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1.
J Clin Invest ; 1302019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408439

RESUMO

A vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is urgently needed. Development of broadly-neutralizing plasma antibodies during acute infection is associated with HCV clearance, but the viral epitopes of these plasma antibodies are unknown. Identification of these epitopes could define the specificity and function of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that should be induced by a vaccine. Here, we present development and application of a high-throughput method that deconvolutes polyclonal anti-HCV NAbs in plasma, delineating the epitope specificities of anti-HCV NAbs in acute infection plasma of forty-four humans with subsequent clearance or persistence of HCV. Remarkably, we identified multiple broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) combinations that were associated with greater plasma neutralizing breadth and with HCV clearance. These studies have potential to inform new strategies for vaccine development by identifying bNAb combinations in plasma associated with natural clearance of HCV, while also providing a high-throughput assay that could identify these responses after vaccination trials.

3.
J Virol ; 93(14)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068427

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) play an important role in immune-mediated control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies targeting antigenic sites across the HCV envelope (E1 and E2) proteins is unclear. Here, we isolated thirteen E1E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from B cells of a single HCV-infected individual who cleared one genotype 1a infection and then became persistently infected with a second genotype 1a strain. These MAbs bound six distinct discontinuous antigenic sites on the E1 protein, the E2 protein, or the E1E2 heterodimer. Three antigenic sites, designated AS108, AS112 (an N-terminal E1 site), and AS146, were distinct from previously described antigenic regions (ARs) 1 to 5 and E1 sites. Antibodies targeting four sites (AR3, AR4-5, AS108, and AS146) were broadly neutralizing. These MAbs also displayed distinct patterns of relative neutralizing potency (i.e., neutralization profiles) across a panel of diverse HCV strains, which led to complementary neutralizing breadth when they were tested in combination. Overall, this study demonstrates that HCV bNAb epitopes are not restricted to previously described antigenic sites, expanding the number of sites that could be targeted for vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Worldwide, more than 70 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver transplantation. Despite the development of potent direct acting antivirals (DAAs) for HCV treatment, a vaccine is urgently needed due to the high cost of treatment and the possibility of reinfection after cure. Induction of multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that target distinct epitopes on the HCV envelope proteins is one approach to vaccine development. However, antigenic sites targeted by bNAbs in individuals with spontaneous control of HCV have not been fully defined. In this study, we characterize 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from a single person who cleared an HCV infection without treatment, and we identify 3 new sites targeted by neutralizing antibodies. The sites targeted by these MAbs could inform HCV vaccine development.

4.
Cell ; 177(5): 1136-1152.e18, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100268

RESUMO

Here, we describe the discovery of a naturally occurring human antibody (Ab), FluA-20, that recognizes a new site of vulnerability on the hemagglutinin (HA) head domain and reacts with most influenza A viruses. Structural characterization of FluA-20 with H1 and H3 head domains revealed a novel epitope in the HA trimer interface, suggesting previously unrecognized dynamic features of the trimeric HA protein. The critical HA residues recognized by FluA-20 remain conserved across most subtypes of influenza A viruses, which explains the Ab's extraordinary breadth. The Ab rapidly disrupted the integrity of HA protein trimers, inhibited cell-to-cell spread of virus in culture, and protected mice against challenge with viruses of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, or H7N9 subtypes when used as prophylaxis or therapy. The FluA-20 Ab has uncovered an exceedingly conserved protective determinant in the influenza HA head domain trimer interface that is an unexpected new target for anti-influenza therapeutics and vaccines.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 4(35)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101672

