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1.
J Med Screen ; : 969141321997480, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of general practitioner endorsement accompanying the screening kit rather than with the invitation letter on participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme and on the socioeconomic gradient in participation in the Programme. METHODS: The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England is delivered via five regional hubs. In early 2016, we carried out a cluster-randomised trial, with hub-day of invitation as the randomisation unit. We randomised 150 hub-days of invitation to the intervention group, GP endorsement on the letter accompanying the guaiac faecal occult blood testing kit (75 hub-days, 197,366 individuals) or control, usual letter (75 hub-days, 197,476 individuals). The endpoint was participation, defined as return of a valid kit within 18 weeks of initial invitation. Because of the cluster randomisation, data were analysed by a hierarchical logistic regression, allowing a random effect for date of invitation. Socioeconomic status was represented by the index of multiple deprivation. RESULTS: Participation was 59.4% in the intervention group and 58.7% in the control group, a significant difference (p = 0.04). There was no heterogeneity of the effect of intervention by index of multiple deprivation. We found that there was some confounding between date and screening episode order (first or subsequent screen). This in turn may have induced confounding with age and slightly diluted the result. CONCLUSIONS: General practitioner endorsement induces a modest increase in participation in bowel cancer screening, but does not affect the socioeconomic gradient. When considering cluster randomisation as a research method, careful scrutiny of potential confounding is indicated in advance if possible and in analysis otherwise.

2.
Gut ; 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colonoscopy surveillance aims to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence after polypectomy. The 2020 UK guidelines recommend surveillance at 3 years for 'high-risk' patients with ≥2 premalignant polyps (PMPs), of which ≥1 is 'advanced' (serrated polyp (or adenoma) ≥10 mm or with (high-grade) dysplasia); ≥5 PMPs; or ≥1 non-pedunculated polyp ≥20 mm; 'low-risk' patients without these findings are instead encouraged to participate in population-based CRC screening. We examined the appropriateness of these risk classification criteria and recommendations. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent colonoscopy and polypectomy mostly between 2000 and 2010 at 17 UK hospitals, followed-up through 2017. We examined CRC incidence by baseline characteristics, risk group and number of surveillance visits using Cox regression, and compared incidence with that in the general population using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). RESULTS: Among 21 318 patients, 368 CRCs occurred during follow-up (median: 10.1 years). Baseline CRC risk factors included age ≥55 years, ≥2 PMPs, adenomas with tubulovillous/villous/unknown histology or high-grade dysplasia, proximal polyps and a baseline visit spanning 2-90 days. Compared with the general population, CRC incidence without surveillance was higher among those with adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (SIR 1.74, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.42) or ≥2 PMPs, of which ≥1 was advanced (1.39, 1.09 to 1.75). For low-risk (71%) and high-risk (29%) patients, SIRs without surveillance were 0.75 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.88) and 1.30 (1.03 to 1.62), respectively; for high-risk patients after first surveillance, the SIR was 1.22 (0.91 to 1.60). CONCLUSION: These guidelines accurately classify post-polypectomy patients into those at high risk, for whom one surveillance colonoscopy appears appropriate, and those at low risk who can be managed by non-invasive screening.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(3): 165-173, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes has increased in the UK and other high-income countries alongside a substantial decline in cardiovascular mortality. Yet data are scarce on how these trends have changed the causes of death in people with diabetes who have traditionally died primarily of vascular causes. We estimated how all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in people with diabetes have changed over time, how the composition of the mortality burden has changed, and how this composition compared with that of the non-diabetes population. METHODS: In this epidemiological analysis of primary care records, we identified 313 907 individuals with diabetes in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a well described primary care database, between 2001 to 2018, and linked these data to UK Office for National Statistics mortality data. We assembled serial cross sections with longitudinal follow-up to generate a mixed prevalence and incidence study population of patients with diabetes. We used discretised Poisson regression models to estimate annual death rates for deaths from all causes and 12 specific causes for men and women with diabetes. We also identified age-matched and sex matched (1:1) individuals without diabetes from the same dataset and estimated mortality rates in this group. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2001, and Oct 31, 2018, total mortality declined by 32% in men and 31% in women with diagnosed diabetes. Death rates declined from 40·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 27·8 deaths per 1000 person-years in men and from 42·7 deaths per 1000 person-years to 29·5 deaths per 1000 person-years in women with diagnosed diabetes. We found similar declines in individuals without diabetes, hence the gap in mortality between those with and without diabetes was maintained over the study period. Cause-specific death rates declined in ten of the 12 cause groups, with exceptions in dementia and liver disease, which increased in both populations. The large decline in vascular disease death rates led to a transition from vascular causes to cancers as the leading contributor to death rates in individuals with diagnosed diabetes and to the gap in death rates between those with and without diabetes. INTERPRETATION: The decline in vascular death rates has been accompanied by a diversification of causes in individuals with diagnosed diabetes and a transition from vascular diseases to cancers as the leading contributor to diabetes-related death. Clinical and preventative approaches must reflect this trend to reduce the excess mortality risk in individuals with diabetes. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Gut ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined. DESIGN: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling. RESULTS: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer. CONCLUSION: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.

