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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634765

RESUMO

Summary: Thyroid dysfunction is among the most common immune-related adverse reactions associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. It most commonly manifests as painless thyroiditis followed by permanent hypothyroidism. This usually causes mild toxicity that does not interfere with oncological treatment. In rare instances, however, a life-threatening form of decompensated hypothyroidism called myxoedema coma may develop. We present a case of myxoedema coma in a woman in her sixties who was treated with a combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors; for stage four malignant melanoma. She became hypothyroid and required thyroxine replacement after an episode of painless thyroiditis. Six months after the initial diagnosis of malignant melanoma, she presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, profuse diarrhoea, lethargy and confusion. She was drowsy, hypotensive with a BP of 60/40 mmHg, hyponatraemic and hypoglycaemic. Thyroid function tests (TFTs) indicated profound hypothyroidism with a TSH of 19 mIU/L, and undetectable fT3 and fT4, despite the patient being compliant with thyroxine. She was diagnosed with a myxoedema coma caused by immune-related enteritis and subsequent thyroxine malabsorption. The patient was treated with i.v. triiodothyronine (T3) and methylprednisolone in the ICU. While her clinical status improved with T3 replacement, her enteritis was refractory to steroid therapy. A thyroxine absorption test confirmed persistent malabsorption. Attempts to revert to oral thyroxine were unsuccessful. Unfortunately, the patient's malignant melanoma progressed significantly and she passed away four months later. This is the first reported case of myxoedema coma that resulted from two distinct immune-related adverse reactions, namely painless thyroiditis and enterocolitis. Learning points: Myxoedema coma, a severe form of decompensated hypothyroidism is a rare immunotherapy-related endocrinopathy. Myxedema coma should be treated with either i.v. triiodothyronine (T3) or i.v. thyroxine (T4). Intravenous glucocorticoids should be co-administered with thyroid hormone replacement to avoid precipitating an adrenal crisis. Thyroid function tests (TFTs) should be monitored closely in individuals with hypothyroidism and diarrhoea due to the risk of thyroxine malabsorption. A thyroxine absorption test can be used to confirm thyroxine malabsorption in individuals with persistent hypothyroidism.

