effect on Cognition (AEC) Scale; and 2 studies used a list developed by Tune and Egeli.  Risk associations between anticholinergic burden and adverse clinical outcomes were highly heterogenous. Four out of 10 (40%) studies reported a significantly increased risk of greater long-term cognitive decline for participants with an anticholinergic burden compared to participants with no or minimal anticholinergic burden. No studies investigated neuropsychiatric disturbance outcomes. One out of four studies (25%) reported a significant association with reduced physical function for participants with an anticholinergic burden versus participants with no or minimal anticholinergic burden. No study (out of one investigating study) reported a significant association between anticholinergic burden and risk of institutionalisation. Six out of 10 studies (60%) found a significantly increased risk of mortality for those with an anticholinergic burden compared to those with no or minimal anticholinergic burden. Pooled analysis of adjusted mortality hazard ratios (HR) measured anticholinergic burden with the ACB scale, and suggested a significantly increased risk of death for those with a high ACB score relative to those with no or minimal ACB scores (HR 1.153, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.030 to 1.292; 4 studies, 48,663 participants). An exploratory pooled analysis of adjusted mortality HRs across anticholinergic burden scales also suggested a significantly increased risk of death for those with a high anticholinergic burden (HR 1.102, 95% CI 1.044 to 1.163; 6 studies, 68,381 participants).   Overall GRADE evaluation of results found low- or very low-certainty evidence for all outcomes.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is low-certainty evidence that older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have a significant anticholinergic burden may be at increased risk of death. No firm conclusions can be drawn for risk of accelerated cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric disturbances, decline in physical function, or institutionalisation.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Demência/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD012652, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable health condition. COPD is associated with substantial burden on morbidity, mortality and healthcare resources. OBJECTIVES: To review existing evidence for educational interventions delivered to health professionals managing COPD in the primary care setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register from inception to May 2021. The Register includes records from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and PsycINFO. We also searched online trial registries and reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs. Eligible studies tested educational interventions aimed at any health professionals involved in the management of COPD in primary care. Educational interventions were defined as interventions aimed at upskilling, improving or refreshing existing knowledge of health professionals in the diagnosis and management of COPD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and full texts of eligible studies, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We conducted meta-analyses where possible and used random-effects models to yield summary estimates of effect (mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)). We performed narrative synthesis when meta-analysis was not possible. We assessed the overall certainty of evidence for each outcome using Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Primary outcomes were: 1) proportion of COPD diagnoses confirmed with spirometry; 2) proportion of patients with COPD referred to, participating in or completing pulmonary rehabilitation; and 3) proportion of patients with COPD prescribed respiratory medication consistent with guideline recommendations. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 38 studies(22 cluster-RCTs and 16 RCTs) involving 4936 health professionals (reported in 19/38 studies) and 71,085 patient participants (reported in 25/38 studies). Thirty-six included studies evaluated interventions versus usual care; seven studies also reported a comparison between two or more interventions as part of a three- to five-arm RCT design. A range of simple to complex interventions were used across the studies, with common intervention features including education provided to health professionals via training sessions, workshops or online modules (31 studies), provision of practice support tools, tool kits and/or algorithms (10 studies), provision of guidelines (nine studies) and training on spirometry (five studies). Health professionals targeted by the interventions were most commonly general practitioners alone (20 studies) or in combination with nurses or allied health professionals (eight studies), and the majority of studies were conducted in general practice clinics. We identified performance bias as high risk for 33 studies. We also noted risk of selection, detection, attrition and reporting biases, although to a varying extent across studies. The evidence of efficacy was equivocal for all the three primary endpoints evaluated: 1) proportion of COPD diagnoses confirmed with spirometry (of the four studies that reported this outcome, two supported the intervention); 2) proportion of patients with COPD who are referred to, participate in or complete pulmonary rehabilitation (of the four studies that reported this outcome, two supported the intervention); and 3) proportion of patients with COPD prescribed respiratory medications consistent with guideline recommendations (12 studies reported this outcome, the majority evaluated multiple drug classes and reported a mixed effect). Additionally, the low quality of evidence and potential risk of bias make the interpretation more difficult. Moderate-quality evidence (downgraded due to risk of bias concerns) suggests that educational interventions for health professionals probably improve the proportion of patients with COPD vaccinated against influenza (three studies) and probably have little impact on the proportion of patients vaccinated against pneumococcal infection (two studies). Low-quality evidence suggests that educational interventions for health professionals may have little or no impact on the frequency of COPD exacerbations (10 studies). There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the reporting of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Low-quality evidence suggests that educational interventions for health professionals may have little or no impact on HRQoL overall, and when using the COPD-specific HRQoL instrument, the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (at six months MD 0.87, 95% CI -2.51 to 4.26; 2 studies, 406 participants, and at 12 months MD -0.43, 95% CI -1.52 to 0.67, 4 studies, 1646 participants; reduction in score indicates better health). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that educational interventions for health professionals may improve patient satisfaction with care (one study). We identified no studies that reported adverse outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence of efficacy was equivocal for educational interventions for health professionals in primary care on the proportion of COPD diagnoses confirmed with spirometry, the proportion of patients with COPD who participate in pulmonary rehabilitation, and the proportion of patients prescribed guideline-recommended COPD respiratory medications. Educational interventions for health professionals may improve influenza vaccination rates among patients with COPD and patient satisfaction with care. The quality of evidence for most outcomes was low or very low due to heterogeneity and methodological limitations of the studies included in the review, which means that there is uncertainty about the benefits of any currently published educational interventions for healthcare professionals to improve COPD management in primary care. Further well-designed RCTs are needed to investigate the effects of educational interventions delivered to health professionals managing COPD in the primary care setting.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Health Technol Assess ; 26(26): 1-156, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy surveillance is recommended for some patients post polypectomy. The 2002 UK surveillance guidelines classify post-polypectomy patients into low, intermediate and high risk, and recommend different strategies for each classification. Limited evidence supports these guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To examine, for each risk group, long-term colorectal cancer incidence by baseline characteristics and the number of surveillance visits; the effects of interval length on detection rates of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer at first surveillance; and the cost-effectiveness of surveillance compared with no surveillance. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study and economic evaluation. SETTING: Seventeen NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a colonoscopy and at least one adenoma at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Long-term colorectal cancer incidence after baseline and detection rates of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer at first surveillance. DATA SOURCES: Hospital databases, NHS Digital, the Office for National Statistics, National Services Scotland and Public Health England. METHODS: Cox regression was used to compare colorectal cancer incidence in the presence and absence of surveillance and to identify colorectal cancer risk factors. Risk factors were used to stratify risk groups into higher- and lower-risk subgroups. We examined detection rates of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer at first surveillance by interval length. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance compared with no surveillance was evaluated in terms of incremental costs per colorectal cancer prevented and per quality-adjusted life-year gained. RESULTS: Our study included 28,972 patients, of whom 14,401 (50%), 11,852 (41%) and 2719 (9%) were classed as low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. The median follow-up time was 9.3 years. Colorectal cancer incidence was 140, 221 and 366 per 100,000 person-years among low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively. Attendance at one surveillance visit was associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence among low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients [hazard ratios were 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.80), 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.43 to 0.81) and 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.82), respectively]. Compared with the general population, colorectal cancer incidence without surveillance was similar among low-risk patients and higher among high-risk patients [standardised incidence ratios were 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.02) and 1.91 (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.56), respectively]. For intermediate-risk patients, standardised incidence ratios differed for the lower- (0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.99) and higher-risk (1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.78) subgroups. In each risk group, incremental costs per colorectal cancer prevented and per quality-adjusted life-year gained with surveillance were lower for the higher-risk subgroup than for the lower-risk subgroup. Incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained were lowest for the higher-risk subgroup of high-risk patients at £7821. LIMITATIONS: The observational design means that we cannot assume that surveillance caused the reductions in cancer incidence. The fact that some cancer staging data were missing places uncertainty on our cost-effectiveness estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance was associated with reduced colorectal cancer incidence in all risk groups. However, in low-risk patients and the lower-risk subgroup of intermediate-risk patients, colorectal cancer incidence was no higher than in the general population without surveillance, indicating that surveillance might not be necessary. Surveillance was most cost-effective for the higher-risk subgroup of high-risk patients. FUTURE WORK: Studies should examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of post-polypectomy surveillance without prior classification of patients into risk groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered as ISRCTN15213649. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 26, No. 26. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Bowel cancers develop from polyps, also called adenomas, which are growths on the lining of the bowel. Removal of adenomas, therefore, helps prevent bowel cancer. Adenomas can be detected and removed during colonoscopy, when a thin tube with a camera on one end is used to examine the bowel lining. In the UK, patients with adenomas are divided into three risk groups. Low-risk patients (i.e. those with one or two adenomas that are < 10 mm in size) are thought to be unlikely to develop bowel cancer after adenoma removal and follow-up colonoscopy is not recommended in this group. Intermediate-risk patients (i.e. those with three or four adenomas that are < 10 mm in size, or one or two adenomas with at least one ≥ 10 mm in size) are recommended to have another colonoscopy 3 years after adenoma removal. High-risk patients (i.e. those with five or more adenomas that are < 10 mm in size, or three or more adenomas with at least one ≥ 10 mm in size) are recommended to have another colonoscopy after 1 year and then usually again after 3 years. The number of follow-up colonoscopies carried out is stretching health-care resources and each procedure carries a small risk of complications for patients. It is possible that too many follow-up colonoscopies are being carried out. This study aimed to determine which patients require follow-up colonoscopies and how many are required to detect adenomas and prevent bowel cancer, while also being resource-efficient, cost-effective and not exposing patients to unnecessary risks. The study used data from 17 hospitals and cancer registries in the UK. In each risk group, one follow-up colonoscopy after adenoma removal was associated with a 40­50% reduction in bowel cancer risk. However, even without any follow-up, bowel cancer risk was no higher in some low- and intermediate-risk patients than in the general population. These patients may not need as many follow-up colonoscopies as recommended. In the case of higher-risk patients, who even after adenoma removal have a higher bowel cancer risk than the general population, follow-up colonoscopies are necessary and cost-effective.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Australas J Ageing ; 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the prevalence of opioid prescribing, dispensing and administration in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AgeLine, Web of Science Core Collection, InformIT and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (inception to September 2021) were searched for studies reporting opioid prevalence in Australian RACFs. Regular and as-required (i.e. pro re nata, PRN) opioid uses were considered. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two review authors. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (n = 286,141 residents) reported opioid prevalence, of which 16 provided overall regular or PRN prescribing, dispensing or administration data. Five studies reported 28%-34% of residents were prescribed regular opioids over assessment periods ranging from one week to one month. Five studies reported 11%-42% of residents were prescribed PRN opioids over assessment periods ranging from one week to 30 months. Three studies reported 27%-50% of residents were dispensed an opioid over 12 months. Five studies reported 21%-29% were administered both regular and PRN opioids over 24 hours. Two studies reported 22%-42% of residents were administered PRN opioids over 1 week to 12 months. Two studies reported 6%-13% of residents were using doses >100 mg oral morphine equivalents/day. CONCLUSIONS: Up to half of the residents were dispensed opioids over 12 months. The prevalence of opioid prescribing, dispensing and administration was highly variable, suggesting the potential value of opioid quality indicators and analgesic stewardship interventions to ensure opioid appropriateness.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 151(5): 708-716, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366005

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that components of one-carbon metabolism, particularly circulating vitamin B6, have an etiological role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Vitamin B6 is a cofactor in the transsulfuration pathway. We sought to holistically investigate the role of the transsulfuration pathway in RCC risk. We conducted a nested case-control study (455 RCC cases and 455 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Plasma samples from the baseline visit were analyzed for metabolites of the transsulfuration pathway, including pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP, the biologically active form of vitamin B6), homocysteine, serine, cystathionine, and cysteine, in addition to folate. Bayesian conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations of metabolites with RCC risk as well as interactions with established RCC risk factors. Circulating PLP and cysteine were inversely associated with RCC risk, and these associations were not attenuated after adjustment for other transsulfuration metabolites (odds ratio (OR) and 90% credible interval (CrI) per 1 SD increase in log concentration: 0.76 [0.66, 0.87]; 0.81 [0.66, 0.96], respectively). A comparison of joint metabolite profiles suggested substantially greater RCC risk for the profile representative of low overall transsulfuration function compared to high function (OR 2.70 [90% CrI 1.26, 5.70]). We found some statistical evidence of interactions of cysteine with body mass index, and PLP and homocysteine with smoking status, on their associations with RCC risk. In conclusion, we found evidence suggesting that the transsulfuration pathway may play a role in metabolic dysregulation leading to RCC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Teorema de Bayes , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cisteína , Homocisteína , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fosfato de Piridoxal , Vitamina B 6
8.
