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1.
Environ Res ; 206: 112587, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that residential surrounding greenness is associated with improved mental health. Few of these studies have focussed on middle-aged and older adults, explored the modifying effects of social determinants of health, or accounted for the extent to which individuals interact with their neighbourhood environments. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data collected from 26,811 urban participants of the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging who were between 45 and 86 years of age. Participants provided details on socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviours, and their frequency of neighbourhood interactions. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of greenness, was assigned to participants' residential addresses at a buffer distance of 500 m. Four self-reported measures of mental health were considered: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10; short scale), past diagnosis of clinical depression, perceptions of mental health, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Regression models were used to describe associations between greenness and these outcomes, and spline models were fit to characterize the exposure-response function between greenness and CES-D-10 scores. Stratified analyses evaluated whether associations varied by sociodemographic status. RESULTS: In adjusted models, we observed a 5% (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.90, 0.99) reduced odds of depressive symptoms in relation to an interquartile range increase of NDVI (0.06) within a 500 m buffer of the participant's residence. Similarly, we found an inverse association with a self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.92-1.01). Increases in surrounding greenness were associated with improved perceptions of mental health, and the SWLS. Our spline analyses found that beneficial effects between greenness and the CES-D-10 were strongest among those of lower income. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that residential greenness has mental health benefits, and that interventions to increase urban greenness can help reduce social inequalities in mental health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt C): 112344, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, several studies have reported that residential proximity to vegetation, or 'greenness', is associated with improved birth outcomes, including for term birth weight (TBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, there remain several uncertainties about these possible benefits including the role of air pollution, and the extent to they are influenced socioeconomic status. METHODS: We addressed these gaps using a national population-based study of 2.2 million singleton live births in Canadian metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to greenness, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were assigned to infants using the postal code of their mother's residence at the time of birth. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to characterize greenness, while estimates of ambient PM2.5 and NO2 were estimated using remote sensing, and a national land-use regression surface, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to describe associations between residential greenness and the birth outcomes. Stratified analyses explored whether these associations were modified by neighbourhood measures of socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Mothers who lived in greener areas had a lower risk of low TBW, PTB, and SGA babies. These associations persisted after adjustment for ambient NO2 and PM2.5. Specifically, in fully adjusted models, an interquartile range (IQR = 0.16) increase in the NDVI within a residential buffer of 250 m yielded odds ratios of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 0.94), 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.95), and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.95) for the outcomes of PTB, low TBW, and SGA, respectively. Similarly, an IQR increase in greenness was associated with a 16.3 g (95% CI: 15.3, 17.4) increase in TBW. We found inverse associations between greenness and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes regardless of the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the hypothesis that residential greenness contributes to healthier pregnancies, that these associations are independent from exposure to air pollution. , and that proximity to greenness benefits all mothers regardless of socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
3.
Environ Res ; 191: 109973, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual and neighbourhood-scale socioeconomic characteristics modify associations between exposure to air pollution and mortality. The role of stress, which may integrate effects of social and environmental exposures on health, is unknown. We examined whether an individual's perspective on their own well-being, as assessed using self-rated measures of stress and health, modifies the pollutant-mortality relationship. METHODS: The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-mortality cohort includes respondents from surveys administered between 2001 and 2012 linked to vital statistics and postal codes from 1981 until 2016. Annual fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) exposure estimates were attached to a sample of cohort members aged 30-89 years (n = 398,300 respondents/3,848,400 person-years). We examined whether self-rated stress, distress, mental health, and general health modified associations between long-term exposure to each pollutant (three-year moving average with one-year lag) and non-accidental mortality using Cox survival models, adjusted for individual- (i.e. socioeconomic and behavioural) and neighbourhood-scale covariates. RESULTS: In fully-adjusted models, the relationship between exposure to pollutants and mortality was stronger among those with poor self-rated mental health, including a significant difference for NO2 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25 per IQR) compared to those with very good/excellent mental health (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; Cochran's Q = 4.01; p < 0.05). Poor self-rated health was similarly associated with higher pollutant-associated HRs, but only in unadjusted models. Stress and distress did not modify pollutant-mortality associations. CONCLUSIONS: Poor self-rated mental and general health were associated with increased mortality attributed to exposure to ambient pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Ozônio , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Health Rep ; 31(7): 3-11, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of