2.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of burosumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and ambulatory function in adults with X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) through 96 weeks. METHODS: Adults diagnosed with XLH were randomised 1:1 in a double-blinded trial to receive subcutaneous burosumab 1 mg/kg or placebo every 4 weeks for 24 weeks (NCT02526160). Thereafter, all subjects received burosumab every 4 weeks until week 96. PROs were measured using the Western Ontario and the McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF) and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and ambulatory function was measured with the 6 min walk test (6MWT). RESULTS: Subjects (N=134) were randomised to burosumab (n=68) or placebo (n=66) for 24 weeks. At baseline, subjects experienced pain, stiffness, and impaired physical and ambulatory function. At week 24, subjects receiving burosumab achieved statistically significant improvement in some BPI-SF scores, BFI worst fatigue (average and greatest) and WOMAC stiffness. At week 48, all WOMAC and BPI-SF scores achieved statistically significant improvement, with some WOMAC and BFI scores achieving meaningful and significant change from baseline. At week 96, all WOMAC, BPI-SF and BFI achieved statistically significant improvement, with selected scores in all measures also achieving meaningful change. Improvement in 6MWT distance and percent predicted were statistically significant at all time points from 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with XLH have substantial burden of disease as assessed by PROs and 6MWT. Burosumab treatment improved phosphate homoeostasis and was associated with a steady and consistent improvement in PROs and ambulatory function. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02526160.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 544, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The process of informed consent for enrolment to a clinical research study can be complex for both participants and research staff. Challenges include respecting the potential participant's autonomy and information needs while simultaneously providing adequate information to enable an informed decision. Qualitative research with small sample sizes has added to our understanding of these challenges. However, there is value in garnering the perspectives of research participants and staff across larger samples to explore the impact of contextual factors (time spent, the timing of the discussion and the setting), on the informed consent process. METHODS: Research staff and research participants from Ireland and the UK were invited to complete an anonymous survey by post or online (research participants) and online (research staff). The surveys aimed to quantify the perceptions of research participants and staff regarding some contextual factors about the process of informed consent. The survey, which contained 14 and 16 multiple choice questions for research participants and staff respectively, was analysed using descriptive statistics. Both surveys included one optional, open-ended question, which were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Research participants (169) and research staff (115) completed the survey. Research participants were predominantly positive about the informed consent process but highlighted the importance of having sufficient time and the value of providing follow-up once the study concludes, e.g. providing results to participants. Most staff (74.4%) staff reported that they felt very confident or confident facilitating informed consent discussions, but 63% felt information leaflets were too long and/or complicated, 56% were concerned about whether participants had understood complex information and 40% felt that time constraints were a barrier. A dominant theme from the open-ended responses to the staff survey was the importance of adequate time and resources. CONCLUSIONS: Research participants in this study were overwhelmingly positive about their experience of the informed consent process. However, research staff expressed concern about how much participants have understood and studies of patient comprehension of research study information would seem to confirm these fears. This study highlights the importance of allocating adequate time to informed consent discussions, and research staff could consider using Teach Back techniques. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Humanos , Irlanda , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 264: 8-14, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clinical studies have reported an inverse relationship between calcium and vitamin D intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). The aim of this study was to investigate if there was an association between calcium/vitamin D intake, and vitamin D (25OHD) status, and maternal blood pressure (BP), during pregnancy and at 5-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational study of 415 women who participated in the ROLO (Randomised cOntrolled trial of LOw glycaemic index diet for the prevention of recurrence of macrosomia) study. Maternal BP measurements were taken during each trimester and at 5-year follow-up. Calcium and vitamin D intake were determined at each trimester and 25OHD was measured in early and late pregnancy. RESULTS: Over two-thirds of the cohort were vitamin D sufficient (25OHD > 30 nmol/L) and had adequate calcium intake (>750 mg/day). There was no correlation between calcium intake or vitamin D intake and maternal BP in trimester 1 to 3 or at 5-year follow-up. Vitamin D status at 13 weeks' gestation negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure in trimester 1 (r = -0.152, p = 0.044). There was no correlation however between 25OHD at 28 weeks' gestation and BP at 28 or 34 weeks' gestation or 25OHD and BP at 5-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In a healthy population of women with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, no clinically significant correlation existed between calcium and vitamin D and maternal BP.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle
5.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 80, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 may feel under pressure to participate in research during the pandemic. Safeguards to protect research participants include ethical guidelines [e.g. Declaration of Helsinki and good clinical practice (GCP)], legislation to protect participants' privacy, research ethics committees (RECs) and informed consent. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) advises researchers to document compliance with these safeguards. Adherence to publication guidelines has been suboptimal in other specialty fields. The aim of this rapid review was to determine whether COVID-19 human research publications report compliance with these ethical safeguards. METHODS: A rapid systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE using the search term 'COVID-19'. The search was performed in April 2020 with no start date and repeated to include articles published in November 2020. Filters were 'Full free text available' and 'English Language'. Two reviewers assessed article title, abstracts and full texts. Non-COVID-19 articles and non-clinical studies were excluded. Independent reviewers conducted a second assessment of a random 20% of articles. The outcomes included reporting of compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and GCP, REC approval, informed consent and participant privacy. RESULTS: The searches yielded 1275 and 1942 articles of which 247 and 717 were deemed eligible, from the April  search and November respectively. The majority of journals had editorial policies which purported to comply with ICMJE ethical standards. Reporting of compliance with ethical guidelines was low across all study types but was higher in the November search for case series and observational studies. Reporting of informed consent for case studies and observational studies was higher in the November search, but similar for case series. Overall, participant confidentiality was maintained but some case studies included a combination of details which would have enabled participant identification. Reporting of REC approval was higher in the November search for observational studies. CONCLUSIONS: While the majority of journal's editorial policies purported to support the ethical safeguards, many COVID-19 clinical research publications identified in this rapid review lacked documentation of these important safeguards for research participants. In order to promote public trust, ethical declarations should be included consistently.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Políticas Editoriais , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 12: 20420188211010052, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104392

