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2.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 664, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214212

RESUMO

Elevated CO2 affects C cycling processes which in turn can influence the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations of plant tissues. Given differences in how N and P are used by plants, we asked if their stoichiometry in leaves and wood was maintained or altered in a long-term elevated CO2 experiment in a mature Eucalyptus forest on a low P soil (EucFACE). We measured N and P concentrations in green leaves at different ages at the top of mature trees across 6 years including 5 years in elevated CO2. N and P concentrations in green and senesced leaves and wood were determined to evaluate both spatial and temporal variation of leaf N and P concentrations, including the N and P retranslocation in leaves and wood. Leaf P concentrations were 32% lower in old mature leaves compared to newly flushed leaves with no effect of elevated CO2 on leaf P. By contrast, elevated CO2 significantly decreased leaf N concentrations in newly flushed leaves but this effect disappeared as leaves matured. As such, newly flushed leaves had 9% lower N:P ratios in elevated CO2 and N:P ratios were not different in mature green leaves (CO2 by Age effect, P = 0.02). Over time, leaf N and P concentrations in the upper canopy slightly declined in both CO2 treatments compared to before the start of the experiment. P retranslocation in leaves was 50%, almost double that of N retranslocation (29%), indicating that this site was P-limited and that P retranslocation was an important mechanism in this ecosystem to retain P in plants. As P-limited trees tend to store relatively more N than P, we found an increased N:P ratio in sapwood in response to elevated CO2 (P < 0.01), implying N accumulation in live wood. The flexible stoichiometric ratios we observed can have important implications for how plants adjust to variable environmental conditions including climate change. Hence, variable nutrient stoichiometry should be accounted for in large-scale Earth Systems models invoking biogeochemical processes.

3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(7): 2151-2164, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903994

RESUMO

To quantify stem respiration (RS ) under elevated CO2 (eCO2 ), stem CO2 efflux (EA ) and CO2 flux through the xylem (FT ) should be accounted for, because part of respired CO2 is transported upwards with the sap solution. However, previous studies have used EA as a proxy of RS , which could lead to equivocal conclusions. Here, to test the effect of eCO2 on RS , both EA and FT were measured in a free-air CO2 enrichment experiment located in a mature Eucalyptus native forest. Drought stress substantially reduced EA and RS , which were unaffected by eCO2 , likely as a consequence of its neutral effect on stem growth in this phosphorus-limited site. However, xylem CO2 concentration measured near the stem base was higher under eCO2 , and decreased along the stem resulting in a negative contribution of FT to RS , whereas the contribution of FT to RS under ambient CO2 was positive. Negative FT indicates net efflux of CO2 respired below the monitored stem segment, likely coming from the roots. Our results highlight the role of nutrient availability on the dependency of RS on eCO2 and suggest stimulated root respiration under eCO2 that may shift vertical gradients in xylem [CO2 ] confounding the interpretation of EA measurements.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788883

RESUMO

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is expected to stimulate photosynthesis and carbohydrate production, while inhibiting photorespiration. By contrast, nitrogen (N) concentrations in leaves generally tend to decline under elevated CO2 (eCO2 ), which may reduce the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancement. We tested two hypotheses as to why leaf N is reduced under eCO2 : (a) A "dilution effect" caused by increased concentration of leaf carbohydrates; and (b) inhibited nitrate assimilation caused by reduced supply of reductant from photorespiration under eCO2 . This second hypothesis is fully tested in the field for the first time here, using tall trees of a mature Eucalyptus forest exposed to Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) for five years. Fully expanded young and mature leaves were both measured for net photosynthesis, photorespiration, total leaf N, nitrate ( N O 3 - ) concentrations, carbohydrates and N O 3 - reductase activity to test these hypotheses. Foliar N concentrations declined by 8% under eCO2 in new leaves, while the N O 3 - fraction and total carbohydrate concentrations remained unchanged by CO2 treatment for either new or mature leaves. Photorespiration decreased 31% under eCO2 supplying less reductant, and in situ N O 3 - reductase activity was concurrently reduced (-34%) in eCO2 , especially in new leaves during summer periods. Hence, N O 3 - assimilation was inhibited in leaves of E. tereticornis and the evidence did not support a significant dilution effect as a contributor to the observed reductions in leaf N concentration. This finding suggests that the reduction of N O 3 - reductase activity due to lower photorespiration in eCO2 can contribute to understanding how eCO2 -induced photosynthetic enhancement may be lower than previously expected. We suggest that large-scale vegetation models simulating effects of eCO2 on N biogeochemistry include both mechanisms, especially where N O 3 - is major N source to the dominant vegetation and where leaf flushing and emergence occur in temperatures that promote high photorespiration rates.