RESUMO

Infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute illness characterized by fever, rash, and arthralgia. However, CHIKV infection can sometimes progress to chronic arthritis or even lethal disease. CHIKV continues to cause substantial morbidity worldwide as its vector mosquitoes expand and spread. There are currently no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV. Although antibody therapy has shown promise in the prevention or treatment of CHIKV disease in preclinical models, challenges remain for implementing such therapies. Here, from the B cells of a survivor of natural CHIKV infection, we isolated ultrapotent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and encoded their sequences into mRNA molecules delivered by infusion. One human mAb, CHKV-24, was expressed to biologically significant levels in vivo after infusion of mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles in mice. We evaluated the protective capacity of CHKV-24 mAb immunoglobulin G protein or mRNA in mouse models of CHIKV infection. Treatment with CHKV-24 mRNA protected mice from arthritis, musculoskeletal tissue infection, and lethality and reduced viremia to undetectable levels at 2 days after inoculation. Infusion of macaques with CHKV-24 mRNA achieved a mean maximal mAb concentration of 10.1 to 35.9 micrograms per milliliter, with a half-life of 23 days, a level well above what is needed for protection in mice. Studies with CHKV-24 mRNA in macaques demonstrated a dose-response effect after the first dose of mRNA and maintained levels after second dose. These preclinical data with CHKV-24 mRNA suggest that it might be useful to prevent human disease.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1788, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996276

RESUMO

Three Ebolavirus genus viruses cause lethal disease and lack targeted therapeutics: Ebola virus, Sudan virus and Bundibugyo virus. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktails against the surface glycoprotein (GP) present a potential therapeutic strategy. Here we report two crystal structures of the antibody BDBV223, alone and complexed with its GP2 stalk epitope, an interesting site for therapeutic/vaccine design due to its high sequence conservation among ebolaviruses. BDBV223, identified in a human survivor of Bundibugyo virus disease, neutralizes both Bundibugyo virus and Ebola virus, but not Sudan virus. Importantly, the structure suggests that BDBV223 binding interferes with both the trimeric bundle assembly of GP and the viral membrane by stabilizing a conformation in which the monomers are separated by GP lifting or bending. Targeted mutagenesis of BDBV223 to enhance SUDV GP recognition indicates that additional determinants of antibody binding likely lie outside the visualized interactions, and perhaps involve quaternary assembly or membrane-interacting regions.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/sangue , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Hibridomas , Mutagênese , Sobreviventes , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/química , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo
7.
Front Immunol ; 10: 558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967877

RESUMO

Antigen recognition by mammalian antibodies represents the most diverse setting for protein-protein interactions, because antibody variable regions contain exceptionally diverse variable gene repertoires of DNA sequences containing combinatorial, non-templated junctional mutational diversity. Some animals use additional strategies to achieve structural complexity in the antibody combining site, and one of the most interesting of these is the formation of ultralong heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 loops in cattle. Repertoire sequencing studies of bovine antibody heavy chain variable sequences revealed that bovine antibodies can contain heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) loops with 60 or more amino acids, with complex structures stabilized by multiple disulfide bonds. It is clear that bovine antibodies can achieve long, peculiarly structured CDR3s, but the range of diversity and complexity of those structures is poorly understood. We determined the atomic resolution structure of seven ultralong bovine CDRH3 loops. The studies, combined with five previous structures, reveal a large diversity of cysteine pairing variations, and highly diverse globular domains.

8.
PLoS Biol ; 17(2): e3000139, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716060

RESUMO

Seasonal influenza virus infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality, but the threat from the emergence of a new pandemic influenza strain might have potentially even more devastating consequences. As such, there is intense interest in isolating and characterizing potent neutralizing antibodies that target the hemagglutinin (HA) viral surface glycoprotein. Here, we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to decipher the mechanism of action of a potent HA head-directed monoclonal antibody (mAb) bound to an influenza H7 HA. The epitope of the antibody is not solvent accessible in the compact, prefusion conformation that typifies all HA structures to date. Instead, the antibody binds between HA head protomers to an epitope that must be partly or transiently exposed in the prefusion conformation. The "breathing" of the HA protomers is implied by the exposure of this epitope, which is consistent with metastability of class I fusion proteins. This structure likely therefore represents an early structural intermediate in the viral fusion process. Understanding the extent of transient exposure of conserved neutralizing epitopes also may lead to new opportunities to combat influenza that have not been appreciated previously.