RESUMO

Denosumab was approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in 2010, based on the FREEDOM study, which indicated a benefit in terms of increased bone mineral density and reduced risk of major osteoporotic fracture. In the initial clinical studies it was noted that discontinuation of denosumab can lead to a rebound of bone turnover markers and loss of accrued bone mineral density. An increased risk of fractures (multiple vertebral fractures in particular) associated with discontinuation was noted after approval and marketing of denosumab. For many patients experiencing gain in bone mineral density and fracture prevention while taking denosumab, there is no reason to stop therapy. However, discontinuation of denosumab may happen due to non-adherence; potential lack of efficacy in an individual; where reimbursement for therapy is limited to those with bone mineral density in the osteoporosis range, when assessment reveals this has been exceeded; or patient or physician concern regarding side effects. This review paper aims to discuss these concerns and to summarize the data available to date regarding sequential osteoporosis therapy following denosumab cessation to reduce the risk of multiple vertebral fracture.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597314

RESUMO

Summary: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited endocrine disorder with a high rate of penetrance. The incidence of MEN1 is 1/30,000 in the general population; however, it is quite rare for a patient to present for medical attention with MEN1 for the first time in pregnancy. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is one of the most common features of MEN1. The incidence of PHPT occurring in pregnancy is 1%. Despite advances in the medical, surgical and obstetric care over the years, management of this condition during pregnancy may be challenging. It can be difficult to identify pregnant women with PHPT requiring intervention and to monitor safely. Hypercalcemia can result in significant maternal and fetal adverse outcomes including: miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, neonatal hypocalcaemia, pre-eclampsia and maternal nephrolithiasis. Herein, we present a case study of a lady with a strong family history of MEN1, who was biochemically proven to have PHPT and evidence of Zollinger Ellison Syndrome (ZE) on endoscopy. This patient delayed her assisted pregnancy plans for in vitro fertilization (IVF) until completion of the MEN1 workup; nevertheless, she spontaneously achieved an unplanned pregnancy. As a result, she required intervention with parathyroidectomy in the second trimester of her pregnancy as her calcium level continued to rise. This case study highlights the workup, follow up and management of MEN1 presenting with PHPT and ZE in pregnancy. Learning points: Women of childbearing age who are suspected to have a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism ideally should have genetic testing and avoid pregnancy until definitive plans are in place. Zollinger Ellison syndrome in pregnancy means off-label use of high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Use of PPI in pregnancy is considered to be safe based on retrospective studies. Omeprazole, however, is FDA class C drug because of lack of large prospective studies or large case series during pregnancy. Calcium supplements in the form of calcium carbonate must be converted to calcium chloride by gastric acid in order to be absorbed, however, patients rendered achlorhydric as a result of PPI use will have impaired absorption of calcium. Therefore, use of calcium citrate might be considered a better option in this case.