5.
New Phytol ; 222(2): 768-784, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597597

RESUMO

The temperature response of photosynthesis is one of the key factors determining predicted responses to warming in global vegetation models (GVMs). The response may vary geographically, owing to genetic adaptation to climate, and temporally, as a result of acclimation to changes in ambient temperature. Our goal was to develop a robust quantitative global model representing acclimation and adaptation of photosynthetic temperature responses. We quantified and modelled key mechanisms responsible for photosynthetic temperature acclimation and adaptation using a global dataset of photosynthetic CO2 response curves, including data from 141 C3 species from tropical rainforest to Arctic tundra. We separated temperature acclimation and adaptation processes by considering seasonal and common-garden datasets, respectively. The observed global variation in the temperature optimum of photosynthesis was primarily explained by biochemical limitations to photosynthesis, rather than stomatal conductance or respiration. We found acclimation to growth temperature to be a stronger driver of this variation than adaptation to temperature at climate of origin. We developed a summary model to represent photosynthetic temperature responses and showed that it predicted the observed global variation in optimal temperatures with high accuracy. This novel algorithm should enable improved prediction of the function of global ecosystems in a warming climate.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Biológicos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo
6.
Ecol Lett ; 22(3): 506-517, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609108

RESUMO

Earth system models (ESMs) use photosynthetic capacity, indexed by the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), to simulate carbon assimilation and typically rely on empirical estimates, including an assumed dependence on leaf nitrogen determined from soil fertility. In contrast, new theory, based on biochemical coordination and co-optimization of carboxylation and water costs for photosynthesis, suggests that optimal Vcmax can be predicted from climate alone, irrespective of soil fertility. Here, we develop this theory and find it captures 64% of observed variability in a global, field-measured Vcmax dataset for C3 plants. Soil fertility indices explained substantially less variation (32%). These results indicate that environmentally regulated biophysical constraints and light availability are the first-order drivers of global photosynthetic capacity. Through acclimation and adaptation, plants efficiently utilize resources at the leaf level, thus maximizing potential resource use for growth and reproduction. Our theory offers a robust strategy for dynamically predicting photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Adaptação Fisiológica , Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase
7.
New Phytol ; 222(1): 132-143, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372524

RESUMO

The Kok and Laisk techniques can both be used to estimate light respiration Rlight . We investigated whether responses of Rlight to short- and long-term changes in leaf temperature depend on the technique used to estimate Rlight . We grew Eucalyptus tereticornis in whole-tree chambers under ambient temperature (AT) or AT + 3°C (elevated temperature, ET). We assessed dark respiration Rdark and light respiration with the Kok (RKok ) and Laisk (RLaisk ) methods at four temperatures to determine the degree of light suppression of respiration using both methods in AT and ET trees. The ET treatment had little impact on Rdark , RKok or RLaisk . Although the thermal sensitivities of RKok or RLaisk were similar, RKok was higher than RLaisk . We found negative values of RLaisk at the lowest measurement temperatures, indicating positive net CO2 uptake, which we propose may be related to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Light suppression of Rdark decreased with increasing leaf temperature, but the degree of suppression depended on the method used. The Kok and Laisk methods do not generate the same estimates of Rlight or light suppression of Rdark between 20 and 35°C. Negative rates of RLaisk imply that this method may become less reliable at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Luz , Temperatura Ambiente , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/efeitos da radiação , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Células do Mesofilo/fisiologia , Células do Mesofilo/efeitos da radiação , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos da radiação
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(10): 4626-4644, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804312