9.
Cell Rep ; 26(6): 1585-1597.e4, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726740

RESUMO

Spondweni virus (SPOV) is the flavivirus that is most closely related to Zika virus (ZIKV). Although SPOV causes sporadic human infections in Africa, recently it was found in Culex mosquitoes in Haiti. To investigate the pathogenic spectrum of SPOV, we developed infection models in mice. Although two SPOV strains failed to cause disease in immunocompetent mice, each accumulated in the brain, spleen, eye, testis, and kidney when type I interferon signaling was blocked and unexpectedly caused infection, immune cell infiltration, and swelling in the ankle. In pregnant mice, SPOV replicated in the placenta and fetus but did not cause placental insufficiency or microcephaly. We identified human antibodies from ZIKV or DENV immune subjects that neutralized SPOV infection and protected against lethal challenge. Our experiments describe similarities and differences in clinical syndromes between SPOV and ZIKV and suggest that their serological relatedness has implications for antibody therapeutics and flavivirus vaccine development.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(6): 1225-1231, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738170

RESUMO

New-onset post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) occurs frequently after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Although calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids are assumed to be the cause for hyperglycemia, patients developing PTDM have elevated fasting C-peptide levels before HCT and before immunosuppressive medications. To determine if PTDM results from established insulin resistance present before transplant, we performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and measured whole body, peripheral, and hepatic insulin sensitivity with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps before and 90 days after HLA-identical sibling donor HCT in 20 patients without pretransplant diabetes. HCT recipients were prospectively followed for the development of new-onset PTDM defined as a weekly fasting blood glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL. During the first 100 days all patients received calcineurin inhibitors, and 11 individuals (55%) were prospectively diagnosed with new-onset PTDM. PTDM diagnosis preceded corticosteroid treatment. During the pretransplant OGTT, elevated fasting (87 mg/dL versus 101 mg/dL; P = .005) but not 2-hour postprandial glucose levels predicted PTDM diagnosis (P = .648). In response to insulin infusion during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, patients developing PTDM had lower whole body glucose utilization (P = .047) and decreased peripheral/skeletal muscle uptake (P = .031) before and after transplant, respectively, when compared with non-PTDM patients. Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not differ. Survival was decreased in PTDM patients (2-year estimate, 55% versus 100%; P = .039). Insulin resistance before HCT is a risk factor for PTDM independent of immunosuppression. Fasting pretransplant glucose levels identified PTDM susceptibility, and peripheral insulin resistance could be targeted for prevention and treatment of PTDM after HCT.

11.
J Virol ; 93(8)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728263

RESUMO

The human B cell response to natural filovirus infections early after recovery is poorly understood. Previous serologic studies suggest that some Ebola virus survivors exhibit delayed antibody responses with low magnitude and quality. Here, we sought to study the population of individual memory B cells induced early in convalescence. We isolated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from memory B cells from four survivors treated for Ebola virus disease (EVD) 1 or 3 months after discharge from the hospital. At the early time points postrecovery, the frequency of Ebola-specific B cells was low and dominated by clones that were cross-reactive with both Ebola glycoprotein (GP) and with the secreted GP (sGP) form. Of 25 MAbs isolated from four donors, only one exhibited neutralization activity. This neutralizing MAb, designated MAb EBOV237, recognizes an epitope in the glycan cap of the surface glycoprotein. In vivo murine lethal challenge studies showed that EBOV237 conferred protection when given prophylactically at a level similar to that of the ZMapp component MAb 13C6. The results suggest that the human B cell response to EVD 1 to 3 months postdischarge is characterized by a paucity of broad or potent neutralizing clones. However, the neutralizing epitope in the glycan cap recognized by EBOV237 may play a role in the early human antibody response to EVD and should be considered in rational design strategies for new Ebola virus vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE The pathogenesis of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans is complex, and the mechanisms contributing to immunity are poorly understood. In particular, it appears that the quality and magnitude of the human B cell response early after recovery from EVD may be reduced compared to most viral infections. Here, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies from B cells of four survivors of EVD at 1 or 3 months after hospital discharge. Ebola-specific memory B cells early in convalescence were low in frequency, and the antibodies they encoded demonstrated poor neutralizing potencies. One neutralizing antibody that protected mice from lethal infection, EBOV237, was identified in the panel of 25 human antibodies isolated. Recognition of the glycan cap epitope recognized by EBOV237 suggests that this antigenic site should be considered in vaccine design and treatment strategies for EVD.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 219(Supplement_1): S21-S29, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715373