9.
JBMR Plus ; 5(2): e10437, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615106

RESUMO

Excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), excess PTH, and an increase in extracellular calcium cause hypophosphatemia by lowering the maximum renal phosphate reabsorption threshold (TmP/GFR). We recently reported two cases of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) with severe tertiary hyperparathyroidism who had normalization of TmP/GFR upon being rendered hypoparathyroid following total parathyroidectomy, despite marked excess in both C-terminal FGF23 (cFGF23) and intact FGF23 (iFGF23). We explored the effects of FGF23, PTH, and calcium on TmP/GFR in a cross-sectional study (n = 74) across a spectrum of clinical cases with abnormalities in TmP/GFR, PTH, and FGF23. This comprised three groups: FGF23-dependent hypophosphatemia (n = 27), hypoparathyroidism (HOPT; n = 17), and chronic kidney disease (n = 30). Measurements included TmP/GFR, cFGF23, PTH, ionized calcium, vitamin D metabolites, and bone turnover markers. The combined effect of cFGF23, PTH, and ionized calcium on TmP/GFR was modeled using hierarchical multiple regression and was probed by moderation analysis with PROCESS. Modeling analysis showed independent effects on TmP/GFR by cFGF23, PTH, and ionized calcium in conjunction with a weak but significant effect of the interaction term for PTH and FGF23; probing showed that the effect was most prominent during PTH deficiency. Teriparatide 20 µg daily was self-administered for 28 days by one case of X-linked hypophosphatemia with hypoparathyroidism (XLH-HOPT) to assess the response of TmP/GFR, cFGF23, iFGF23, nephrogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (NcAMP), vitamin D metabolites, and bone turnover markers. After 28 days, TmP/GFR was lowered from 1.10 mmol/L to 0.48 mmol/L; this was accompanied by increases in NcAMP, ionized calcium, and bone turnover markers. In conclusion, the effect of FGF23 excess on TmP/GFR is altered by PTH such that the effect is ameliorated by hypoparathyroidism and the effect is augmented by hyperparathyroidism. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

10.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 94(4): 616-624, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176010

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Animal data and cross-sectional human studies have established that chronic hyponatraemia predisposes to osteoporosis; the effects of acute hyponatraemia on bone turnover have not been determined. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that acute hyponatraemia leads to dynamic effects on bone turnover. DESIGN: A prospective observational pilot study. METHODS: Bone turnover markers [C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1), N-propeptide of type 1 collagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin] were measured prospectively over one week in 22 eunatraemic patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Patients treated with glucocorticoids were excluded. RESULTS: Eight patients developed acute hyponatraemia, median nadir plasma sodium concentration 131 mmol/L (IQR 128-132), and 14 remained eunatraemic, nadir plasma sodium concentration 136 mmol/L (IQR 133-137). Significant main effects of hyponatraemia were found for P1NP (p = .02) and P1NP:CTX-1 ratio (p = .02), both fell in patients with acute hyponatraemia, with significant interaction between hyponatraemia and time from baseline for P1NP (p = .02). Significant main effects of time from baseline (p < .001) but not hyponatraemia (p = .07) were found for osteocalcin. For CTX-1, significant main effects of time from baseline (p = .001) but not hyponatraemia (p = .65) were found. There was a positive correlation between change in P1NP:CTX-1 ratio and nadir plasma sodium concentration, r = +.43, p = .04. Median serum cortisol (measured on days 1, 3 and 7) was higher in the hyponatraemia group than in those who remained eunatraemic, 545 nmol/L (IQR 373-778) versus 444 nmol/L (IQR 379-542) p = .03. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that acute mild hyponatraemia is associated with a reduction in bone formation activity.


Assuntos
Hiponatremia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Colágeno Tipo I , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Peptídeos , Pró-Colágeno , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/sangue
11.
HRB Open Res ; 3: 22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832851

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, designated SARS-CoV-2, which is responsible for a global pandemic in 2020. Public interest in this disease has led to the publication of thousands of articles in the medical literature in a very short timeframe. It is imperative that medical research into COVID-19 is conducted quickly and safely, and that due reference is given to the ethical considerations enshrined in the ICH GCP guidelines, according to the Declaration of Helsinki. In order to review the reporting of ethical considerations in these papers, we hereby propose a protocol for a systematic review of COVID-19 papers up to April 14 th 2020. The search criteria proposed for the review are based upon what would be a reasonable search conducted by a lay member of the public with access to PubMed.gov. Institutional Research Ethics Committees (RECs) face significant challenges in providing thorough and timely ethical review during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is proposed to publish the findings of this rapid review along with a summary of an institutional REC response to the challenges of reviewing and approving clinical research proposals in the time of a pandemic.