6.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235315

RESUMO

Growing data from epidemiological studies highlight the association between excess body fat and cancer incidence, but good indicative evidence demonstrates that intentional weight loss, as well as increasing physical activity, offers much promise as a cost-effective approach for reducing the cancer burden. However, clear gaps remain in our understanding of how changes in body fat or levels of physical activity are mechanistically linked to cancer, and the magnitude of their impact on cancer risk. It is important to investigate the causal link between programmes that successfully achieve short-term modest weight loss followed by weight-loss maintenance and cancer incidence. The longer-term impact of weight loss and duration of overweight and obesity on risk reduction also need to be fully considered in trial design. These gaps in knowledge need to be urgently addressed to expedite the development and implementation of future cancer-control strategies. Comprehensive approaches to trial design, Mendelian randomisation studies and data-linkage opportunities offer real possibilities to tackle current research gaps. In this paper, we set out the case for why non-pharmacological weight-management trials are urgently needed to support cancer-risk reduction and help control the growing global burden of cancer.

11.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235316

RESUMO

Earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments mean that the estimated number of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom is expected to reach 4 million by 2030. However, there is an increasing realisation that excess body fatness (EBF) is likely to influence the quality of cancer survivorship and disease-free survival. For decades, the discussion of weight management in patients with cancer has been dominated by concerns about unintentional weight loss, low body weight and interventions to increase weight, often re-enforced by the existence of the obesity paradox, which indicates that high body weight is associated with survival benefits for some types of cancer. However, observational evidence provides strong grounds for testing the hypothesis that interventions for promoting intentional loss of body fat and maintaining skeletal muscle in overweight and obese cancer survivors would bring important health benefits in terms of survival outcomes and long-term impact on treatment-related side effects. In this paper, we outline the need for studies to improve our understanding of the health benefits of weight-loss interventions, such as hypocaloric healthy-eating plans combined with physical activity. In particular, complex intervention trials that are pragmatically designed are urgently needed to develop effective, clinically practical, evidence-based strategies for reducing EBF and optimising body composition in people living with and beyond common cancers.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity has been positively associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers, but prospective data by subtype/subsite are limited. Obesity influences hormonal factors, which may play a role in these cancers. We examined anthropometry, body fat and reproductive factors in relation to oesophageal and gastric cancer by subtype/subsite in the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: Among 458,713 UK Biobank participants, 339 oesophageal adenocarcinomas, 124 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 137 gastric cardia and 92 gastric non-cardia cancers were diagnosed during a mean of 6.5 years follow-up. Cox models estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI), hip circumference, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, total body fat and trunk fat were positively associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma (highest vs lowest category: HR = 2.33, 95%-CI:1.65-3.28; HR = 1.56, 95%-CI:1.15-2.13; HR = 2.30, 95%-CI:1.47-3.57; HR = 1.71, 95%-CI:1.01-2.90; HR = 2.87, 95%-CI:1.88-4.38; HR = 1.96, 95%-CI:1.30-2.96; HR = 2.34, 95%-CI:1.70-3.22, respectively). Although there were no statistically significant associations in combined sex analyses, BMI (HR = 1.83, 95%-CI:1.00-3.37), waist circumference (HR = 2.21, 95%-CI:1.27-3.84) and waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.92, 95%-CI:1.11-3.29) were associated with gastric cardia cancer in men; however, mutual adjustment attenuated the associations for BMI and waist-to-hip ratio. For oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, statistically significant inverse associations were observed among women for BMI, hip circumference, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, total body fat and trunk fat, although they were based on small numbers. In addition, older age at first (HR = 0.44, 95%-CI:0.22-0.88) and last live birth (HR = 0.44, 95%-CI:0.22-0.87) were inversely associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and having a stillbirth/miscarriage/termination was positively associated (HR = 1.84, 95%-CI:1.10-3.07). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and abdominal obesity specifically may be a risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia cancer in men. Some reproductive factors may be associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in women.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation. METHODS: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (ORQ5vs.Q1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; P heterogeneity for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ADAM10) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within ADAM10 gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038275