RESUMO

Understanding antigenic variation in influenza virus strains and how the human immune system recognizes strains are central challenges for vaccinologists. Antibodies directed to the 2 major viral surface membrane proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), mediate protection against reinfection following natural infection or vaccination, but HA and NA protein sequences in field strains are highly variable. The central questions are how to achieve protective antibody responses in a higher proportion of individuals and how to induce responses with more breadth and durability. Studies using isolation of human monoclonal antibodies followed by structural and functional characterization revealed conserved antigenic sites recognized by broadly cross-reactive antibodies. The antigenic landscape on HA and NA proteins is coming into focus to inform studies of the correlates and mechanisms of immunity. Understanding the antibody determinants of influenza immunity points the way toward development and testing of next-generation vaccines with potential to confer broadly protective immunity.

13.
Nature ; 566(7744): 398-402, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760926

RESUMO

The human genome contains approximately 20 thousand protein-coding genes1, but the size of the collection of antigen receptors of the adaptive immune system that is generated by the recombination of gene segments with non-templated junctional additions (on B cells) is unknown-although it is certainly orders of magnitude larger. It has not been established whether individuals possess unique (or private) repertoires or substantial components of shared (or public) repertoires. Here we sequence recombined and expressed B cell receptor genes in several individuals to determine the size of their B cell receptor repertoires, and the extent to which these are shared between individuals. Our experiments revealed that the circulating repertoire of each individual contained between 9 and 17 million B cell clonotypes. The three individuals that we studied shared many clonotypes, including between 1 and 6% of B cell heavy-chain clonotypes shared between two subjects (0.3% of clonotypes shared by all three) and 20 to 34% of λ or κ light chains shared between two subjects (16 or 22% of λ or κ light chains, respectively, were shared by all three). Some of the B cell clonotypes had thousands of clones, or somatic variants, within the clonotype lineage. Although some of these shared lineages might be driven by exposure to common antigens, previous exposure to foreign antigens was not the only force that shaped the shared repertoires, as we also identified shared clonotypes in umbilical cord blood samples and all adult repertoires. The unexpectedly high prevalence of shared clonotypes in B cell repertoires, and identification of the sequences of these shared clonotypes, should enable better understanding of the role of B cell immune repertoires in health and disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/genética , Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Clonais/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos/química , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(5): 1597-1602, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642961

RESUMO

Influenza is a yearly threat to global public health. Rapid changes in influenza surface proteins resulting from antigenic drift and shift events make it difficult to readily identify antibodies with broadly neutralizing activity against different influenza subtypes with high frequency, specifically antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) on influenza HA protein. We developed an optimized computational design method that is able to optimize an antibody for recognition of large panels of antigens. To demonstrate the utility of this multistate design method, we used it to redesign an antiinfluenza antibody against a large panel of more than 500 seasonal HA antigens of the H1 subtype. As a proof of concept, we tested this method on a variety of known antiinfluenza antibodies and identified those that could be improved computationally. We generated redesigned variants of antibody C05 to the HA RBD and experimentally characterized variants that exhibited improved breadth and affinity against our panel. C05 mutants exhibited improved affinity for three of the subtypes used in design by stabilizing the CDRH3 loop and creating favorable electrostatic interactions with the antigen. These mutants possess increased breadth and affinity of binding while maintaining high-affinity binding to existing targets, surpassing a major limitation up to this point.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano
15.
J Immunol ; 202(2): 368-373, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617118

