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1.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(11): 2302-2308, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that individual appetitive traits may usefully explain patterns of weight loss in behavioral weight loss treatments for children. The objective of this study was to identify trajectories of child appetitive traits and the impact on child weight changes over time. METHODS: Secondary data analyses of a randomized noninferiority trial conducted between 2011 and 2015 evaluated children's appetitive traits and weight loss. Children with overweight and obesity (mean age = 10.4; mean BMI z = 2.0; 67% girls; 32% Hispanic) and their parent (mean age = 42.9; mean BMI = 31.9; 87% women; 31% Hispanic) participated in weight loss programs and completed assessments at baseline, 3, 6,12, and 24 months. Repeated assessments of child appetitive traits, including satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness and emotional eating, were used to identify parsimonious grouping of change trajectories. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify the impact of group trajectory on child BMIz change over time. RESULTS: One hundred fifty children and their parent enrolled in the study. The three-group trajectory model was the most parsimonious and included a high satiety responsive group (HighSR; 47.4%), a high food responsive group (HighFR; 34.6%), and a high emotional eating group (HighEE; 18.0%). Children in all trajectories lost weight at approximately the same rate during treatment, however, only the HighSR group maintained their weight loss during follow-ups, while the HighFR and HighEE groups regained weight (adjusted p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Distinct trajectories of child appetitive traits were associated with differential weight loss maintenance. Identified high-risk subgroups may suggest opportunities for targeted intervention and maintenance programs.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.

3.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 42(2): 253-262, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046927

RESUMO

Medications are a useful adjunct to nutritional and psychotherapeutic treatments for eating disorders. Antidepressants are commonly used to treat bulimia nervosa; high-dose fluoxetine is a standard approach, but many other antidepressants can be used. Binge eating disorder can be treated with antidepressants, with medications that diminish appetite, or with lisdexamfetamine. Anorexia nervosa does not generally respond to medications, although recent evidence supports modest weight restoration benefits from olanzapine.

4.
Eat Behav ; 33: 30-33, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the potential factor structure of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a sample of individuals with bipolar disorder. METHOD: Exploratory common factor analyses were conducted in a sample of 1031 people with bipolar disorder as defined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. RESULTS: Approximately 27% of participants had a comorbid eating disorder. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 3 factor solution (i.e., shape/weight concerns; binge eating behaviors, compensatory behavior). CONCLUSIONS: The 3-factor solution of the EDDS in a bipolar disorder sample is consistent with major eating disorder symptom domains. Future research is necessary to replicate these findings in eating disorder samples with diverse comorbid psychopathology.

5.
Child Obes ; 15(2): 116-122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family-based weight loss treatment (FBT) for childhood obesity, the current "gold standard," is typically provided in weekly groups for 6 months. Although this program is considered effective, it poses limitations to treatment engagement, due to time commitment and lack of widespread availability. A guided self-help version of FBT (gshFBT; eleven 20-minute sessions and one 1-hour over 5 months) was developed to circumvent such limitations. The current study examined the comparative efficacy of a 5-month FBT and gshFBT program. METHODS: Participants included 50 parent-child dyads enrolled in FBT between 2011 and 2013 and 50 parent-child dyads enrolled in gshFBT between 2009 and 2010. Data were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Noninferiority analyses were conducted to assess comparative efficacy of changes in parent and child weight status, child nutrition, child physical activity, and drop-out. RESULTS: Results indicated that gshFBT was noninferior to FBT in changes in child BMI z-score, overweight parent BMI, child nutritional intake, child vigorous physical activity, and drop-out. Results did not support noninferiority for changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: gshFBT is less intensive, more flexible, and may be similarly effective to FBT and could reach a greater proportion of the pediatric overweight population. Further research, including a randomized clinical trial, is needed to confirm these results.