RESUMO

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.

15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Detection and removal of adenomas reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The impact of adenoma detection rates (ADRs) on long-term CRC incidence and mortality is unknown. We investigated this using data from the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial (UKFSST). METHODS: Of 167,882 UKFSST participants, 40,085 were in the intervention arm and underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy screening at 13 trial centres. Median follow-up was 17 years. At each centre, one endoscopist performed most flexible sigmoidoscopies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to classify centres into high-, intermediate-, and low-detector groups based on their main endoscopist's ADR. We calculated incidence and mortality of distal and all-site CRC, and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox regression. RESULTS: Five, four, and four centres, respectively, were classified into the high-detector, intermediate-detector, and low-detector groups. Average ADRs in each respective group were 15%, 12%, and 9%. Distal CRC incidence and mortality were reduced among those screened compared to controls in all groups, and effects of screening varied significantly by detector ranking, with larger reductions in incidence and mortality seen in the high-detector (incidence: HR=0·34, 0·27-0·42; mortality: HR=0·22, 0·13-0·37) than low-detector group (incidence: HR=0·55, 0·44-0·68; mortality: HR=0·54, 0·34-0·86). Similar results were observed for all-site CRC, with larger effects seen in the high-detector (incidence: HR=0·58, 95%CI 0·50-0·67; mortality: HR=0·52, 0·39-0·69) than low-detector group (incidence: HR=0·72, 0·61-0·85; mortality: HR=0·68, 0·51-0·92), although the heterogeneity was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ADRs at screening provide greater long-term protection against CRC incidence and mortality.

18.
Endoscopy ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy surveillance is recommended for patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) following adenoma removal. Low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups are defined by baseline adenoma characteristics. We previously examined intermediate-risk patients from hospital data and identified a higher-risk subgroup who benefited from surveillance and a lower-risk subgroup who may not require surveillance. This study explored whether these findings apply in individuals undergoing CRC screening. METHODS: This retrospective study used data from the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening Trial (UKFSST), English CRC screening pilot (ECP), and US Kaiser Permanente CRC prevention program (KPCP). Screening participants (50 - 74 years) classified as intermediate-risk at baseline colonoscopy were included. CRC data were available through 2006 (KPCP) or 2014 (UKFSST, ECP). Lower- and higher-risk subgroups were defined using our previously identified baseline risk factors: higher-risk participants had incomplete colonoscopies, poor bowel preparation, adenomas ≥ 20 mm or with high-grade dysplasia, or proximal polyps. We compared CRC incidence in these subgroups and in the presence vs. absence of surveillance using Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 2291 intermediate-risk participants, 45 % were classified as higher risk. Median follow-up was 11.8 years. CRC incidence was higher in the higher-risk than lower-risk subgroup (hazard ratio [HR] 2.08, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.07 - 4.06). Surveillance reduced CRC incidence in higher-risk participants (HR 0.35, 95 %CI 0.14 - 0.86) but not statistically significantly so in lower-risk participants (HR 0.41, 95 %CI 0.12 - 1.38). CONCLUSION: As previously demonstrated for hospital patients, screening participants classified as intermediate risk comprised two risk subgroups. Surveillance clearly benefited the higher-risk subgroup.