epidemiological studies have linked air pollution exposure to psychological conditions. Laboratory studies indicate that air pollutants can activate the neuroendocrine stress axis and modulate stress hormone levels, which could contribute to the development or exacerbation of psychological distress. The present study examined the spatial associations between air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and ground-level ozone [O3]) and psychological distress among subjects in the most populous provinces in Canada. DATA AND METHODS: Subjects were sampled from the Canadian Community Health Survey in three regions (Quebec in 2005 [n=25,800], British Columbia and Alberta in 2005 [n=23,000], and Ontario in 2011 [n=36,000]), and were assigned estimates of annual exposure to three ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, NO2 and O3) for the same years. Individual psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), based on anxiety and depressive symptoms in the past month. Regression models (both ordinary least squares and simultaneous autoregressive models) were applied to estimate associations between K10 distress scores and each air pollutant, after adjusting for individual (demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural) and neighbourhood covariates.. RESULTS: Psychological distress was positively associated with PM2.5 and NO2 in all three regions, and with O3 in Quebec. However, after further adjusting for individual and neighbourhood covariates, the associations between distress and air pollution remained statistically significant only in Quebec. DISCUSSION: Some evidence for positive associations between psychological distress and ambient air pollution after adjusting for spatial autocorrelation was found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Quebeque , Autorrelato , Análise Espacial
5.
Health Rep ; 31(3): 14-26, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants make up 20% of the Canadian population; however, little is known about the mortality impacts of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution on immigrants compared with non-immigrants, or about how impacts may change with duration in Canada. DATA AND METHODS: This study used the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort, a longitudinal cohort of 3.5 million individuals, of which 764,000 were classified as immigrants (foreign-born). Postal codes from annual income tax files were used to account for mobility among respondents and to assign annual PM2.5 concentrations from 1998 to 2016. Exposures were estimated as a three-year moving average prior to the follow-up year. Cox survival models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for cause-specific mortality, comparing the Canadian and foreign-born populations, with further stratification by year of immigration grouped into 10-year cohorts. RESULTS: Differences in urban-rural settlement patterns resulted in greater exposure to PM2.5 for immigrants compared with non-immigrants (mean = 9.3 vs. 7.5 µg/m3), with higher exposures among more recent immigrants. In fully adjusted models, immigrants had higher HRs per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration compared with Canadian-born individuals for cardiovascular mortality (HR [95% confidence interval] = 1.22 [1.12 to 1.34] vs. 1.12 [1.07 to 1.18]) and cerebrovascular mortality (HR = 1.25 [1.03 to 1.52] vs. 1.03 [0.93 to 1.15]), respectively. However, tests for differences between the two groups were not significant when Cochran's Q test was used. No significant associations were found for respiratory outcomes, except for lung cancer in non-immigrants (HR = 1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]). When stratified by year of immigration, differences in HRs across varied by cause of death. DISCUSSION: In Canada, PM2.5 is an equal-opportunity risk factor, with immigrants experiencing similar if not higher mortality risks compared with non-immigrants for cardiovascular-related causes of death. Some notable differences also existed with cerebrovascular and lung cancer deaths. Continued reductions in air pollution, particularly in urban areas, will improve the health of the Canadian population as a whole.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Censos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
6.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 84, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 2.9 million deaths are attributed to ambient fine particle air pollution around the world each year (PM2.5). In general, cohort studies of mortality and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations have limited information on individuals exposed to low levels of PM2.5 as well as covariates such as smoking behaviours, alcohol consumption, and diet which may confound relationships with mortality. This study provides an updated and extended analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mortality cohort: a population-based cohort with detailed PM2.5 exposure data and information on a number of important individual-level behavioural risk factors. We also used this rich dataset to provide insight into the shape of the concentration-response curve for mortality at low levels of PM2.5. METHODS: Respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey from 2000 to 2012 were linked by postal code history from 1981 to 2016 to high resolution PM2.5 exposure estimates, and mortality incidence to 2016. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the relationship between non-accidental mortality and ambient PM2.5 concentrations (measured as a three-year average with a one-year lag) adjusted for socio-economic, behavioural, and time-varying contextual covariates. RESULTS: In total, 50,700 deaths from non-accidental causes occurred in the cohort over the follow-up period. Annual average ambient PM2.5 concentrations were low (i.e. 5.9 µg/m3, s.d. 2.0) and each 10 µg/m3 increase in exposure was associated with an increase in non-accidental mortality (HR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). Adjustment for behavioural covariates did not materially change this relationship. We estimated a supra-linear concentration-response curve extending to concentrations below 2 µg/m3 using a shape constrained health impact function. Mortality risks associated with exposure to PM2.5 were increased for males, those under age 65, and non-immigrants. Hazard ratios for PM2.5 and mortality were attenuated when gaseous pollutants were included in models. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with non-accidental mortality and adjusting for individual-level behavioural covariates did not materially change this relationship. The concentration-response curve was supra-linear with increased mortality risks extending to low outdoor PM2.5 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
7.