Endoscopy ; 54(10): 948-958, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longer post-polypectomy surveillance intervals are associated with increased colorectal neoplasia detection at surveillance in some studies. We investigated this association to inform optimal surveillance intervals. METHODS: Patients who underwent colonoscopy and post-polypectomy surveillance at 17 UK hospitals were classified as low/high risk by baseline findings. We compared detection rates of advanced adenomas (≥ 10 mm, tubulovillous/villous, high grade dysplasia), high risk findings (HRFs: ≥ 2 serrated polyps/[adenomas] of which ≥ 1 is ≥ 10 mm or has [high grade] dysplasia; ≥ 5 serrated polyps/adenomas; or ≥ 1 nonpedunculated polyp ≥ 20 mm), or colorectal cancer (CRC) at surveillance colonoscopy by surveillance interval (< 18 months, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 years). Risk ratios (RRs) were estimated using multivariable regression. RESULTS: Of 11 214 patients, 7216 (64 %) were low risk and 3998 (36 %) were high risk. Among low risk patients, advanced adenoma, HRF, and CRC detection rates at first surveillance were 7.8 %, 3.7 %, and 1.1 %, respectively. Advanced adenoma detection increased with increasing surveillance interval, reaching 9.8 % with a 6-year interval (P trend < 0.001). Among high risk patients, advanced adenoma, HRF, and CRC detection rates at first surveillance were 15.3 %, 10.0 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Advanced adenoma and CRC detection rates (P trends < 0.001) increased with increasing surveillance interval; RRs (95 % confidence intervals) for CRC were 1.54 (0.68-3.48), 4.44 (1.95-10.08), and 5.80 (2.51-13.40) with 3-, 4-, and 5-year intervals, respectively, versus an interval of < 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: Metachronous neoplasia was uncommon among low risk patients, even with long surveillance intervals, supporting recommendations for no surveillance in these patients. For high risk patients, a 3-year surveillance interval would ensure timely CRC detection.

9.
J Hum Nutr Diet ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of cancer survival are increasing, with more people living with and beyond cancer. Lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivors are based largely on extrapolation from cancer prevention recommendations. This feasibility study was designed to investigate diet and physical activity variables linked to primary prevention and digital behaviour change interventions in cancer survivors and delivered by an oncology dietitian to plan for future research. METHODS: In this 2-month feasibility study, participants who had completed treatment for colorectal cancer were invited to complete online food diaries, underwent physical activity assessment, attended fortnightly telephone consultations with an oncology dietitian and completed an evaluation form. The baseline food diaries were used to help participants pick two lifestyle changes to focus on throughout the intervention. Demographic and clinical data were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In total, 996 patients were screened for eligibility; of these, 78 were eligible to approach and 69 were approached, resulting in 20 participants consenting to take part. Overall, the intervention was acceptable with 65% of participants completing an online food diary and 70% engaging with the dietitian over the telephone. The intervention received good feedback, with 100% of those completing the evaluation form reporting they felt supported and found it helpful. CONCLUSIONS: The present study offers preliminary evidence that a lifestyle intervention delivered by an oncology dietitian using digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) to cancer survivors is feasible and accepted by participants and providers.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 126(12): 1744-1754, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35149853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is less effective at reducing cancer incidence in the proximal colon compared to the distal colorectum. We aimed to identify adenoma characteristics associated with proximal colon cancer (PCC). METHODS: Endoscopy and pathology data for patients with ≥1 adenoma detected at baseline colonoscopy were obtained from 17 UK hospitals between 2001 and 2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCC, and, for comparison, distal CRC incidence, by adenoma characteristics. RESULTS: Among 18,431 patients, 152 and 105 developed PCC and distal CRC, respectively, over a median follow-up of 9.8 years. Baseline adenoma characteristics positively associated with PCC incidence included number (≥3 vs. < 3: aHR 2.10, 95% CI: 1.42-3.09), histology (tubulovillous/villous vs. tubular: aHR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.35) and location (any proximal vs. distal only: aHR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.20-2.42), for which there was borderline evidence of heterogeneity by subsite (p = 0.055). Adenoma dysplasia (high vs. low grade) was associated with distal CRC (aHR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.44-4.04), but not PCC (p-heterogeneity = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline adenoma number, histology and proximal location were independently associated with PCC and may be important to identify patients at higher risk for post-polypectomy PCC.