19.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(1): 299-306, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704989

RESUMO

We previously reported that reduced floor space allowance caused by increasing the number of gilts per pen decreased growth and affected blood chemistry and immunology. The current objective was to determine effects of nursery group-size-floor space allowance on future litter sizes and retention in the breeding herd through three parities in sows. A 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed with 2,537 gilts classified as large (6.92 ± 0.06 kg), medium (5.60 ± 0.06 kg), or small (4.42 ± 0.06 kg), and placed in nursery pens of 14, 11, or 8 pigs to allow 0.15, 0.19, or 0.27 m2 floor space/pig, respectively. After the nursery and grow-finish periods, 1,453 gilts selected for breeding were relocated to one of 11 sow farms. Total litter size and pigs born alive increased (P < 0.01) with increasing parity and total litter size was 12.94, 13.28, and 13.99 (SE = 0.13) and pigs born alive was 12.21, 12.64, and 13.23 (SE = 0.11) for Parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was a tendency (P = 0.08) for a quadratic relationship of group-size-floor space allowance and total litter size (13.39, 13.54, and 13.27 [SE = 0.13] for gilts allowed 0.15, 0.19, or 0.27 m2 floor space/pig, respectively). A linear effect of size of pig at weaning (P = 0.03) on pigs born dead was detected and was 0.64, 0.75, and 0.75, for small, medium, and large size pigs, respectively. There was no effect of group-size-floor space allowance on the percentages of gilts completing zero (P = 0.36), one (P = 0.35), two (P = 0.32), or three (P = 0.50) parities. In contrast, the percentage of small gilts that failed to complete one parity was greater (P < 0.05) and the percentage completing one parity (P < 0.05) was less than for either large or medium gilts. Abortion rate was greater (P < 0.01) in gilts classified as small (2.51%) or medium (1.36%) at weaning compared with those classified as large (0.20%). Size at weaning did not affect the proportion of gilts completing two (P = 0.88) or three (P = 0.72) parities. Group-size-floor space allowance during the nursery phase of production did not have remarkable effects on future litter sizes or retention in sows. Likewise, size of pig at weaning did not affect litter size and pigs born alive. Compared with larger pigs, however, more pigs classified as small at weaning and entering the breeding herd did not complete a parity and displayed a greater abortion rate.

20.
Transl Anim Sci ; 4(2): txaa023, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705022

RESUMO

Heat stress has negative impacts on pork production, particularly in the grow-finish phase. During heat stress events, the feeding behavior of pigs is altered to reduce heat production. Several different systems have been developed to study feeding behavior. Most systems are not accurate representations of grow-finish commercial production as feed intake is monitored for only one pig at a time. The objective of this study was to utilize a feed monitoring system, representative of commercial conditions, to determine feeding behavior patterns of grow-finish pigs throughout the year and to identify changes that occurred during heat stress events. Feeder visit data were collected on barrows and gilts (n = 932) from three different sire breeds, Landrace, Yorkshire, and Duroc, between May 2014 and April 2016. Days in the study were partitioned into groups based on their maximum temperature-humidity index (THI), where a THI less than 23.33 °C was classified as "Normal", a THI between 23.33 and 26.11 °C was classified as "Alert", a THI between 26.11 and 28.88 °C was classified as "Danger", and a THI greater than 28.88 °C was classified as "Emergency". Feeding behavioral differences among breeds and sex were observed across all THI categories. Landrace-sired pigs had fewer feeder visits compared to Duroc- and Yorkshire-sired pigs. Gilts had fewer feeder visits than barrows in all THI categories. Differences in feeding behavior patterns between THI categories demonstrated that heat stress reduced the feeding duration of Landrace-sired pigs without any dramatic effects on the other pigs in the study. During elevated temperatures, all pigs tended to increase feeding events during the early (03:00-05:59) and late (18:00-20:59) periods of the day. Utilizing a feed monitoring system that is a more accurate representation of commercial conditions will lead to a greater understanding of feeding behavior among breed types and sexes during heat stress, allowing producers to enhance their ability to properly care for their pigs during both normal and heat stress events.

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