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1.
Nature ; 599(7885): 421-424, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789902

RESUMO

Californium (Cf) is currently the heaviest element accessible above microgram quantities. Cf isotopes impose severe experimental challenges due to their scarcity and radiological hazards. Consequently, chemical secrets ranging from the accessibility of 5f/6d valence orbitals to engage in bonding, the role of spin-orbit coupling in electronic structure, and reactivity patterns compared to other f elements, remain locked. Organometallic molecules were foundational in elucidating periodicity and bonding trends across the periodic table1-3, with a twenty-first-century renaissance of organometallic thorium (Th) through plutonium (Pu) chemistry4-12, and to a smaller extent americium (Am)13, transforming chemical understanding. Yet, analogous curium (Cm) to Cf chemistry has lain dormant since the 1970s. Here, we revive air-/moisture-sensitive Cf chemistry through the synthesis and characterization of [Cf(C5Me4H)2Cl2K(OEt2)]n from two milligrams of 249Cf. This bent metallocene motif, not previously structurally authenticated beyond uranium (U)14,15, contains the first crystallographically characterized Cf-C bond. Analysis suggests the Cf-C bond is largely ionic with a small covalent contribution. Lowered Cf 5f orbital energy versus dysprosium (Dy) 4f in the colourless, isoelectronic and isostructural [Dy(C5Me4H)2Cl2K(OEt2)]n results in an orange Cf compound, contrasting with the light-green colour typically associated with Cf compounds16-22.

2.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 77(Pt 4): 383-389, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936762

RESUMO

New syntheses have been developed for the synthesis of (borohydrido-κ3 H)tris-[η5-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)cyclo-penta-dien-yl]uranium(IV), [U(BH4)(C8H13Si)3] or Cp'3U(BH4) (Cp' = C5H4SiMe3) and its structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This compound crystallized in the space group P and the structure features three η 5-coordinated Cp' rings and a κ 3-coordinated (BH4)- ligand.

3.
Chem Sci ; 10(26): 6508-6518, 2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341603

RESUMO

A series of trivalent f-block tungstates, MW2O7(OH)(H2O) (M = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Pu) and AmWO4(OH), have been prepared in crystalline form using hydrothermal methods. Both structure types take the form of 3D networks where MW2O7(OH)(H2O) is assembled from infinite chains of distorted tungstate octahedra linked by isolated MO8 bicapped trigonal prisms; whereas AmWO4(OH) is constructed from edge-sharing AmO8 square antiprisms connected by distorted tungstate trigonal bipyramids. PuW2O7(OH)(H2O) crystallizes as red plates; an atypical color for a Pu(iii) compound. Optical absorption spectra acquired from single crystals show strong, broadband absorption in the visible region. A similar feature is observed for CeW2O7(OH)(H2O), but not for AmWO4(OH). Here we demonstrate that these significantly different optical properties do not stem directly from the 5f electrons, as in both systems the valence band has mostly O-2p character and the conduction band has mostly W-5d character. Furthermore, the quasi-particle gap is essentially unaffected by the 5f degrees of freedom. Despite this, our analysis demonstrates that the f-electron covalency effects are quite important and substantially different energetically in PuW2O7(OH)(H2O) and AmWO4(OH), indicating that the optical gap alone cannot be used to infer conclusions concerning the f electron contribution to the chemical bond in these systems.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 57(7): 3782-3797, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29561140