RESUMO

Climate is an important factor limiting tree distributions and adaptation to different thermal environments may influence how tree populations respond to climate warming. Given the current rate of warming, it has been hypothesized that tree populations in warmer, more thermally stable climates may have limited capacity to respond physiologically to warming compared to populations from cooler, more seasonal climates. We determined in a controlled environment how several provenances of widely distributed Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. grandis adjusted their photosynthetic capacity to +3.5°C warming along their native distribution range (~16-38°S) and whether climate of seed origin of the provenances influenced their response to different growth temperatures. We also tested how temperature optima (Topt ) of photosynthesis and Jmax responded to higher growth temperatures. Our results showed increased photosynthesis rates at a standardized temperature with warming in temperate provenances, while rates in tropical provenances were reduced by about 40% compared to their temperate counterparts. Temperature optima of photosynthesis increased as provenances were exposed to warmer growth temperatures. Both species had ~30% reduced photosynthetic capacity in tropical and subtropical provenances related to reduced leaf nitrogen and leaf Rubisco content compared to temperate provenances. Tropical provenances operated closer to their thermal optimum and came within 3% of the Topt of Jmax during the daily temperature maxima. Hence, further warming may negatively affect C uptake and tree growth in warmer climates, whereas eucalypts in cooler climates may benefit from moderate warming.


Assuntos
Clima , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Ambiente Controlado , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(6): 2390-2402, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316093

RESUMO

Heatwaves are likely to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which may impair tree function and forest C uptake. However, we have little information regarding the impact of extreme heatwaves on the physiological performance of large trees in the field. Here, we grew Eucalyptus parramattensis trees for 1 year with experimental warming (+3°C) in a field setting, until they were greater than 6 m tall. We withheld irrigation for 1 month to dry the surface soils and then implemented an extreme heatwave treatment of 4 consecutive days with air temperatures exceeding 43°C, while monitoring whole-canopy exchange of CO2 and H2 O, leaf temperatures, leaf thermal tolerance, and leaf and branch hydraulic status. The heatwave reduced midday canopy photosynthesis to near zero but transpiration persisted, maintaining canopy cooling. A standard photosynthetic model was unable to capture the observed decoupling between photosynthesis and transpiration at high temperatures, suggesting that climate models may underestimate a moderating feedback of vegetation on heatwave intensity. The heatwave also triggered a rapid increase in leaf thermal tolerance, such that leaf temperatures observed during the heatwave were maintained within the thermal limits of leaf function. All responses were equivalent for trees with a prior history of ambient and warmed (+3°C) temperatures, indicating that climate warming conferred no added tolerance of heatwaves expected in the future. This coordinated physiological response utilizing latent cooling and adjustment of thermal thresholds has implications for tree tolerance of future climate extremes as well as model predictions of future heatwave intensity at landscape and global scales.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Transpiração Vegetal/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Florestas
10.
New Phytol ; 216(4): 986-1001, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28967668

RESUMO

Contents 986 I. 987 II. 987 III. 988 IV. 991 V. 992 VI. 995 VII. 997 VIII. 998 References 998 SUMMARY: It has been 75 yr since leaf respiratory metabolism in the light (day respiration) was identified as a low-flux metabolic pathway that accompanies photosynthesis. In principle, it provides carbon backbones for nitrogen assimilation and evolves CO2 and thus impacts on plant carbon and nitrogen balances. However, for a long time, uncertainties have remained as to whether techniques used to measure day respiratory efflux were valid and whether day respiration responded to environmental gaseous conditions. In the past few years, significant advances have been made using carbon isotopes, 'omics' analyses and surveys of respiration rates in mesocosms or ecosystems. There is substantial evidence that day respiration should be viewed as a highly dynamic metabolic pathway that interacts with photosynthesis and photorespiration and responds to atmospheric CO2 mole fraction. The view of leaf day respiration as a constant and/or negligible parameter of net carbon exchange is now outdated and it should now be regarded as a central actor of plant carbon-use efficiency.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 23(12): 5164-5178, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28691268