RESUMO

The diversity of Ag-specific adaptive receptors on the surface of B cells and in the population of secreted Abs is enormous, but increasingly, we are acquiring the technical capability to interrogate Ab repertoires in great detail. These Ab technologies have been especially pointed at understanding the complex issues of immunity to infection and disease caused by influenza virus, one of the most common and vexing medical problems in man. Influenza immunity is particularly interesting as a model system because the antigenic diversity of influenza strains and proteins is high and constantly evolving. Discovery of canonical features in the subset of the influenza repertoire response that is broadly reactive for diverse influenza strains has spurred the recent optimism for creating universal influenza vaccines. Using new technologies for sequencing Ab repertoires at great depth is helping us to understand the central features of influenza immunity.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(5): 1591-1596, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642974

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. In contrast to most other insect-transmitted flaviviruses, ZIKV also can be transmitted sexually and from mother to fetus in humans. During recent outbreaks, ZIKV infections have been linked to microcephaly, congenital disease, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Neutralizing antibodies have potential as therapeutic agents. We report here a 4-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the ZIKV virion in complex with Fab fragments of the potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibody ZIKV-195. The footprint of the ZIKV-195 Fab fragment expands across two adjacent envelope (E) protein protomers. ZIKV neutralization by this antibody is presumably accomplished by cross-linking the E proteins, which likely prevents formation of E protein trimers required for fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. A single dose of ZIKV-195 administered 5 days after virus inoculation showed marked protection against lethality in a stringent mouse model of infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinação/métodos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia
17.
J Virol ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518655

RESUMO

Ebolaviruses Zaire (EBOV), Bundibugyo (BDBV) and Sudan (SUDV) cause human disease with high case fatality rates. Experimental monovalent vaccines, which all utilize the sole envelope glycoprotein (GP), do not protect against heterologous ebolaviruses. Human parainfluenza virus type 3-vectored vaccines offer benefits including needle-free administration and induction of mucosal responses in the respiratory tract. Multiple approaches were taken to induce a broad protection against the three ebolaviruses. While GP consensus-based antigens failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies, polyvalent immunization induced neutralizing responses to all three ebolaviruses and protected animals from death and disease caused by EBOV, SUDV and BDBV. As immunization with a cocktail of antigenically-related antigens can skew the responses and change the epitope hierarchy, we performed comparative analysis of antibody repertoire and Fc-mediated protective mechanisms in animals immunized with monovalent versus polyvalent vaccines. Compared to the monovalent vaccines, sera from trivalent vaccinated guinea pigs bound and neutralized EBOV and SUDV at equivalent levels and BDBV at only slightly reduced level. Peptide microarrays revealed a preponderance of binding to amino acids 389-403, 397-415 and 477-493, representing three linear epitopes in the mucin-like domain known to induce a protective antibody response. Competition binding assays with monoclonal antibodies isolated from human ebolavirus survivors demonstrated that the immune sera block binding of antibodies specific for the GP glycan cap, GP1-GP2 interface, the mucin-like domain, and the membrane-proximal external region. Thus, cocktail administration of three ebolavirus vaccines induces a desirable broad antibody response, without skewing of the response toward preferential recognition of a single virus.IMPORTANCE Symptoms of the disease caused by ebolaviruses Ebola, Bundibugyo and Sudan are similar, and their endemic areas overlap. However, because of the limited antigenic relatedness of ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) used in all candidate vaccines against these viruses, they protect only against homologous but not heterologous ebolaviruses. Therefore, a broadly specific pan-ebolavirus vaccine is required, which might be achieved by administration of a cocktail of vaccines. The effects of cocktail administration of ebolavirus vaccines on the antibody repertoire remain unknown. Here in-depth analysis of the antibody responses to cocktail administration of human parainfluenza type 3-vectored vaccines against individual ebolaviruses was performed, which included analysis of binding to GP, neutralization of individual ebolaviruses, epitope specificity, Fc-mediated functions, and protection against the three ebolaviruses. The results demonstrated potent and balanced responses against individual ebolaviruses and no significant reduction of the responses, compared to that induced by individual vaccines.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209437, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566528