RESUMO

Thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA)-based extractions represent popular methods for separating microscopic amounts of transuranic actinides (i.e., Np and Pu) from macroscopic actinide matrixes (e.g. bulk uranium). It is well-established that this procedure enables +4 actinides to be selectively removed from +3, + 5, and +6 f-elements. However, even highly skilled and well-trained researchers find this process complicated and (at times) unpredictable. It is difficult to improve the HTTA extraction-or find alternatives-because little is understood about why this separation works. Even the identities of the extracted species are unknown. In addressing this knowledge gap, we report here advances in fundamental understanding of the HTTA-based extraction. This effort included comparatively evaluating HTTA complexation with +4 and +3 metals (MIV = Zr, Hf, Ce, Th, U, Np, and Pu vs MIII = Ce, Nd, Sm, and Yb). We observed +4 metals formed neutral complexes of the general formula MIV(TTA)4. Meanwhile, +3 metals formed anionic MIII(TTA)4- species. Characterization of these M(TTA)4x- ( x = 0, 1) compounds by UV-vis-NIR, IR, 1H and 19F NMR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (both near-edge and extended fine structure) was critical for determining that NpIV(TTA)4 and PuIV(TTA)4 were the primary species extracted by HTTA. Furthermore, this information lays the foundation to begin developing and understanding of why the HTTA extraction works so well. The data suggest that the solubility differences between MIV(TTA)4 and MIII(TTA)4- are likely a major contributor to the selectivity of HTTA extractions for +4 cations over +3 metals. Moreover, these results will enable future studies focused on explaining HTTA extractions preference for +4 cations, which increases from Np IV to PuIV, HfIV, and ZrIV.

5.
Nat Chem ; 9(9): 856-861, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837172

RESUMO

Electron transfer in mixed-valent transition-metal complexes, clusters and materials is ubiquitous in both natural and synthetic systems. The degree to which intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) occurs, dependent on the degree of delocalization, places these within class II or III of the Robin-Day system. In contrast to the d-block, compounds of f-block elements typically exhibit class I behaviour (no IVCT) because of localization of the valence electrons and poor spatial overlap between metal and ligand orbitals. Here, we report experimental and computational evidence for delocalization of 5f electrons in the mixed-valent PuIII/PuIV solid-state compound, Pu3(DPA)5(H2O)2 (DPA = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate). The properties of this compound are benchmarked by the pure PuIII and PuIV dipicolinate complexes, [PuIII(DPA)(H2O)4]Br and PuIV(DPA)2(H2O)3·3H2O, as well as by a second mixed-valent compound, PuIII[PuIV(DPA)3H0.5]2, that falls into class I instead. Metal-to-ligand charge transfer is involved in both the formation of Pu3(DPA)5(H2O)2 and in the IVCT.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(25): 8667-8677, 2017 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613849

RESUMO

Developing a better understanding of covalency (or orbital mixing) is of fundamental importance. Covalency occupies a central role in directing chemical and physical properties for almost any given compound or material. Hence, the concept of covalency has potential to generate broad and substantial scientific advances, ranging from biological applications to condensed matter physics. Given the importance of orbital mixing combined with the difficultly in measuring covalency, estimating or inferring covalency often leads to fiery debate. Consider the 60-year controversy sparked by Seaborg and co-workers ( Diamond, R. M.; Street, K., Jr.; Seaborg, G. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954 , 76 , 1461 ) when it was proposed that covalency from 5f-orbitals contributed to the unique behavior of americium in chloride matrixes. Herein, we describe the use of ligand K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electronic structure calculations to quantify the extent of covalent bonding in-arguably-one of the most difficult systems to study, the Am-Cl interaction within AmCl63-. We observed both 5f- and 6d-orbital mixing with the Cl-3p orbitals; however, contributions from the 6d-orbitals were more substantial. Comparisons with the isoelectronic EuCl63- indicated that the amount of Cl 3p-mixing with EuIII 5d-orbitals was similar to that observed with the AmIII 6d-orbitals. Meanwhile, the results confirmed Seaborg's 1954 hypothesis that AmIII 5f-orbital covalency was more substantial than 4f-orbital mixing for EuIII.