RESUMO

Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 ) is expected to reduce the impacts of drought and increase photosynthetic rates via two key mechanisms: first, through decreased stomatal conductance (gs ) and increased soil water content (VSWC ) and second, through increased leaf internal CO2 (Ci ) and decreased stomatal limitations (Slim ). It is unclear if such findings from temperate grassland studies similarly pertain to warmer ecosystems with periodic water deficits. We tested these mechanisms in three important C3 herbaceous species in a periodically dry Eucalyptus woodland and investigated how eCO2 -induced photosynthetic enhancement varied with seasonal water availability, over a 3 year period. Leaf photosynthesis increased by 10%-50% with a 150 µmol mol-1 increase in atmospheric CO2 across seasons. This eCO2 -induced increase in photosynthesis was a function of seasonal water availability, given by recent precipitation and mean daily VSWC . The highest photosynthetic enhancement by eCO2 (>30%) was observed during the most water-limited period, for example, with VSWC <0.07 in this sandy surface soil. Under eCO2 there was neither a significant decrease in gs in the three herbaceous species, nor increases in VSWC , indicating no "water-savings effect" of eCO2 . Periods of low VSWC showed lower gs (less than ≈ 0.12 mol m-2  s-1 ), higher relative Slim (>30%) and decreased Ci under the ambient CO2 concentration (aCO2 ), with leaf photosynthesis strongly carboxylation-limited. The alleviation of Slim by eCO2 was facilitated by increasing Ci , thus yielding a larger photosynthetic enhancement during dry periods. We demonstrated that water availability, but not eCO2 , controls gs and hence the magnitude of photosynthetic enhancement in the understory herbaceous plants. Thus, eCO2 has the potential to alter vegetation functioning in a periodically dry woodland understory through changes in stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, not by the "water-savings effect" usually invoked in grasslands.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Florestas , Solo/química , Água , Asteraceae , Secas , Eucalyptus , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Chuva , Estações do Ano
12.
New Phytol ; 215(3): 992-1008, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505389

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) have key roles in leaf metabolism, resulting in a strong coupling of chemical composition traits to metabolic rates in field-based studies. However, in such studies, it is difficult to disentangle the effects of nutrient supply per se on trait-trait relationships. Our study assessed how high and low N (5 mM and 0.4 mM, respectively) and P (1 mM and 2 µM, respectively) supply in 37 species from six plant functional types (PTFs) affected photosynthesis (A) and respiration (R) (in darkness and light) in a controlled environment. Low P supply increased scaling exponents (slopes) of area-based log-log A-N or R-N relationships when N supply was not limiting, whereas there was no P effect under low N supply. By contrast, scaling exponents of A-P and R-P relationships were altered by P and N supply. Neither R : A nor light inhibition of leaf R was affected by nutrient supply. Light inhibition was 26% across nutrient treatments; herbaceous species exhibited a lower degree of light inhibition than woody species. Because N and P supply modulates leaf trait-trait relationships, the next generation of terrestrial biosphere models may need to consider how limitations in N and P availability affect trait-trait relationships when predicting carbon exchange.


Assuntos
Ambiente Controlado , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Amido/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
13.
J Exp Bot ; 68(5): 1157-1167, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064178

RESUMO

Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and Vcmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees. The kinetics of E. globulus and tobacco Rubisco at 25 °C were similar. In vitro estimates of Vcmax derived from measures of E. globulus Rubisco content and kinetics were consistent, although slightly lower, than the in vivo rates extrapolated from gas exchange. In E. globulus, the fraction of N invested in Rubisco was substantially lower than for crop species and varied with treatments. Photosynthetic acclimation of E. globulus leaves to eC was underpinned by reduced leaf N and Rubisco contents; the opposite occurred in response to eT coinciding with growth resumption in spring. Our findings highlight the adaptive capacity of this key forest species to allocate leaf N flexibly to Rubisco and other photosynthetic proteins across differing canopy positions in response to future, warmer and elevated [CO2] climates.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Clima , New South Wales , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(8): 2834-51, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26946185