RESUMO

Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are rarely elicited by current human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine designs, but the presence of bNAbs in naturally infected individuals may be associated with high plasma viral loads, suggesting that the magnitude, duration, and diversity of viral exposure may contribute to the development of bNAbs. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from two subjects who developed broadly neutralizing autologous antibody responses during HIV-1 infection. In both subjects, we identified collections of mAbs that exhibited specificity only to a few autologous envelopes (Envs), with some mAbs exhibiting specificity only to a subset of Envs within the quasispecies of a particular sample at one time point. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) isolated from these subjects mapped mostly to epitopes in the Env V3 loop region and the CD4 binding site. None of the individual neutralizing mAbs recovered exhibited the cumulative breadth of neutralization present in the serum of the subjects. Surprisingly, however, the activity of polyclonal mixtures comprising individual mAbs that each possessed limited neutralizing activity, could achieve increased breadth of neutralizing activity against autologous isolates. While a single broadly neutralizing antibody targeting one epitope can mediate neutralization breadth, the findings presented here suggest that a cooperative polyclonal process mediated by diverse antibodies with more limited breadth targeting multiple epitopes also can achieve neutralization breadth against HIV-1.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Diversidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Linfócitos B , Células Cultivadas , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hibridomas , Testes de Neutralização , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 7(suppl_2): S49-S53, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590621

RESUMO

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a pathogen that causes outbreaks of respiratory illness across the world, mostly in children, and can be especially severe in those with asthma. Clusters of acute flaccid myelitis, a poliomyelitis-like neuromuscular weakness syndrome, often occur concurrent with EV-D68 respiratory outbreaks. Seroepidemiologic studies have found that the serum of nearly everyone older than 2 to 5 years contains anti-EV-D68 neutralizing antibodies, which suggests that EV-D68 is a ubiquitous pathogen of childhood. However, knowledge of the viral epitopes against which the humoral immune response is directed is only inferred from previous studies of related viruses. Although neutralizing antibodies protect newborn mice from lethal EV-D68 inoculation via nonphysiologic routes, cotton rats have a mixed phenotype of both benefit and possible exacerbation when inoculated intranasally. The human antibody response to EV-D68 needs to be studied further to clarify the role of antibodies in protection versus pathogenesis, which might differ among respiratory and neurologic disease phenotypes.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano D/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
20.
Cell Rep ; 25(7): 1982-1993.e4, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428362

RESUMO

Synthetically engineered DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) are an in vivo platform for evaluation and delivery of human mAb to control against infectious disease. Here, we engineer DMAbs encoding potent anti-Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) mAbs isolated from Ebola virus disease survivors. We demonstrate the development of a human IgG1 DMAb platform for in vivo EBOV-GP mAb delivery and evaluation in a mouse model. Using this approach, we show that DMAb-11 and DMAb-34 exhibit functional and molecular profiles comparable to recombinant mAb, have a wide window of expression, and provide rapid protection against lethal mouse-adapted EBOV challenge. The DMAb platform represents a simple, rapid, and reproducible approach for evaluating the activity of mAb during clinical development. DMAbs have the potential to be a mAb delivery system, which may be advantageous for protection against highly pathogenic infectious diseases, like EBOV, in resource-limited and other challenging settings.

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