Assuntos
Amerício/química , Cloretos/química
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(11): 3970-3973, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28235179

RESUMO

Over 70 years of chemical investigations have shown that plutonium exhibits some of the most complicated chemistry in the periodic table. Six Pu oxidation states have been unambiguously confirmed (0 and +3 to +7), and four different oxidation states can exist simultaneously in solution. We report a new formal oxidation state for plutonium, namely Pu2+ in [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][PuIICp″3], Cp″ = C5H3(SiMe3)2. The synthetic precursor PuIIICp″3 is also reported, comprising the first structural characterization of a Pu-C bond. Absorption spectroscopy and DFT calculations indicate that the Pu2+ ion has predominantly a 5f6 electron configuration with some 6d mixing.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(41): 12755-9, 2016 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27629989

RESUMO

Advancing our understanding of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) versus lanthanides is key for developing advanced nuclear-fuel cycles. Herein, we describe the preparation of (NBu4 )Am[S2 P((t) Bu2 C12 H6 )]4 and two isomorphous lanthanide complexes, namely one with a similar ionic radius (i.e., Nd(III) ) and an isoelectronic one (Eu(III) ). The results include the first measurement of an Am-S bond length, with a mean value of 2.921(9) Å, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Comparison with the Eu(III) and Nd(III) complexes revealed subtle electronic differences between the complexes of Am(III) and the lanthanides.

9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12312, 2016 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531582

RESUMO

Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour.


Assuntos
Actínio/química , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Análise de Fourier , Radioisótopos , Soluções
10.
Inorg Chem ; 55(17): 8371-80, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513717

RESUMO

The synthesis, electronic structure, and characterization via single-crystal X-ray diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility of (Me4N)2PuCl6 are reported. NMR measurements were performed to both search for the direct (239)Pu resonance and to obtain local magnetic and electronic information at the Cl site through (35)Cl and (37)Cl spectra. No signature of (239)Pu NMR was observed. The temperature dependence of the Cl spectra was simulated by diagonalizing the Zeeman and quadrupolar Hamiltonians for (35)Cl, (37)Cl, and (14)N isotopes. Electronic structure calculations predict a magnetic Γ5 triplet ground state of Pu(IV) in the crystalline electric field of the undistorted PuCl6 octahedron. A tetragonal distortion would result in a very small splitting (∼20 cm(-1)) of the triplet ground state into a nonmagnetic singlet and a doublet state. The Cl shifts have an inflection point at T ≈ 15 K, differing from the bulk susceptibility, indicating a nonmagnetic crystal field ground state. The Cl spin-lattice relaxation time is constant to T = 15 K, below which it rapidly increases, also supporting the nonmagnetic crystal field ground state.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 44(43): 18923-36, 2015 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26466973

RESUMO

New members of the dithiophosphinic acid family of potential actinide extractants were prepared: heterocyclic 2,2'-biphenylenedithiophosphinic acids of stoichiometry HS2P(R2C12H6) (R = H or (t)Bu). The time- and atom-efficient syntheses afforded multigram quantities of pure HS2P(R2C12H6) in reasonable yields (∼60%). These compounds differed from other diaryldithiophosphinic acid extractants in that the two aryl groups were connected to one another at the ortho positions to form a 5-membered dibenzophosphole ring. These 2,2'-biphenylenedithiophosphinic acids were readily deprotonated to form S2P(R2C12H6)(1-) anions, which were crystallized as salts with tetraphenylpnictonium cations (ZPh4(1+); Z = P or As). Coordination chemistry between [S2P((t)Bu2C12H6)](1-) and [S2P(C6H5)2](1-) with U, Np, and Pu was comparatively investigated. The results showed that dithiophosphinate complexes of U(IV) and Np(IV) were redox stable relative to those of U(III), whereas reactions involving Pu(IV) gave intractable material. For instance, reactions involving U(IV) and Np(IV) generated An[S2P((t)Bu2C12H6)]4 and An[S2P(C6H5)2]4 whereas reactions between Pu(IV) and [S2P(C6H5)2](1-) generated a mixture of products from which we postulated a transient Pu(III) species based on UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, the trivalent Pu[S2P(C6H5)2]3(NC5H5)2 compound is stable and could be isolated from reactions between [S2P(C6H5)2](1-) and the trivalent PuI3(NC5H5)4 starting material. Attempts to synthesize analogous trivalent compounds with U(III) provided the tetravalent U[S2P(C6H5)2]4 oxidation product.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 54(11): 5280-4, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25959102