RESUMO

The response of terrestrial ecosystems to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca ), particularly under nutrient-limited conditions, is a major uncertainty in Earth System models. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment, recently established in a nutrient- and water-limited woodland presents a unique opportunity to address this uncertainty, but can best do so if key model uncertainties have been identified in advance. We applied seven vegetation models, which have previously been comprehensively assessed against earlier forest FACE experiments, to simulate a priori possible outcomes from EucFACE. Our goals were to provide quantitative projections against which to evaluate data as they are collected, and to identify key measurements that should be made in the experiment to allow discrimination among alternative model assumptions in a postexperiment model intercomparison. Simulated responses of annual net primary productivity (NPP) to elevated Ca ranged from 0.5 to 25% across models. The simulated reduction of NPP during a low-rainfall year also varied widely, from 24 to 70%. Key processes where assumptions caused disagreement among models included nutrient limitations to growth; feedbacks to nutrient uptake; autotrophic respiration; and the impact of low soil moisture availability on plant processes. Knowledge of the causes of variation among models is now guiding data collection in the experiment, with the expectation that the experimental data can optimally inform future model improvements.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Mudança Climática , Florestas , Fotossíntese , Água
15.
New Phytol ; 210(3): 1130-44, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719951

RESUMO

Simulations of photosynthesis by terrestrial biosphere models typically need a specification of the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ). Estimating this parameter using A-Ci curves (net photosynthesis, A, vs intercellular CO2 concentration, Ci ) is laborious, which limits availability of Vcmax data. However, many multispecies field datasets include net photosynthetic rate at saturating irradiance and at ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (Asat ) measurements, from which Vcmax can be extracted using a 'one-point method'. We used a global dataset of A-Ci curves (564 species from 46 field sites, covering a range of plant functional types) to test the validity of an alternative approach to estimate Vcmax from Asat via this 'one-point method'. If leaf respiration during the day (Rday ) is known exactly, Vcmax can be estimated with an r(2) value of 0.98 and a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8.19 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . However, Rday typically must be estimated. Estimating Rday as 1.5% of Vcmax, we found that Vcmax could be estimated with an r(2) of 0.95 and an RMSE of 17.1 µmol m(-2) s(-1) . The one-point method provides a robust means to expand current databases of field-measured Vcmax , giving new potential to improve vegetation models and quantify the environmental drivers of Vcmax variation.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Respiração Celular , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Cinética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(4): 1666-76, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26546378

RESUMO

Canopy leaf area, quantified by the leaf area index (L), is a crucial driver of forest productivity, water use and energy balance. Because L responds to environmental drivers, it can represent an important feedback to climate change, but its responses to rising atmospheric [CO2] and water availability of forests have been poorly quantified. We studied canopy leaf area dynamics for 28 months in a native evergreen Eucalyptus woodland exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment (the EucFACE experiment), in a subtropical climate where water limitation is common. We hypothesized that, because of expected stimulation of productivity and water-use efficiency, L should increase with elevated [CO2]. We estimated L from diffuse canopy transmittance, and measured monthly leaf litter production. Contrary to expectation, L did not respond to elevated [CO2]. We found that L varied between 1.10 and 2.20 across the study period. The dynamics of L showed a quick increase after heavy rainfall and a steady decrease during periods of low rainfall. Leaf litter production was correlated to changes in L, both during periods of decreasing L (when no leaf growth occurred) and during periods of increasing L (active shedding of old foliage when new leaf growth occurred). Leaf lifespan, estimated from mean L and total annual litter production, was up to 2 months longer under elevated [CO2] (1.18 vs. 1.01 years; P = 0.05). Our main finding that L was not responsive to elevated CO2 is consistent with other forest FACE studies, but contrasts with the positive response of L commonly predicted by many ecosystem models.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/análise , Atmosfera , Florestas , New South Wales
17.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(1): 380-90, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26426394

RESUMO

Projections of future climate are highly sensitive to uncertainties regarding carbon (C) uptake and storage by terrestrial ecosystems. The Eucalyptus Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (EucFACE) experiment was established to study the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2 ) on a native mature eucalypt woodland with low fertility soils in southeast Australia. In contrast to other FACE experiments, the concentration of CO2 at EucFACE was increased gradually in steps above ambient (+0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm CO2 above ambient of ~400 ppm), with each step lasting approximately 5 weeks. This provided a unique opportunity to study the short-term (weeks to months) response of C cycle flux components to eCO2 across a range of CO2 concentrations in an intact ecosystem. Soil CO2 efflux (i.e., soil respiration or Rsoil ) increased in response to initial enrichment (e.g., +30 and +60 ppm CO2 ) but did not continue to increase as the CO2 enrichment was stepped up to higher concentrations. Light-saturated photosynthesis of canopy leaves (Asat ) also showed similar stimulation by elevated CO2 at +60 ppm as at +150 ppm CO2 . The lack of significant effects of eCO2 on soil moisture, microbial biomass, or activity suggests that the increase in Rsoil likely reflected increased root and rhizosphere respiration rather than increased microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. This rapid increase in Rsoil suggests that under eCO2, additional photosynthate was produced, transported belowground, and respired. The consequences of this increased belowground activity and whether it is sustained through time in mature ecosystems under eCO2 are a priority for future research.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Florestas , Atmosfera/química , Austrália , Biomassa , Carbono/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Eucalyptus/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química
18.
Ecol Evol ; 5(20): 4717-33, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26668735