6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(2): 200-205, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined a hypothesized pathway by which interoceptive dysfunction accounted for associations between personality features (harm avoidance, self-directedness, and perfectionism) and anorexia nervosa (AN) severity (indicated by drive for thinness, eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals, and body mass index). METHOD: The study sample (n = 270, mean age = 28.47, 95.2% female, 98% White/Caucasian) consisted of probands and biological relatives who met DSM-IV criteria for lifetime diagnoses of AN (omitting criterion D, amenorrhea) drawn from the Price Foundation Anorexia Nervosa Affected Relative Pairs Study (AN-ARP). Participants completed measures assessing personality, interoceptive dysfunction, and eating pathology. RESULTS: Associations between personality features of low self-directedness and high perfectionism and indicators of AN severity (drive for thinness and eating disorder-related preoccupations and rituals) were significant, as were the hypothesized indirect pathways through interoceptive dysfunction. Neither harm avoidance nor body mass index was significantly related to other study variables, and the proposed indirect pathways involving these variables were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that certain personality features may relate to AN severity, in part, through their associations with interoceptive dysfunction. Future research should examine prospective associations and the value of interventions targeting interoceptive dysfunction for interrupting the link between personality and AN severity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Eat Behav ; 32: 69-73, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although deficits in emotion regulation have been implicated in the maintenance of binge eating, few prospective studies have examined longitudinal associations between emotion regulation and eating disorder symptoms, which are needed to test these theoretical models. METHOD: Using a naturalistic design, the current study utilized longitudinal multilevel analyses to examine whether improvements in emotion regulation during treatment are associated with decreased binge eating frequency and eating disorder cognitions in a heterogeneous sample of adults with binge eating (N = 97). Analyses also accounted for between- and within-person differences in negative affect to inform specific targets for intervention. RESULTS: Significant within-person associations between emotion regulation, negative affect, and eating disorder severity support hypotheses that emotion dysregulation and negative affect co-occur with eating disorder psychopathology. Only between-person differences in negative affect demonstrated associations with binge eating frequency over time. DISCUSSION: Data suggest that momentary interventions targeting negative affect and emotion regulation skills may decrease eating disorder cognitions, but not binge eating frequency, among adults with binge eating.


Assuntos
Afeto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(3): 299-303, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether children with overweight or obesity participating in an evidence-based treatment, family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) for obesity, or a parent-only variant of FBT (PBT), experience an increase of eating disorder (ED) symptoms during and following treatment. METHOD: Children (N = 150) participating in a randomized controlled trial of FBT or PBT completed measures of EDs attitudes and behaviors at baseline, following 6-months of treatment, 6 months, and 18 months after treatment. RESULTS: Linear-mixed effects models suggest that ED attitudes did not significantly increase. Rather, significant decreases of shape, weight, and eating concerns were shown following treatment. Loss of control over eating significantly decreased over treatment and follow-up. No participant endorsed purging at any time point. DISCUSSION: Results confirm the hypothesis that ED symptoms do not increase after participating in FBT or a FBT-based treatment. These findings should help assuage fears of parents that enrolling their child will exacerbate ED symptoms and aid children to access evidence-based treatments that may help reduce significant physical and psychosocial complications of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia
9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251758

RESUMO

Neurobiological disturbances associated with reward and/or habit learning are theorized to maintain symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). Although research has investigated responses in brain regions associated with reward and habit to disorder-specific cues (e.g., food) and presumed rewards (e.g., money), little is known about the functional organization of the circuits underlying these constructs independent of stimulus. This study aimed to provide initial data on the synchrony of networks associated with reward and habit in AN by comparing resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns between AN and healthy control (HC) participants in these circuits and delineating how these patterns relate to symptoms. Using theoretically selected seeds in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), ventral caudate, and dorsal caudate, reflecting a continuum from reward- to habit- oriented regions, RSFC patterns were compared between AN restricting subtype (n = 19) and HC (n = 19) participants (cluster threshold: p < .01). Exploratory correlations between RSFC z-scores and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) scores, BMI, and illness duration were conducted. The AN group demonstrated lower RSFC between the NAcc and superior frontal gyrus, between the ventral caudate and frontal and posterior regions, and between the dorsal caudate and frontal, temporal, and posterior regions. In the AN group, lower NAcc- superior frontal gyrus RSFC correlated with greater EDE Global scores (r = -.58, CI: -.83, -.13). These resting-state synchrony disruptions of the ventral and dorsal frontostriatal circuits, considered in context of the broader literature, support the utility of further investigating possible reward and habit disturbances supporting symptoms in AN.