Environ Res ; 176: 108518, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graphical materials can be effective communication tools, and maps in particular are a potentially powerful means of conveying spatial information. Previous reviews have provided insights on the application of cartographic best practices, pitfalls to avoid, and considerations related to risk perception and communication, but none has reviewed primary studies of the effectiveness or utility of maps to users, nor have they addressed the issue from the perspective of health literacy, environmental health literacy, or public health ethics. OBJECTIVES: To systematically identify and review the literature pertaining to evaluation of maps in general, or specific map features, as environmental exposure and health risk communication tools; to formulate best-practice recommendations; and to identify future research priorities. METHODS: A health science librarian searched the literature for commentaries, reviews, and primary studies. Titles, abstracts, and full-text papers were screened for inclusion, and details of methods and results were extracted from 4 reviews and commentaries and 18 primary studies. This was supplemented by one additional review and 13 additional primary studies pertaining to use of maps for communication about wildfires and floods. One additional paper was identified by reviewing reference lists of all relevant papers. RESULTS: and Discussion: While there are significant gaps in the evidence, we formulated best practice recommendations highlighting the perspectives of health literacy and environmental health literacy. Key recommendations include: understanding the map developer's societal role and mental model underlying map design; defining, understanding and iteratively engaging with map users; informing map design using key theoretical constructs; accounting for factors affecting risk perception; adhering to risk communication principles and cartographic best practices; and considering environmental justice and public health ethics implications. Recommendations for future research are also provided.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Visualização de Dados , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Mapas como Assunto , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
8.
Environ Res ; 175: 108-116, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indirect adjustment via partitioned regression is a promising technique to control for unmeasured confounding in large epidemiological studies. The method uses a representative ancillary dataset to estimate the association between variables missing in a primary dataset with the complete set of variables of the ancillary dataset to produce an adjusted risk estimate for the variable in question. The objective of this paper is threefold: 1) evaluate the method for non-linear survival models, 2) formalize an empirical process to evaluate the suitability of the required ancillary matching dataset, and 3) test modifications to the method to incorporate time-varying exposure data, and proportional weighting of datasets. METHODS: We used the association between fine particle air pollution (PM2.5) with mortality in the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC, N = 2.4 million, 10-years follow-up) as our primary dataset, and the 2001 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, N = 80,630) as the ancillary matching dataset that contained confounding risk factor information not available in CanCHEC (e.g., smoking). The main evaluation process used a gold-standard approach wherein two variables (education and income) available in both datasets were excluded, indirectly adjusted for, and compared to true models with education and income included to assess the amount of bias correction. An internal validation for objective 1 used only CanCHEC data, whereas an external validation for objective 2 replaced CanCHEC with the CCHS. The two proposed modifications were applied as part of the validation tests, as well as in a final indirect adjustment of four missing risk factor variables (smoking, alcohol use, diet, and exercise) in which adjustment direction and magnitude was compared to models using an equivalent longitudinal cohort with direct adjustment for the same variables. RESULTS: At baseline (2001) both cohorts had very similar PM2.5 distributions across population characteristics, although levels for CCHS participants were consistently 1.8-2.0 µg/m3 lower. Applying sample-weighting largely corrected for this discrepancy. The internal validation tests showed minimal downward bias in PM2.5 mortality hazard ratios of 0.4-0.6% using a static exposure, and 1.7-3% when a time-varying exposure was used. The external validation of the CCHS as the ancillary dataset showed slight upward bias of -0.7 to -1.1% and downward bias of 1.3-2.3% using the static and time-varying approaches respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CCHS was found to be fairly well representative of CanCHEC and its use in Canada for indirect adjustment is warranted. Indirect adjustment methods can be used with survival models to correct hazard ratio point estimates and standard errors in models missing key covariates when a representative matching dataset is available. The results of this formal evaluation should encourage other cohorts to assess the suitability of ancillary datasets for the application of the indirect adjustment methodology to address potential residual confounding.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Exposição Ambiental , Mortalidade , Material Particulado , Estatística como Assunto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estatística como Assunto/métodos