12.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 6(2): 2055217320933928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612846

RESUMO

Background: Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) occurs in 40%-50% of alemtuzumab-treated persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), most of whom will develop Graves' Disease (GD). Objective: To explore contributory factors for alemtuzumab-related AITD in pwMS. Methods: A retrospective patient chart review was performed. Results: Sixteen out of 52 (30.8%) pwMS developed AITD. GD occurred in 56.3% (n = 9), the majority (n = 7, 77.8%) symptomatic. All but one (85.7%) pwMS with symptomatic GD developed atypical, large and rapid fluctuations in thyroid hormone levels unexplained by effect of anti-thyroid medication alone. All symptomatic GD cases were age ≤32 years when starting alemtuzumab (ɸ = 0.60, p = 0.03). PwMS who started alemtuzumab at a younger age developed thyroid disease earlier (r = 0.51, p = 0.04). PwMS with clinical and radiological evidence of brainstem involvement at onset of multiple sclerosis were 11 times more likely to develop symptomatic GD compared with those with other phenotypes (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Alemtuzumab-induced reconstitution GD may result from early and increased cross-reactivity between antigens common to the brainstem and thyroid, or presence of shared Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles that determine brainstem and thyroid involvement. We suggest cautious use of alemtuzumab in younger (≤32 years) pwMS with early brainstem involvement, especially those actively planning pregnancy, where alternative therapies are readily available.

13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(7): 1246-1252, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176830

RESUMO

Mutations in SQSTM1 are strongly associated with Paget's disease of bone (PDB), but little is known about the clinical characteristics of those with early disease. Radionuclide bone scans, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and clinical characteristics were analyzed in SQSTM1 mutation carriers who took part in the Zoledronic acid in the Prevention of Paget's disease (ZiPP) study. We studied 222 individuals, of whom 54.9% were female, with mean ± SE age of 50.1 ± 0.6 years. Twelve SQSTM1 mutations were observed, including p.Pro392Leu, which was present in 141 of 222 (63.5%) subjects. Bone scan examination revealed evidence of PDB in 20 subjects (9.0%), ten of whom (50%) had a single affected site. Participants with lesions were older than those without lesions but the difference was not significant (53.6 ± 9.1 versus 49.8 ± 8.9; p = .07). The mean age of participants with lesions was not significantly different from the age at which their parents were diagnosed with PDB (55 years versus 59 years, p = .17). All individuals with lesions were asymptomatic. Serum concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) normalized to the upper limit of normal in each center were higher in those with lesions (0.75 ± 0.69 versus 0.42 ± 0.29 arbitary units; p < .0001). Similar findings were observed for other biochemical markers of bone turnover, but the sensitivity of ALP and other markers in detecting lesions was poor. Asymptomatic PDB is present in about 9% of SQSTM1 mutation carriers by the fifth decade. Further follow-up of this cohort will provide important information on the natural history of early PDB and its response to treatment. © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Osteíte Deformante , Proteína Sequestossoma-1 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Osteíte Deformante/epidemiologia , Osteíte Deformante/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Ácido Zoledrônico
14.
Ir J Med Sci ; 189(1): 171-175, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction (TD) occurs in 13.4% of diabetic patients, which has prompted recommendations for annual thyroid screening in patients with diabetes. However, recommendations for annual screening should be based on disease incidence rather than prevalence. METHODS: In 1997-1998, seven hundred and thirty patients (618 type 2 diabetes, 55% male; 112 type 1 diabetes, 47% male) were sequentially screened for TD. The 639 patients with normal thyroid function were followed from 1999 to 2006, with annual thyroid function tests. RESULTS: A total of 21/112 (19%) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and 70/618 (11%) with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) had TD. TD was more frequent in females (p < 0.05) and T1DM (p = 0.04). The mean annual rate of conversion to abnormal tests was 2.1%. At 8 years, there were 100 new cases of TD representing 15.6% of the cohort (17 T1DM and 83 T2DM). TD was more frequent in females (p < 0.05), but there was no difference in the incidence of new TD between T1DM and T2DM (p = 0.39). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirms the high prevalence of TD in diabetic patients, in concordance with the results from other series. We found only 25 treatable cases of new thyroid disease from 639 patients in the 8-year follow-up, less than 0.5% per year. The low incidence of treatable thyroid disease challenges the need for annual screening for thyroid abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(1): 121-131, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673780