10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 86: 137-142, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145404

RESUMO

This study examined the moderating effects of different aspects of trait impulsivity on trajectories of negative affect prior to and following body checking in the natural environment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN). Body checking is a compulsive behavior that may maintain the cycle of eating disordered behavior through negative reinforcement. Previous studies regarding the relationship of negative affect to body checking have been inconsistent, making it unclear how negative affect functions as an antecedent to this behavior in the natural environment. We hypothesized that individual differences in trait impulsivity may influence body checking in response to negative affect. Negative urgency (NU) (the tendency to act rashly under distress) and (lack of) perseverance (the tendency to give up on goal directed behavior) may be unique facets of impulsivity that play a role in body checking. Women with AN (n = 82) completed a self-report measure of impulsivity and used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to record negative affect and body checking for two weeks. Results indicated that women with low (lack of) perseverance experienced a greater increase in negative affect than those with high (lack of) perseverance prior to and following body checking. Overall, results indicate that individual differences in trait impulsivity moderated the relationship of negative affect to body checking in women with AN.

11.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 108-111, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29886272

RESUMO

The study examined associations between eating disorder behaviors measured via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and eating disorder quality of life (EDQOL) in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N = 82) completed an EDQOL measure and two-weeks of EMA. Greater frequency of EMA-assessed restriction and bulimic behavior were independently related to lower EDQOL scores. Lower psychological EDQOL was associated with increased EMA dietary restriction; lower work-related EDQOL was associated with increased EMA binge eating; aspects of EDQOL were unrelated to EMA purging. Findings suggest that severity of restriction and bulimic behaviors may serve as severity indicators of EDQOL in AN.

12.
Appetite ; 127: 110-118, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current measures of parent feeding practices are typically survey-based and assessed as static/unchanging characteristics, failing to account for fluctuations in these behaviors across time and context. The current study uses ecological momentary assessment to examine variability of, and predictors of, parent feeding practices within a low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, and immigrant sample. METHODS: Children ages 5-7 years old and their parents (n = 150 dyads) from six racial/ethnic groups (n = 25 from each; Black/African American, Hispanic, Hmong, Native American, Somali, White) were recruited for this mixed-methods study through primary care clinics. RESULTS: Among parents who used restriction (49%) and pressure-to-eat (69%) feeding practices, these feeding practices were utilized about every other day. Contextual factors at the meal associated with parent feeding practices included: number of people at the meal, who prepared the meal, types of food served at meals (e.g., pre-prepared, homemade, fast food), meal setting (e.g., kitchen table, front room), and meal emotional atmosphere (p < 0.05). Parents tended to restrict desserts, dairy, and vegetables and pressure children to eat fruits, vegetables, meat proteins, and refined grains (p < 0.05). There were some differences by race/ethnicity across findings (p < 0.01), with Hmong parents engaging in the highest levels of pressure-to-eat feeding practices. CONCLUSIONS: Parent feeding practices varied across the week, indicating feeding practices are more likely to be context-specific, or state-like than trait-like. There were some meal characteristics more strongly associated with engaging in restriction and pressure-to-eat feeding practices. Given that parent feeding practices appear to be state-like, future interventions and health care providers who work with parents and children may want to address contextual factors associated with parent feeding practices to decrease restriction and pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(5): 838-844, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29533531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treatment for binge eating disorder (BED), a condition associated with both excess adiposity and psychological distress, has not typically produced significant weight loss despite reducing binge eating. Characterizing factors that promote or inhibit weight loss in individuals with co-occurring BED and obesity may help explain overall nonsignificant weight changes during treatment. METHODS: In this study, 189 adults with BED participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of 5 months of cognitive behavioral therapy. Assessments included measured height and weight at baseline, midtreatment, end of treatment (EOT), and 6-month follow-up, the Eating Disorder Examination interview, and questionnaires. RESULTS: During treatment, there was a mean weight gain of 1.3 ± 12.0 lb. Twenty-two percent of the sample lost ≥ 5 lb, and 25% of the sample gained ≥ 8 lb. Results showed that baseline objective binge eating episodes predicted weight over treatment. Changes in weight were significantly positively related to concurrent changes in shape concern, weight concern, and disinhibition, but not binge eating episodes. Changes in objective binge eating episodes from baseline to EOT were associated with changes in weight from EOT to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation of eating behavior during BED treatment to understand the energy balance contributions to weight change or stability is warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 40, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391396

