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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487101

RESUMO

We read with interest the study of Mathian et al (1), suggesting that direct serum IFNα determination with a highly sensitive assay might be useful for disease activity monitoring in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). More generally, the identification of reactive biomarkers is highly desirable in many disease states, including idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175662

RESUMO

Comprehensive reviews of the clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), particularly its contextualization within a putative type I interferonopathy framework, already exist. However, recent reports of attempts at treatment suggest that an assessment of the field from a therapeutic perspective is warranted at this time. Here, we briefly summarize the neurological phenotypes associated with mutations in the seven genes so far associated with AGS, rehearse current knowledge of the pathology as it relates to possible treatment approaches, critically appraise the potential utility of therapies, and discuss the challenges in assessing clinical efficacy.

3.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1199-1213, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936263

RESUMO

Cellular innate immune sensors of DNA are essential for host defense against invading pathogens. However, the presence of self-DNA inside cells poses a risk of triggering unchecked immune responses. The mechanisms limiting induction of inflammation by self-DNA are poorly understood. BLM RecQ-like helicase is essential for genome integrity and is deficient in Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease characterized by genome instability, accumulation of micronuclei, susceptibility to cancer, and immunodeficiency. Here, we show that BLM-deficient fibroblasts show constitutive up-regulation of inflammatory interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, which is mediated by the cGAS-STING-IRF3 cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. Increased DNA damage or down-regulation of the cytoplasmic exonuclease TREX1 enhances ISG expression in BLM-deficient fibroblasts. cGAS-containing cytoplasmic micronuclei are increased in BS cells. Finally, BS patients demonstrate elevated ISG expression in peripheral blood. These results reveal that BLM limits ISG induction, thus connecting DNA damage to cellular innate immune response, which may contribute to human pathogenesis.

5.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 37: 247-267, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633609

RESUMO

Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is the primary mechanism by which a type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is triggered. Given that human cells are replete with DNA and RNA, this evolutionary strategy poses an inherent biological challenge, i.e., the fundamental requirement to reliably differentiate self-nucleic acids from nonself nucleic acids. We suggest that the group of Mendelian inborn errors of immunity referred to as the type I interferonopathies relate to a breakdown of self/nonself discrimination, with the associated mutant genotypes involving molecules playing direct or indirect roles in nucleic acid signaling. This perspective begs the question as to the sources of self-derived nucleic acids that drive an inappropriate immune response. Resolving this question will provide fundamental insights into immune tolerance, antiviral signaling, and complex autoinflammatory disease states. Here we develop these ideas, discussing type I interferonopathies within the broader framework of nucleic acid-driven inflammation.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 75-80, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Singleton-Merten syndrome manifests as dental dysplasia, glaucoma, psoriasis, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities including tendon rupture and arthropathy. Pathogenic variants in IFIH1 have previously been associated with the classic Singleton-Merten syndrome, while variants in DDX58 has been described in association with a milder phenotype, which is suggested to have a better prognosis. We studied a family with severe, "classic" Singleton-Merten syndrome. METHODS: We undertook clinical phenotyping, next-generation sequencing, and functional studies of type I interferon production in patient whole blood and assessed the type I interferon promoter activity in HEK293 cells transfected with wild-type or mutant DDX58 stimulated with Poly I:C. RESULTS: We demonstrate a DDX58 autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutation, with constitutive upregulation of type I interferon. CONCLUSIONS: DDX58 mutations may be associated with the classic features of Singleton-Merten syndrome including dental dysplasia, tendon rupture, and severe cardiac sequela.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 67(1): 165-167, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574935

RESUMO

Blau syndrome (BS) is a rare autoinflammatory disorder characterized by the clinical triad of arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis due to heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in the NOD2 gene. BS can mimic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ocular tuberculosis. We report a family comprising a mother and her two children, all presenting with uveitis and arthritis. A NOD2 mutation was confirmed in all the three patients - the first such molecularly proven case report of familial BS from India.


Assuntos
Artrite/diagnóstico , DNA/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Sinovite/diagnóstico , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Adulto , Artrite/genética , Artrite/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Sinovite/genética , Sinovite/metabolismo , Uveíte/genética , Uveíte/metabolismo
12.
Angiogenesis ; 2018 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168024

RESUMO

Vascular complications such as bleeding due to gastrointestinal telangiectatic anomalies, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and retinal vessel abnormalities are being reported in patients with telomere biology disorders (TBDs) more frequently than previously described. The international clinical care consortium of telomere-associated ailments and family support group Dyskeratosis Congenita Outreach, Inc. held a workshop on vascular abnormalities in the TBDs at the National Cancer Institute in October 2017. Clinicians and basic scientists reviewed current data on vascular complications, hypotheses for the underlying biology and developed new collaborations to address the etiology and clinical management of vascular complications in TBDs.

14.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 14(9): 508-509, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108365
15.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2567-2585, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143481

RESUMO

Life-threatening pulmonary influenza can be caused by inborn errors of type I and III IFN immunity. We report a 5-yr-old child with severe pulmonary influenza at 2 yr. She is homozygous for a loss-of-function IRF9 allele. Her cells activate gamma-activated factor (GAF) STAT1 homodimers but not IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) trimers (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9) in response to IFN-α2b. The transcriptome induced by IFN-α2b in the patient's cells is much narrower than that of control cells; however, induction of a subset of IFN-stimulated gene transcripts remains detectable. In vitro, the patient's cells do not control three respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IAV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). These phenotypes are rescued by wild-type IRF9, whereas silencing IRF9 expression in control cells increases viral replication. However, the child has controlled various common viruses in vivo, including respiratory viruses other than IAV. Our findings show that human IRF9- and ISGF3-dependent type I and III IFN responsive pathways are essential for controlling IAV.