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9592-9597, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181279

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions about equivalent exposure and toxicity. We relax these contentious assumptions by constructing a PM2.5-mortality hazard ratio function based only on cohort studies of outdoor air pollution that covers the global exposure range. We modeled the shape of the association between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality using data from 41 cohorts from 16 countries-the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). We then constructed GEMMs for five specific causes of death examined by the global burden of disease (GBD). The GEMM predicts 8.9 million [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.5-10.3] deaths in 2015, a figure 30% larger than that predicted by the sum of deaths among the five specific causes (6.9; 95% CI: 4.9-8.5) and 120% larger than the risk function used in the GBD (4.0; 95% CI: 3.3-4.8). Differences between the GEMM and GBD risk functions are larger for a 20% reduction in concentrations, with the GEMM predicting 220% higher excess deaths. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be related to additional causes of death than the five considered by the GBD and that incorporation of risk information from other, nonoutdoor, particle sources leads to underestimation of disease burden, especially at higher concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Epidemiology ; 29(6): 784-794, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is infrequently coded as the primary cause of death but may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in response to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. We analyzed all contributing causes of death to examine susceptibility of diabetics to CVD mortality from long-term exposure. METHODS: We linked a subset of the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) with 10 years of follow-up to all causes of death listed on death certificates. We used survival models to examine the association between CVD deaths (n = 123,500) and exposure to PM2.5 among deaths that co-occurred with diabetes (n = 20,600) on the death certificate. More detailed information on behavioral covariates and diabetes status at baseline available in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-mortality cohort (n = 12,400 CVD deaths, with 2,800 diabetes deaths) complemented the CanCHEC analysis. RESULTS: Among CanCHEC subjects, comention of diabetes on the death certificate increased the magnitude of association between CVD mortality and PM2.5 (HR = 1.51 [1.39-1.65] per 10 µg/m) versus all CVD deaths (HR = 1.25 [1.21-1.29]) or CVD deaths without diabetes (HR = 1.20 [1.16-1.25]). Among CCHS subjects, diabetics who used insulin or medication (included as proxies for severity) had higher HR estimates for CVD deaths from PM2.5 (HR = 1.51 [1.08-2.12]) relative to the CVD death estimate for all respondents (HR = 1.31 [1.16-1.47]). CONCLUSIONS: Mention of diabetes on the death certificate resulted in higher magnitude associations between PM2.5 and CVD mortality, specifically among those who manage their diabetes with insulin or medication. Analyses restricted to the primary cause of death likely underestimate the role of diabetes in air pollution-related mortality. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B408.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Eur Respir J ; 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419440

RESUMO

Perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma incidence, however, less is known regarding the potential effect modifiers in this association. We examined whether maternal and infant characteristics modified the association between perinatal exposure to air pollution and development of childhood asthma.761 172 births occurring between 2006 and 2012 were identified in the province of Ontario, Canada. Associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and childhood asthma incidence (up to age 6) were estimated using Cox regression models.110,981 children with asthma were identified. In models adjusted for postnatal exposures, second trimester exposures to particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) (Hazard Ratio (HR) per interquartile (IQR) increase=1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.09) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (HR per IQR increase=1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08) were associated with childhood asthma development. Enhanced impacts were found among children born to mothers with asthma, those who smoked during pregnancy, boys, those born preterm, of low birth weight and among those born to mothers living in urban areas during pregnancy.Prenatal exposure to air pollution may have a differential impact on the risk of asthma development according to maternal and infant characteristics.

12.