RESUMO

The complexation of UO2(2+) by formohydroxamate (FHA(-)) creates solutions with dark red coloration. The inherent redox activity of formohydroxamate leads to the possibility that these solutions contain U(V) complexes, which are often red. We demonstrate that the reaction of U(VI) with formohydroxamate does not result in reduction, but rather in formation of the putative cis-aquo UO2(FHA)2(H2O)2, whose polymeric solid-state structure, UO2(FHA)2, contains an unusually bent UO2(2+) unit and a highly distorted coordination environment around a U(VI) cation in general. The bending of the uranyl cation results from unusually strong π donation from the FHA(-) ligands into the 6d and 5f orbitals of the U(VI) cation. The alteration of the bonding in the uranyl unit drastically changes its electronic and vibrational features.

13.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6827, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880116

RESUMO

A break in periodicity occurs in the actinide series between plutonium and americium as the result of the localization of 5f electrons. The subsequent chemistry of later actinides is thought to closely parallel lanthanides in that bonding is expected to be ionic and complexation should not substantially alter the electronic structure of the metal ions. Here we demonstrate that ligation of californium(III) by a pyridine derivative results in significant deviations in the properties of the resultant complex with respect to that predicted for the free ion. We expand on this by characterizing the americium and curium analogues for comparison, and show that these pronounced effects result from a second transition in periodicity in the actinide series that occurs, in part, because of the stabilization of the divalent oxidation state. The metastability of californium(II) is responsible for many of the unusual properties of californium including the green photoluminescence.

14.
Inorg Chem ; 54(2): 570-5, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25555044

RESUMO

The reactions of simple oxides or halides of trivalent lanthanides and actinides or bismuth with boric acid in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride at 150 °C result in the formation and crystallization of a series of isomorphous tetranuclear borate clusters with the general formula M4B22O36(OH)6(H2O)13 (M = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Pu, and Bi). These clusters do not assemble with trivalent cations smaller than Gd(3+), suggesting that the formation of the clusters is dictated by the size of the metal ion. The cations are found in cavities along the periphery of a cage assembled from the corner- and edge-sharing interactions of BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra, yielding a complex chiral cluster. Both enantiomers cocrystallize. The metal ions are nonacoordinate, and their geometries are best described as distorted tridiminished icosahedra. This coordination environment is new for both Pu(3+) and Bi(3+). In addition to detailed structural information, UV/vis-NIR absorption and photoluminescence spectra are also provided.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 53(17): 9058-64, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25144682

RESUMO

Six new lanthanide tellurium vanadates with the general formula LnV3Te3O15(OH)3·nH2O (LnVTeO) (Ln = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd; n = 2 for Ce and Pr; n = 1 for Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd) have been prepared hydrothermally via the reactions of lanthanide nitrates, TeO2, and V2O5 at 230 °C. LnVTeO adopts a three-dimensional (3D) channel structure with a space group of P63/mmc. Surprisingly, two types of oxoanions: Te(IV)O3(2-) trigonal pyramids and Te(VI)O6(6-) octahedra, coexist in these compounds. Solid-state UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra for LnVTeO show approximate band gaps on the order of 1.9 eV, suggesting the wide band gap semiconducting nature of these materials. No magnetic phase transition was observed in any of the analogues, but a clear increase in the strength of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations was found with the shortening of distances between magnetically coupled Ln(3+) ions in LnVTeO.

16.
Chemistry ; 20(32): 9892-6, 2014 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25042434

RESUMO

The reactions of trivalent lanthanides and actinides with molten boric acid in high chloride concentrations result in the formation of M4[B16O26(OH)4(H2O)3Cl4] (M = Sm, Eu, Gd, Pu, Am, Cm, Cf). This cubic structure type is remarkably complex and displays both chirality and polarity. The polymeric borate network forms helical features that are linked via two different types of nine-coordinate f-element environments. The f-f transitions are unusually intense and result in dark coloration of these compounds with actinides.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 53(14): 7455-66, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964279