RESUMO

Differential species responses to atmospheric CO 2 concentration (Ca) could lead to quantitative changes in competition among species and community composition, with flow-on effects for ecosystem function. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of how elevated Ca (eC a) will affect plant competition, or how composition of plant communities might change. Such theoretical analysis is needed for developing testable hypotheses to frame experimental research. Here, we investigated theoretically how plant competition might change under eC a by implementing two alternative competition theories, resource use theory and resource capture theory, in a plant carbon and nitrogen cycling model. The model makes several novel predictions for the impact of eC a on plant community composition. Using resource use theory, the model predicts that eC a is unlikely to change species dominance in competition, but is likely to increase coexistence among species. Using resource capture theory, the model predicts that eC a may increase community evenness. Collectively, both theories suggest that eC a will favor coexistence and hence that species diversity should increase with eC a. Our theoretical analysis leads to a novel hypothesis for the impact of eC a on plant community composition. This hypothesis has potential to help guide the design and interpretation of eC a experiments.

19.
New Phytol ; 206(2): 614-36, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581061

RESUMO

Leaf dark respiration (Rdark ) is an important yet poorly quantified component of the global carbon cycle. Given this, we analyzed a new global database of Rdark and associated leaf traits. Data for 899 species were compiled from 100 sites (from the Arctic to the tropics). Several woody and nonwoody plant functional types (PFTs) were represented. Mixed-effects models were used to disentangle sources of variation in Rdark . Area-based Rdark at the prevailing average daily growth temperature (T) of each site increased only twofold from the Arctic to the tropics, despite a 20°C increase in growing T (8-28°C). By contrast, Rdark at a standard T (25°C, Rdark (25) ) was threefold higher in the Arctic than in the tropics, and twofold higher at arid than at mesic sites. Species and PFTs at cold sites exhibited higher Rdark (25) at a given photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax (25) ) or leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]) than species at warmer sites. Rdark (25) values at any given Vcmax (25) or [N] were higher in herbs than in woody plants. The results highlight variation in Rdark among species and across global gradients in T and aridity. In addition to their ecological significance, the results provide a framework for improving representation of Rdark in terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) and associated land-surface components of Earth system models (ESMs).


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Aclimatação , Respiração Celular , Clima , Modelos Teóricos , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 38(6): 1142-56, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25311401

RESUMO

Leaf photosynthetic CO2 responses can provide insight into how major nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), constrain leaf CO2 assimilation rates (Anet). However, triose-phosphate limitations are rarely employed in the classic photosynthesis model and it is uncertain as to what extent these limitations occur in field situations. In contrast to predictions from biochemical theory of photosynthesis, we found consistent evidence in the field of lower Anet in high [CO2] and low [O2 ] than at ambient [O2 ]. For 10 species of trees and shrubs across a range of soil P availability in Australia, none of them showed a positive response of Anet at saturating [CO2] (i.e. Amax) to 2 kPa O2. Three species showed >20% reductions in Amax in low [O2], a phenomenon potentially explained by orthophosphate (Pi) savings during photorespiration. These species, with largest photosynthetic capacity and Pi > 2 mmol P m(-2), rely the most on additional Pi made available from photorespiration rather than species growing in P-impoverished soils. The results suggest that rarely used adjustments to a biochemical photosynthesis model are useful for predicting Amax and give insight into the biochemical limitations of photosynthesis rates at a range of leaf P concentrations. Phosphate limitations to photosynthetic capacity are likely more common in the field than previously considered.


Assuntos
Fósforo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/fisiologia , Fósforo/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Árvores/metabolismo
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