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with binge eating behavior (BE), and both conditions are heritable. Previously, using data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) study of BD, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses of BD with BE comorbidity. Here, utilizing data from the Mayo Clinic BD Biobank (969 BD cases, 777 controls), we performed a GWA analysis of a BD subtype defined by BE, and case-only analysis comparing BD subjects with and without BE. We then performed a meta-analysis of the Mayo and GAIN results. The meta-analysis provided genome-wide significant evidence of association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PRR5-ARHGAP8 and BE in BD cases (rs726170 OR = 1.91, P = 3.05E-08). In the meta-analysis comparing cases with BD with comorbid BE vs. non-BD controls, a genome-wide significant association was observed at SNP rs111940429 in an intergenic region near PPP1R2P5 (p = 1.21E-08). PRR5-ARHGAP8 is a read-through transcript resulting in a fusion protein of PRR5 and ARHGAP8. PRR5 encodes a subunit of mTORC2, a serine/threonine kinase that participates in food intake regulation, while ARHGAP8 encodes a member of the RhoGAP family of proteins that mediate cross-talk between Rho GTPases and other signaling pathways. Without BE information in controls, it is not possible to determine whether the observed association reflects a risk factor for BE in general, risk for BE in individuals with BD, or risk of a subtype of BD with BE. The effect of PRR5-ARHGAP8 on BE risk thus warrants further investigation.

15.
Eat Disord ; 26(1): 26-38, 2018 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384465

RESUMO

It has been theorized that state the levels of self-control depletion (as caused by negative affect and restraint) may lead to binge eating (BE) when individuals also endorse momentary expectancies that eating will make them feel better (EE). Given commonalities in precipitants of BE across populations, the current study tested this theory in a sample of adults with obesity using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Fifty obese adults completed the EMA protocol during which they provided pre-eating episode ratings of negative affect, restraint, and EE, and post-eating episode ratings of BE. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) identified a 3-way interaction between within-person pre-eating episode variables: higher self-control depletion (e.g., higher restraint and higher negative affect) was predictive of BE episodes only when individuals also endorsed higher EE. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical test of this theory, highlighting the impact of momentary self-control depletion and EE on BE in obese adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Autocontrole , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 7, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. RESULTS: Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. CONCLUSIONS: Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in parents and target these momentary factors in order to promote healthful food-related parenting practices.

17.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 79(1)2018 Jan/Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa (CBT-BN) compared to face-to-face delivery of CBT-BN. METHODS: This study is a planned secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial. Participants were 179 adults (98% female, mean age = 28 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa who were randomized to group face-to-face or group Internet-based CBT-BN for 16 sessions during 20 weeks. The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from a third-party payor perspective, and a partial societal perspective analysis was conducted to investigate cost-utility (ie, cost per gain in quality-adjusted life-years) and patient out-of-pocket travel-related costs. Net health care costs were calculated from protocol and nonprotocol health care services using third-party payor cost estimates. The primary outcome measure in the clinical trial was abstinence from binge eating and purging, and the trial start and end dates were 2008 and 2016. RESULTS: The mean cost per abstinent patient at posttreatment was $7,757 (95% confidence limit [CL], $4,515, $13,361) for face-to-face and $11,870 (95% CL, $6,486, $22,188) for Internet-based CBT-BN, and at 1-year follow-up was $16,777 (95% CL, $10,298, $27,042) for face-to-face and $14,561 (95% CL, $10,165, $21,028) for Internet-based CBT-BN. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment arms in cost-effectiveness or cost-utility at posttreatment or 1-year follow-up. Out-of-pocket patient costs were significantly higher for face-to-face (mean [95% CL] = $178 [$127, $140]) than Internet-based ($50 [$50, $50]) therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Third-party payor cost-effectiveness of Internet-based CBT-BN is comparable with that of an accepted standard. Internet-based dissemination of CBT-BN may be a viable alternative for patients geographically distant from specialist eating disorder services who have an unmet need for treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00877786​.