Environ Res ; 159: 406-415, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28850858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large cohort studies have been used to characterise the association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution with non-accidental, and cause-specific mortality. However, there has been no consensus as to the shape of the association between concentration and response. METHODS: To examine the shape of this association, we developed a new cohort based on respondents to the 2001 Canadian census long-form. We applied new annual PM2.5 concentration estimates based on remote sensing and ground measurements for Canada at a 1km spatial scale from 1998 to 2011. We followed 2.4 million respondents who were non-immigrants aged 25-90 years and did not reside in an institution over a 10 year period for mortality. Exposures were assigned as a 3-year mean prior to the follow-up year. Income tax files were used to account for residential mobility among respondents using postal codes, with probabilistic imputation used for missing postal codes in the tax data. We used Cox survival models to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for cause-specific mortality. We also estimated Shape Constrained Health Impact Functions (a concentration-response function) for selected causes of death. RESULTS: In models stratified by age, sex, airshed, and population centre size, and adjusted for individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic variables, HR estimates for non-accidental mortality were HR = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.15-1.21) per 10µg/m3 increase in concentration. We observed higher HRs for cardiovascular disease (HR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.19-1.31), cardio-metabolic disease (HR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.21-1.33), ischemic heart disease (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.28-1.44) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.39) compared to HR for all non-accidental causes of death. For non-accidental, cardio-metabolic, ischemic heart disease, respiratory and COPD mortality, the shape of the concentration-response curve was supra-linear, with larger differences in relative risk for lower concentrations. For both pneumonia and lung cancer, there was some suggestion that the curves were sub-linear. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter and several causes of death were non-linear for each cause of death examined.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
Environ Int ; 100: 139-147, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28108116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are increasing concerns regarding the role of exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy in the development of early childhood cancers. OBJECTIVE: This population based study examined whether prenatal and early life (<1year of age) exposures to ambient air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5µm (PM2.5), were associated with selected common early childhood cancers in Canada. METHODS: 2,350,898 singleton live births occurring between 1988 and 2012 were identified in the province of Ontario, Canada. We assigned temporally varying satellite-derived estimates of PM2.5 and land-use regression model estimates of NO2 to maternal residences during pregnancy. Incident cases of 13 subtypes of pediatric cancers among children up to age 6 until 2013 were ascertained through administrative health data linkages. Associations of trimester-specific, overall pregnancy and first year of life exposures were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 2044 childhood cancers were identified. Exposure to PM2.5, per interquartile range increase, over the entire pregnancy, and during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of astrocytoma (hazard ratio (HR) per 3.9µg/m3=1.38 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.88) and, HR per 4.0µg/m3=1.40 (95% CI: 1.05-1.86), respectively). We also found a positive association between first trimester NO2 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (HR=1.20 (95% CI: 1.02-1.41) per IQR (13.3ppb)). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study in the largest province of Canada, results suggest an association between exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester and an increased risk of astrocytoma and ALL. Further studies are required to replicate the findings of this study with adjustment for important individual-level confounders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Risco
14.
Environ Res ; 148: 513-526, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27155984

RESUMO

Numerous studies have examined the association of air pollution with preterm birth and birth weight outcomes. Traffic-related air pollution has also increasingly been identified as an important contributor to adverse health effects of air pollution. We employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model to examine the association between NO2 and pregnancy outcomes in Canada between 1999 and 2008. National models for NO2 (and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) as a covariate) were developed using ground-based monitoring data, estimates from remote-sensing, land use variables and, for NO2, deterministic gradients relative to road traffic sources. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations with preterm birth, term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, adjusting for covariates including infant sex, gestational age, maternal age and marital status, parity, urban/rural place of residence, maternal place of birth, season, year of birth and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and per cent visible minority. Associations were reduced considerably after adjustment for individual covariates and neighbourhood per cent visible minority, but remained significant for SGA (odds ratio 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.06 per 20ppb NO2) and term birth weight (16.2g reduction, 95% CI 13.6-18.8g per 20ppb NO2). Associations with NO2 were of greater magnitude in a sensitivity analysis using monthly monitoring data, and among births to mothers born in Canada, and in neighbourhoods with higher incomes and a lower proportion of visible minorities. In two pollutant models, associations with NO2 were less sensitive to adjustment for PM2.5 than vice versa, and there was consistent evidence of a dose-response relationship for NO2 but not PM2.5. In this study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and 