16.
Nature ; 560(7717): 238-242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046113

RESUMO

Mitochondria are descendants of endosymbiotic bacteria and retain essential prokaryotic features such as a compact circular genome. Consequently, in mammals, mitochondrial DNA is subjected to bidirectional transcription that generates overlapping transcripts, which are capable of forming long double-stranded RNA structures1,2. However, to our knowledge, mitochondrial double-stranded RNA has not been previously characterized in vivo. Here we describe the presence of a highly unstable native mitochondrial double-stranded RNA species at single-cell level and identify key roles for the degradosome components mitochondrial RNA helicase SUV3 and polynucleotide phosphorylase PNPase in restricting the levels of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA. Loss of either enzyme results in massive accumulation of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA that escapes into the cytoplasm in a PNPase-dependent manner. This process engages an MDA5-driven antiviral signalling pathway that triggers a type I interferon response. Consistent with these data, patients carrying hypomorphic mutations in the gene PNPT1, which encodes PNPase, display mitochondrial double-stranded RNA accumulation coupled with upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes and other markers of immune activation. The localization of PNPase to the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and matrix suggests that it has a dual role in preventing the formation and release of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA into the cytoplasm. This in turn prevents the activation of potent innate immune defence mechanisms that have evolved to protect vertebrates against microbial and viral attack.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985347

RESUMO

The main aim of this protocol is to describe the development and validation of an interferon (IFN)-α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of human IFN-α protein with unprecedented sensitivity, and with no cross-reactivity for other species of IFN. The first key step of the protocol is the choice of the antibody pair, followed by the conjugation of the capture antibody to paramagnetic beads, and biotinylation of the detection antibody. Following this step, different parameters such as assay configuration, detector antibody concentration, and buffer composition can be modified until optimum sensitivity is achieved. Finally, specificity and reproducibility of the method are assessed to ensure confidence in the results. Here, we developed an IFN-α single molecule array assay with a limit of detection of 0.69 fg/mL using high-affinity autoantibodies isolated from patients with biallelic mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein causing autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1/autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APS1/APECED). Importantly, these antibodies enabled detection of all 13 IFN-α subtypes. This new methodology allows the detection and quantification of IFN-α protein in human biological samples at attomolar concentrations for the first time. Such a tool will be highly useful in monitoring the levels of this cytokine in human health and disease states, most particularly infection, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1076-1080, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782060

RESUMO

We describe progressive spastic paraparesis in two male siblings and the daughter of one of these individuals. Onset of disease occurred within the first decade, with stiffness and gait difficulties. Brisk deep tendon reflexes and extensor plantar responses were present, in the absence of intellectual disability or dermatological manifestations. Cerebral imaging identified intracranial calcification in all symptomatic family members. A marked upregulation of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts was recorded in all three affected individuals and in two clinically unaffected relatives. A heterozygous IFIH1 c.2544T>G missense variant (p.Asp848Glu) segregated with interferon status. Although not highly conserved (CADD score 10.08 vs. MSC-CADD score of 19.33) and predicted as benign by in silico algorithms, this variant is not present on publically available databases of control alleles, and expression of the D848E construct in HEK293T cells indicated that it confers a gain-of-function. This report illustrates, for the first time, the occurrence of autosomal-dominant spastic paraplegia with intracranial calcifications due to an IFIH1-related type 1 interferonopathy.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in human stimulator of interferon genes (STING) lead to a severe autoinflammatory disease called STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy that is associated with enhanced expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze the phenotype of a new mouse model of STING hyperactivation and the role of type I interferons in this system. METHODS: We generated a knock-in model carrying an amino acid substitution (V154M) in mouse STING, corresponding to a recurrent mutation seen in human patients with STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy. Hematopoietic development and tissue histology were analyzed. Lymphocyte activation and proliferation were assessed in vitro. STING V154M/wild-type (WT) mice were crossed to IFN-α/ß receptor (IFNAR) knockout mice to evaluate the type I interferon dependence of the mutant Sting phenotype recorded. RESULTS: In STING V154M/WT mice we detected variable expression of inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs and kidneys. These mice showed a marked decrease in survival and developed a severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) affecting B, T, and natural killer cells, with an almost complete lack of antibodies and a significant expansion of monocytes and granulocytes. The blockade in B- and T-cell development was present from early immature stages in bone marrow and thymus. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed an intrinsic proliferative defect of mature T cells. Although the V154M/WT mutant demonstrated increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes, the SCID phenotype was not reversed in STING V154M/WT IFNAR knockout mice. However, the antiproliferative defect in T cells was rescued partially by IFNAR deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: STING gain-of-function mice developed an interferon-independent SCID phenotype with a T-cell, B-cell, and natural killer cell developmental defect and hypogammaglobulinemia that is associated with signs of inflammation in lungs and kidneys. Only the intrinsic proliferative defect of T cells was partially interferon dependent.

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