18.
Eat Weight Disord ; 23(5): 637-644, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Appearance-related stress may result from appearance-focused events such as seeing one's reflection, seeing media images, and shopping for clothes. The purpose of this study was to examine the prospective association between momentary appearance-related stress and eating disorder (ED) behaviors (i.e., binge eating and vomiting) among women with anorexia nervosa (AN) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that appearance-related stress at Time 1 would predict binge eating and vomiting at Time 2, and that this prospective association would be mediated by momentary anxiety at Time 2 (controlling for anxiety at Time 1). METHODS: Women with AN completed a 2-week EMA protocol involving repeated daily assessments of experiences and behaviors. RESULTS: Momentary appearance-related stress preceded binge eating and vomiting, and momentary anxiety mediated the prospective association between appearance-related stress and ED behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted momentary interventions delivered in the natural environment that address appearance-related stress may have utility in the treatment of ED behaviors.

19.
Eat Weight Disord ; 23(4): 521-526, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643290

RESUMO

The eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) Global score is a self-report measure of global eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to evaluate the ecological validity of EDE-Q Global scores among obese adults. Fifty obese adults completed the EDE-Q and 2 weeks of EMA ratings prior to initiating eating episodes and subsequently after eating episodes. EMA items assessed behavioral symptoms [i.e., loss of control (LOC) eating and overeating] and cognitive symptoms (i.e., weight/shape concerns, eating concerns, and restraint). EDE-Q Global was associated with increased EMA weight/shape concerns and fear of LOC at pre-eating recordings. EDE-Q Global was associated with increased EMA post-episode weight/shape concerns, eating concerns, LOC eating, and overeating. There was no association between EDE-Q Global and EMA restraint. Results generally supported the ecological validity of EDE-Q Global scores. Future studies of ED psychopathology in obese adults may benefit from considering EDE-Q Restraint separately. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Appetite ; 120: 327-334, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943474

RESUMO

Restraint and binge eating are cognitive and behavioral processes that are particularly important in the context of obesity. While extensive research has focused on negative affect (NA) in relation to binge eating, it is unclear whether affective valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., state versus trait) differentially predict binge eating and restraint among individuals with obesity. Distinguishing between valence and stability helps elucidate under which affective contexts, and among which individuals, restraint and binge eating are likely to occur. Therefore, the present study examined relationships between trait and state levels of NA and positive affect (PA), binge eating, and restraint intention among 50 adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. Structural equation modeling assessed a trait model of person-level measures of affect in relation to overall levels of binge eating and restraint intention, while general estimating equations (GEEs) assessed state models examining relationships between momentary affect and subsequent binge eating and restraint. The trait model indicated higher overall NA was related to more binge eating episodes, but was unrelated to overall restraint intention. Higher overall PA was related to higher overall restraint intention, but was unrelated to binge eating. State models indicated momentary NA was associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent binge eating and lower restraint intention. Momentary PA was unrelated to subsequent binge eating or restraint intention. Together, findings demonstrate important distinctions between the valence and stability of affect in relationship to binge eating and restraint intention among individuals with obesity. While NA is a more salient predictor of binge eating than PA, both overall PA and momentary NA are predictors of restraint intention.


Assuntos
Afeto , Bulimia/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Intenção , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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