2008, we found significant associations of NO2 with SGA and term birth weight which remained significant after adjustment for PM2.5, suggesting that traffic may be a particularly important source with respect to the role of air pollution as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores , Gravidez , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Res ; 148: 457-466, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but the potential modifying effect of maternal comorbidities remains understudied. Our objective was to investigate whether associations between prenatal air pollution exposures and birth outcomes differ by maternal comorbidities. METHODS: A total of 818,400 singleton live births were identified in the province of Ontario, Canada from 2005 to 2012. We assigned exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) to maternal residences during pregnancy. We evaluated potential effect modification by maternal comorbidities (i.e. asthma, hypertension, pre-existing diabetes mellitus, heart disease, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia) on the associations between prenatal air pollution and preterm birth, term low birth weight and small for gestational age. RESULTS: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5 (2µg/m(3)), NO2 (9ppb) and O3 (5ppb) over the entire pregnancy were associated with a 4% (95% CI: 2.4-5.6%), 8.4% (95% CI: 5.5-10.3%) and 2% (95% CI: 0.5-4.1%) increase in the odds of preterm birth, respectively. Increases of 10.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1%) and 23.8% (95% CI: 5.5-44.8%) in the odds of preterm birth were observed among women with pre-existing diabetes while the increases were of 3.8% (95% CI: 2.2-5.4%) and 6.5% (95% CI: 3.7-8.4%) among women without this condition for pregnancy exposure to PM2.5 and NO2, respectively (Pint<0.01). The increase in the odds of preterm birth for exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy was higher among women with preeclampsia (8.3%, 95% CI: 0.8-16.4%) than among women without (3.6%, 95% CI: 1.8-5.3%) (Pint=0.04). A stronger increase in the odds of preterm birth was found for exposure to O3 during pregnancy among asthmatic women (12.0%, 95% CI: 3.5-21.1%) compared to non-asthmatic women (2.0%, 95% CI: 0.1-3.5%) (Pint<0.01). We did not find statistically significant effect modification for the other outcomes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of this study suggest that associations of ambient air pollution with preterm birth are stronger among women with pre-existing diabetes, asthma, and preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Asma/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Comorbidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ontário , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Health ; 15: 18, 2016 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26864652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the shape of the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and health risks is critical for health impact and risk assessment. Studies evaluating the health risks of exposure to low concentrations of PM2.5 are limited. Further, many existing studies lack individual-level information on potentially important behavioural confounding factors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among a subset of participants in a cohort that linked respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey to mortality (n = 299,500) with satellite-derived ambient PM2.5 estimates. Participants enrolled between 2000 and 2008 were followed to date of death or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality attributed to PM2.5 exposure, adjusted for individual-level and contextual covariates, including smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Approximately 26,300 non-accidental deaths, of which 32.5 % were due to circulatory disease and 9.1 % were due to respiratory disease, occurred during the follow-up period. Ambient PM2.5 exposures were relatively low (mean = 6.3 µg/m(3)), yet each 10 µg/m(3) increase in exposure was associated with increased risks of non-accidental (HR = 1.26; 95 % CI: 1.19-1.34), circulatory disease (HR = 1.19; 95 % CI: 1.07-1.31), and respiratory disease mortality (HR = 1.52; 95 % CI: 1.26-1.84) in fully adjusted models. Higher hazard ratios were observed for respiratory mortality among respondents who never smoked (HR = 1.97; 95 % CI: 1.24-3.13 vs. HR = 1.45; 95 % CI: 1.17-1.79 for ever smokers), and among obese (BMI ≥ 30) respondents (HR = 1.76; 95 % CI: 1.15-2.69 vs. HR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.04-1.91 for normal weight respondents), though differences between groups were not statistically significant. A threshold analysis for non-accidental mortality estimated a threshold concentration of 0 µg/m(3) (+95 % CI = 4.5 µg/m(3)). CONCLUSIONS: Increased risks of non-accidental, circulatory, and respiratory mortality were observed even at very low concentrations of ambient PM2.5. HRs were generally greater than most literature values, and adjusting for behavioural covariates served to reduce HR estimates slightly.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estatística como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Environ Res ; 146: 92-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26745732

RESUMO

BACKROUND: Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is known to contribute to cardiorespiratory mortality but it is not clear how PM2.5 oxidative burden (i.e. the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress) may influence long-term mortality risk. METHODS: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 oxidative burden and cause-specific mortality in Ontario, Canada. Integrated PM2.5 samples were collected from 30 provincial monitoring sites between 2012 and 2013. The oxidative potential (% depletion/µg) of regional PM2.5 was measured as the ability of filter extracts to deplete antioxidants (glutathione and ascorbate) in a synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid. PM2.5oxidative burden was calculated as the product of PM2.5 mass concentrations and regional estimates of oxidative potential. In total, this study included 193,300 people who completed the Canadian long-form census in 1991 and who lived within 5km of a site where oxidative potential was measured. Deaths occurring between 1991 and 2009 were identified through record linkages and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for interquartile changes in exposure adjusting for individual-level covariates and indirect-adjustment for smoking and obesity. RESULTS: Glutathione-related oxidative burden was associated with cause-specific mortality. For lung cancer specifically, this metric was associated with a 12% (95% CI: 5.0-19) increased risk of mortality whereas a 5.0% (95% CI: 0.1, 10) increase was observed for PM2.5. Indirect adjustment for smoking and obesity decreased the lung cancer hazard ratio for glutathione-related oxidative burden but it remained significantly elevated (HR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.005, 1.146). Ascorbate-related oxidative burden was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that glutathione-related oxidative burden may be more strongly associated with lung cancer mortality than PM2.5 mass concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 193(10): 1134-42, 2016 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26680605