RESUMO

Bone health is extremely important in early childhood because children with low bone mineral density (BMD) are at a greater risk of bone fractures. While physical activity and intake of both calcium and vitamin D benefit BMD in older children, there is limited research on the determinants of good bone health in early childhood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of diet, physical activity, and body composition on BMD at five years of age. Dietary intakes and physical activity levels were measured through questionnaires. Whole body BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 102 children. Child weight, height, circumferences, skinfolds and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were assessed. There was no association between BMD and dietary calcium, dietary vitamin D, 25OHD, physical activity, or sedentary behaviour. Several measures of body composition were significantly positively associated with BMD; however, neither fat mass nor lean body mass was associated with BMD.Conclusion: Although we found no association between self-reported dietary and lifestyle factors and bone health in early years, increased body size was linked with higher BMD. These findings are important as identifying modifiable factors that can improve bone health at a young age is of utmost importance.What is Known:• Bone health is extremely important in early childhood, as children with low bone mineral density (BMD) are at greater risk of bone fractures.• Physical activity has been found to be beneficial for bone health in adolescents, and body composition has also been associated with BMD in teenage years.• Limited research on the determinants of good bone health in early childhood.What is New:• No association between self-reported lifestyle and dietary factors with bone health in early childhood.• Increased body size was associated with higher BMD at five years of age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Absorciometria de Fóton , Cálcio na Dieta , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
16.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(6): 816-823, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal blood pressure (BP) below the diagnostic criteria of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is associated with maternal BP 5 years later. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland (2007-2011). SAMPLE: Three hundred twenty-nine women from the ROLO study (Randomized cOntrol trial of LOw glycaemic index diet to prevent the recurrence of macrosomia). METHODS: Maternal BP measurements were taken during pregnancy (13, 28 and 34 weeks' gestation and day 1 postpartum) and at the 5-year follow-up. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were categorized as normal (SBP < 120 and DBP < 80 mm Hg), elevated (SBP 120-129 and DBP < 80 mm Hg), HTN stage 1 (SBP 130-139 or DBP 80-89 mm Hg) or HTN stage 2 (SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg) at each timepoint. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal blood pressure at the 5-year follow-up. RESULTS: Women with elevated BP at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation had 2.68 (95% CI: 1.36-5.26) and 2.45-fold (95% CI: 1.22-4.95) increased odds of HTN stage 1 respectively, at the 5-year follow-up, compared to those with normal BP in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Elevated BP at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation was associated with an increased risk of HTN stage 1 at 5 years later. Thus, raised BP, below the diagnostic criteria of HDP, could be flagged for follow-up postpartum.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e030689, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is characterised by increased and disorganised bone remodelling affecting one or more skeletal sites. Complications include bone pain, deformity, deafness and pathological fractures. Mutations in sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) are strongly associated with the development of PDB. Bisphosphonate therapy can improve bone pain in PDB, but there is no evidence that treatment alters the natural history of PDB or prevents complications. The Zoledronate in the Prevention of Paget's disease trial (ZiPP) will determine if prophylactic therapy with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) can delay or prevent the development of PDB in people who carry SQSTM1 mutations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: People with a family history of PDB aged >30 years who test positive for SQSTM1 mutations are eligible to take part. At the baseline visit, participants will be screened for the presence of bone lesions by radionuclide bone scan. Biochemical markers of bone turnover will be measured and questionnaires completed to assess pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression. Participants will be randomised to receive a single intravenous infusion of 5 mg ZA or placebo and followed up annually for between 4 and 8 years at which point baseline assessments will be repeated. The primary endpoint will be new bone lesions assessed by radionuclide bone scan. Secondary endpoints will include changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover, pain, HRQoL, anxiety, depression and PDB-related skeletal events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the Fife and Forth Valley Research Ethics Committee on 22 December 2008 (08/S0501/84). Following completion of the trial, a manuscript will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. The results of this trial will inform clinical practice by determining if early intervention with ZA in presymptomatic individuals with SQSTM1 mutations can prevent or slow the development of bone lesions with an adverse event profile that is acceptable. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11616770.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteíte Deformante/genética , Osteíte Deformante/prevenção & controle , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Mutação , Osteíte Deformante/complicações , Osteíte Deformante/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Cintilografia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909165