RESUMO

Studies of trivalent uranium (U(3+)) and neptunium (Np(3+)) are restricted by the tendency of these ions to oxidize in the presence of air and water, requiring manipulations to be carried out in inert conditions to produce trivalent products. While the organometallic and high-temperature reduction chemistry of U(3+) and, to a much smaller extent, Np(3+) has been explored, the study of the oxoanion chemistry of these species has been limited despite their interesting optical and magnetic properties. We report the synthesis of U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates by utilizing zinc amalgam as an in situ reductant with absolutely no regard to the exclusion of O2 or water. By employing this method we have developed a family of alkali metal U(3+) and Np(3+) sulfates that are air and water stable. The structures, electronic spectra, and magnetic behavior are reported.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 53(14): 7154-9, 2014 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24964359

RESUMO

Two new neptunium selenites with different oxidation states of the metal centers, Np(IV)(SeO3)2 and Np(VI)O2(SeO3), have been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C from the reactions of NpO2 and SeO2. Np(SeO3)2 crystallizes as brown prisms (space group P21/n, a = 7.0089(5) Å, b = 10.5827(8) Å, c = 7.3316(5) Å, ß = 106.953(1)°); whereas NpO2(SeO3) crystals are garnet-colored with an acicular habit (space group P21/m, a = 4.2501(3) Å, b = 9.2223(7) Å, c = 5.3840(4) Å, ß = 90.043(2)°). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the structure of Np(SeO3)2 features a three-dimensional (3D) framework consisting of edge-sharing NpO8 units that form chains that are linked via SeO3 units to create a 3D framework. NpO2(SeO3) possesses a lamellar structure in which each layer is composed of NpO8 hexagonal bipyramids bridged via SeO3(2-) anions. Bond-valence sum calculations and UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra support the assignment of tetravalent and hexavalent states of neptunium in Np(SeO3)2 and NpO2(SeO3), respectively. Magnetic susceptibility data for Np(SeO3)2 deviates substantially from typical Curie-Weiss behavior, which can be explained by large temperature-independent paramagnetic (TIP) effects. The Np(IV) selenite shows weak ferromagnetic ordering at 3.1(1) K with no detectable hysteresis, suggesting soft ferromagnetic behavior.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 53(10): 5294-9, 2014 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24786682

RESUMO

Two complex layered uranyl borates, K10[(UO2)16(B2O5)2(BO3)6O8]·7H2O (1) and K13[(UO2)19(UO4)(B2O5)2(BO3)6(OH)2O5]·H2O (2), were isolated from supercritical water reactions. Within these compounds, borate exists only as BO3 units and is found as either isolated BO3 triangles or B2O5 dimers, the latter being formed from corner sharing of two BO3 units. These anions, along with oxide and hydroxide, bridge between uranyl centers to create the complex layers in these compounds. U(VI) cations are found within uranyl, UO2(2+) units, that are bound by four or five oxygen atoms to create tetragonal and pentagonal bipyramidal environments. The most striking feature in this system is found in 2, where a [UO4(OH)2] unit exists that contains U(V) within a tetraoxo core with trans hydroxide anions; therefore, this compound is a mixed-valent U(VI)/U(V) borate. The presence of a 5f(1) uranium site within 2 leads to unusual optical properties.

20.
Nat Chem ; 6(5): 387-92, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24755589

RESUMO

The participation of the valence orbitals of actinides in bonding has been debated for decades. Recent experimental and computational investigations demonstrated the involvement of 6p, 6d and/or 5f orbitals in bonding. However, structural and spectroscopic data, as well as theory, indicate a decrease in covalency across the actinide series, and the evidence points to highly ionic, lanthanide-like bonding for late actinides. Here we show that chemical differentiation between californium and lanthanides can be achieved by using ligands that are both highly polarizable and substantially rearrange on complexation. A ligand that suits both of these desired properties is polyborate. We demonstrate that the 5f, 6d and 7p orbitals are all involved in bonding in a Cf(III) borate, and that large crystal-field effects are present. Synthetic, structural and spectroscopic data are complemented by quantum mechanical calculations to support these observations.


Assuntos
Boratos/química , Califórnio/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Medições Luminescentes , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Temperatura
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