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 31(5): 387-400, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding barriers and enablers to monitoring and deprescribing opioids will enable the development of tailored interventions to improve both practices. OBJECTIVE: To perform a qualitative evidence synthesis of the barriers and enablers to monitoring ongoing appropriateness and deprescribing of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and to map the findings to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). METHODS: We included English-language qualitative studies that explored healthcare professional (HCP), patient, carer and the general public's perceptions regarding monitoring and deprescribing opioids for CNCP. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and PsycINFO from inception to August 2020. Two authors independently selected the studies, extracted the data, assessed the methodological quality using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, and assessed the confidence in the findings using GRADE CERQual (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research). We used an inductive approach to synthesis of qualitative data and mapped identified themes to TDF domains. RESULTS: From 6948 records identified we included 21 studies, involving 209 HCPs and 330 patients. No studies involved carers or the general public. Five barrier themes were identified: limited alternatives to opioids, management of pain is top priority, patient understanding, expectations and experiences, prescriber pressures, and reluctance to change. Four enabler themes were identified: negative effects of opioids and benefits of deprescribing, clear communication and expectations for deprescribing, support for patients, and support for prescribers. 16 barrier and 12 enabler subthemes were identified; most were graded as high (n=15) or moderate (n=9) confidence. The TDF domains 'beliefs about consequences', 'environmental context and resources', 'social influences' and 'emotion' were salient for patients and HCPs. The domains 'skills' and 'beliefs about capabilities' were more salient for HCPs. CONCLUSION: Future implementation interventions aimed at monitoring and deprescribing opioids should target the patient and HCP barriers and enablers identified in this synthesis. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019140784.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Desprescrições , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 61(1): 101-114, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess iron is involved in the development of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. We aimed to describe the prevalence of excess iron and its determinants in healthy European adults. METHODS: Sociodemographic, lifestyle, iron status, dietary information, and HFE genotyping were obtained from controls from the nested case-control study EPIC-EurGast study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to address possible systemic inflammation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess iron status and its determinants. RESULTS: Out of the 828 participants (median age: 58.7 years), 43% were females. Median serum ferritin and prevalence of excess iron were 143.7 µg/L and 35.2% in males, respectively, and 77 µg/L and 20% in females, both increasing with latitude across Europe. Prevalence of HFE C282Y mutation was significantly higher in Northern and Central Europe (~ 11%) than in the South (5%). Overweight/obesity, age, and daily alcohol and heme iron intake were independent determinants for iron status, with sex differences even after excluding participants with hsCRP > 5 mg/L. Obese males showed a greater consumption of alcohol, total and red meat, and heme iron, compared with those normal weight. CONCLUSION: Obesity, higher alcohol and heme iron consumption were the main risk factors for excess iron in males while only age was associated with iron overload in females. Weight control and promoting healthy lifestyle may help prevent iron overload, especially in obese people. Further research is needed to clarify determinants of excess iron in the healthy adult population, helping to reduce the associated comorbidities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemocromatose , Sobrecarga de Ferro , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Ferritinas , Hemocromatose/epidemiologia , Hemocromatose/genética , Proteína da Hemocromatose/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I , Humanos , Ferro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(1): 46-57, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes leads to a wide range of established vascular and metabolic complications that has resulted in the implementation of diverse prevention programmes across high-income countries. Diabetes has also been associated with an increased risk of a broader set of conditions including cancers, liver disease, and common infections. We aimed to examine the trends in a broad set of cause-specific hospitalisations in individuals with diabetes in England from 2003 to 2018. METHODS: In this epidemiological analysis, we identified 309 874 individuals 18 years or older with diabetes (type 1 or 2) in England from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics inpatient data from 2003 to 2018. We generated a mixed prevalent and incident diabetes study population through serial cross sections and follow-up over time. We used a discretised Poisson regression model to estimate annual cause-specific hospitalisation rates in men and women with diabetes across 17 cause groupings. We generated a 1:1 age-matched and sex-matched population of individuals without diabetes to compare cause-specific hospitalisation rates in those with and without diabetes. FINDINGS: Hospitalisation rates were higher for all causes in persons with diabetes than in those without diabetes throughout the study period. Diabetes itself and ischaemic heart disease were the leading causes of excess (defined as absolute difference in the rate in the populations with