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is potentially associated with cardiovascular disease risk and premature death. Results from long-term epidemiological studies on O3 are scarce and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined associations between chronic ambient O3 exposure and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort of U.S. adults. METHODS: Cancer Prevention Study II participants were enrolled in 1982. A total of 669,046 participants were analyzed, among whom 237,201 deaths occurred through 2004. We obtained estimates of O3 concentrations at the participant's residence from a hierarchical Bayesian space-time model. Estimates of fine particulate matter (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of up to 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) and NO2 concentrations were obtained from land use regression. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine mortality associations adjusted for individual- and ecological-level covariates. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, we observed significant positive associations between O3, PM2.5, and NO2 concentrations and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In two-pollutant models adjusted for PM2.5, significant positive associations remained between O3 and all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] per 10 ppb, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.04), circulatory (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05), and respiratory mortality (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16) that were unchanged with further adjustment for NO2. We also observed positive mortality associations with both PM2.5 (both near source and regional) and NO2 in multipollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: Findings derived from this large-scale prospective study suggest that long-term ambient O3 contributes to risk of respiratory and circulatory mortality. Substantial health and environmental benefits may be achieved by implementing further measures aimed at controlling O3 concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ozônio/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluição do Ar/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(2): 243-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26090691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined associations between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes, but most have been restricted to urban populations living near monitors. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between pregnancy outcomes and fine particulate matter in a large national study including urban and rural areas. METHODS: Analyses were based on approximately 3 million singleton live births in Canada between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to PM2.5 (particles of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) were assigned by mapping the mother's postal code to a monthly surface based on a national land use regression model that incorporated observations from fixed-site monitoring stations and satellite-derived estimates of PM2.5. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), term low birth weight (< 2,500 g), small for gestational age (SGA; < 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age), and term birth weight, adjusting for individual covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, a 10-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 over the entire pregnancy was associated with SGA (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.07) and reduced term birth weight (-20.5 g; 95% CI -24.7, -16.4). Associations varied across subgroups based on maternal place of birth and period (1999-2003 vs. 2004-2008). CONCLUSIONS: This study, based on approximately 3 million births across Canada and employing PM2.5 estimates from a national spatiotemporal model, provides further evidence linking PM2.5 and pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Exposição Materna , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/induzido quimicamente , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 42(5): 1319-26, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24013141

RESUMO

The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort is the largest population-based cohort in Canada (N=2,734,835). Prior to the creation of this Cohort, no national population-based Canadian cohort was available to examine mortality by socioeconomic indicators. The 1991 Canadian Census Cohort was created via the linkage of a sub-sample of respondents from the mandatory 1991 Canadian Census long-form to historical tax summary files, Canadian Mortality Database, Canadian Cancer Database, 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey and a sub-sample of the Longitudinal Worker File. Overall ascertainment of mortality and cancer is anticipated to be nearly complete and the Cohort is broadly representative of most groups in the Canadian population. The Cohort has been used to examine mortality outcomes by different indicators of socioeconomic status, occupational categories, ethnic groups, educational attainment, and for exposure to ambient air pollution. Results have shown that the estimated remaining years of life at age 25 differed substantially by income adequacy quintile, educational attainment, housing type and Aboriginal ancestry.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Censos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Renda , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Limitação da Mobilidade , Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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