and without diabetes) hospitalisation in 2003. By 2018, non-infectious and non-cancerous respiratory conditions, non-diabetes-related cancers, and ischaemic heart disease were the most common causes of excess hospitalisation across men and women. Hospitalisation rates of people with diabetes declined and causes of hospitalisation changed. Almost all traditional diabetes complication groups (vascular diseases, amputations, and diabetes) decreased, while conditions non-specific to diabetes (cancers, infections, non-infectious and non-cancerous respiratory conditions) increased. These differing trends represented a change in the cause of hospitalisation, such that the traditional diabetes complications accounted for more than 50% of hospitalisation in 2003, but only approximately 30% in 2018. In contrast, the proportion of hospitalisations due to respiratory infections between the same time period increased from 3% to 10% in men and from 4% to 12% in women. INTERPRETATIONS: Changes in the composition of excess risk and hospitalisation burden in those with diabetes means that preventative and clinical measures should evolve to reflect the diverse set of causes that are driving persistent excess hospitalisation in those with diabetes. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus , Isquemia Miocárdica , Neoplasias , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
15.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(4): 864-873.e13, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk. METHODS: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci. RESULTS: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Dieta , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(5): e1061-e1082, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale, 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5738 cancer-free European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition participants with metabolomics data. Partial least-squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of the WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of increased odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine, and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were inversely associated more strongly with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR, 0.51 per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR, 0.62 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR, 0.93 per unit change; 95% CI, 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared with female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(2): 325-333, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Here, we explore the association between excess weight during early to mid-adulthood and survival in patients diagnosed with breast and colorectal cancer, using a pooled analysis of five cohort studies and study participants from 11 countries. METHODS: Participant-level body mass index (BMI) trajectories were estimated by fitting a growth curve model using over 2 million repeated BMI measurements from close to 600,000 cohort participants. Cumulative measures of excess weight were derived. Data from over 23,000 patients with breast and colorectal cancer were subsequently analyzed using time-to-event models for death with the date of diagnosis as start of follow-up. Study-specific results were combined through a random effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: We found a significant dose-response relationship (P trend = 0.013) between the average BMI during early and mid-adulthood and death from breast cancer, with a pooled HR of 1.31 (1.07-1.60) and the time to death shortened by 16% for average BMI above 25 kg/m2 compared with average BMI less than or equal to 22.5 kg/m2, respectively. Similar results were found for categories of cumulative time spent with excess weight. There was no association between excess body fatness during early to mid-adulthood and death in patients with colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Excess body fatness during early to mid-adulthood is associated not only with an increased risk of developing cancer, but also with a lower survival in patients with breast cancer. IMPACT: Our results emphasize the importance of public health policies aimed at reducing overweight during adulthood and inform future studies on the relationship between excess weight and cancer outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(6): e1338-e1352, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal cancer risk is influenced by the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, previous epidemiologic studies lacked full serological biomarker data for the classification of MetS, and the interaction of MetS with germline cancer risk variants is unknown. METHODS: We investigated the associations between MetS and gastrointestinal cancer risk (overall, colorectal, pancreatic, esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach cardia, stomach non-cardia, hepatocellular carcinoma, and intrahepatic bile duct cancer) in 366,016 United Kingdom Biobank participants with comprehensive serum biomarker and genotype data. MetS status was determined by 3 different definitions at baseline, and, in 15,152 participants, at a repeat assessment after a median of 4.3 years of follow-up. Multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cancer outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses stratified by polygenic risk score were conducted for colorectal and pancreatic cancers. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 7.1 years, 4238 incident cases of a gastrointestinal cancer occurred. MetS at baseline was associated with higher risk of overall gastrointestinal cancer by any definition (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.29, harmonized definition). MetS was associated with increased risks of colorectal cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer in women, and esophageal adenocarcinoma in men. Associations for colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer did not differ by polygenic risk score strata (P-heterogeneity 0.70 and 0.69, respectively), and 80% of participants with MetS at baseline retained this status at the repeat assessment. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the importance of maintaining good metabolic health in reducing the burden of gastrointestinal cancers, irrespective of genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Síndrome Metabólica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Neoplasias Retais , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(1): 33-43.e3, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effectiveness of interventions to improve analgesic use and appropriateness in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus were searched from inception to June 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled and uncontrolled prospective interventions that included analgesic optimization, and reported postintervention change in analgesic use or appropriateness in LTCFs were included. METHODS: Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 review authors. RESULTS: Eight cluster RCTs, 2 controlled, and 6 uncontrolled studies comprising 9056 residents across 9 countries were included. The 16 interventions included education (n = 13), decision support (n = 7), system modifications (n = 6), and/or medication review (n = 3). Six interventions changed analgesic use or appropriateness, all of which included prescribers, 5 involved multidisciplinary collaboration, and 5 included a component of education. Education alone changed analgesic use and appropriateness in 1 study. Decision support was effective when combined with education in 3 interventions. Overall, 13 studies reported analgesic optimization as part of pain management interventions and 3 studies focused on medication optimization. Two pain management interventions reduced the percentage of residents reporting pain not receiving analgesics by 50% to 60% (P = .03 and P < .001, respectively), and 1 improved analgesic appropriateness (P = .03). One reduced nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (P < .001) and another resulted in 3-fold higher odds of opioid prescription in advanced dementia [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-8.7]. One medication optimization intervention reduced NSAID prescription (P = .036), and another reduced as-needed opioid (95% CI 8.6-13.8) and NSAID prescription (95% CI 1.6-4.2). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Interventions involving prescribers and enhanced roles for pharmacists and nurses, with a component of education, are most effective at changing analgesic use or appropriateness. Interventions combining education and decision support are also promising. Medication review interventions can change analgesic prescription, although there is currently minimal evidence in relation to possible corresponding improvements in resident-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 20(2): e148-e167, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Detection and removal of adenomas reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The impact of adenoma detection rates (ADRs) on long-term CRC incidence and mortality is unknown. We investigated this using data from the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial. METHODS: Of 167,882 UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial participants, 40,085 were in the intervention arm and underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy screening at 13 trial centers. The median follow-up time was 17 years. At each center, 1 endoscopist performed most flexible sigmoidoscopies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to classify centers into high-, intermediate-, and low-detector groups based on their main endoscopist's ADR. We calculated the incidence and mortality of distal and all-site CRC, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using Cox regression. RESULTS: Five, 4, and 4 centers, respectively, were classified into the high-detector, intermediate-detector, and low-detector groups. The average ADRs in each respective group were 15%, 12%, and 9%. Distal CRC incidence and mortality were reduced among those screened compared with controls in all groups, and effects of screening varied significantly by detector ranking, with larger reductions in incidence and mortality seen in the high-detector group (incidence: HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.27-0.42; mortality: HR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.13-0.37) than in the low-detector group (incidence: HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44-0.68; mortality: HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.86). Similar results were observed for all-site CRC, with larger effects seen in the high-detector (incidence: HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67; mortality: HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.69) than in the low-detector group (incidence: HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.85; mortality: HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92), although the heterogeneity was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ADRs at screening provide greater long-term protection against CRC incidence and mortality. Isrctn.org, number: ISRCTN28352761.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Sigmoidoscopia
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