RESUMO

Context Adrenal incidentalomas (AI) represent an increasingly common problem in modern endocrine practice. The diagnostic approach to AIs can be challenging and occasionally reveals surprising features. Here we describe two rare cases of complex adrenal lesions consisting of phaeochromocytomas with synchronous metastases from extra-adrenal primaries. Case descriptions Patient 1 - a 65-year-old gentleman with a newly diagnosed malignant melanoma was found to harbour an adrenal lesion with suspicious radiographic characteristics. Percutaneous adrenal biopsy was consistent with adrenocortical adenoma. After excision of the skin melanoma and regional lymphatic metastases, he was followed up without imaging. Three years later, he presented with abdominal discomfort and enlargement of his adrenal lesion, associated with high plasma metanephrines. Adrenalectomy revealed a mixed tumour consisting of a large phaeochromocytoma with an embedded melanoma metastasis in its core. Patient 2 - a 63-year-old lady with a history of NF-1-related phaeochromocytoma 20 years ago and previous breast cancer presented with a new adrenal lesion on the contralateral side. Plasma normetanephrine was markedly elevated. Elective adrenalectomy revealed an adrenal tumour consisting of chromaffin cells intermixed with breast carcinoma cells. Conclusions Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation to exclude metastatic disease, especially in the context of a history of previous malignancy. Adrenal biopsy provides limited and potentially misleading information. Phaeochromocytomas are highly vascularised tumours that may function as a sieve, extracting and retaining irregularly shaped cancer cells, thereby yielding adrenal masses with intriguing dual pathology. Learning points: Adrenal incidentalomas require careful evaluation focused on exclusion of underlying hormone excess and malignant pathology. Adrenal biopsy can be misleading and should only be considered in select cases. Phaeochromocytomas harbouring intratumoural metastases from other, extra-adrenal primary malignancies represent rare pathological entities that highlight the complexities that can be presented by adrenal tumours.

20.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(1): 72-81, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND CONTEXT: Increasing adiposity, ageing and tissue-specific regeneration of cortisol through the activity of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been associated with deterioration in glucose tolerance. We undertook a longitudinal, prospective clinical study to determine if alterations in local glucocorticoid metabolism track with changes in glucose tolerance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Sixty-five overweight/obese individuals (mean age 50.3 ± 7.3 years) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, body composition assessment, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and urinary steroid metabolite analysis annually for up to 5 years. Participants were categorized into those in whom glucose tolerance deteriorated ("deteriorators") or improved ("improvers"). RESULTS: Deteriorating glucose tolerance was associated with increasing total and trunk fat mass and increased subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of lipogenic genes. Subcutaneous adipose tissue 11ß-HSD1 gene expression decreased in deteriorators, and at study completion, it was highest in the improvers. There was a significant negative correlation between change in area under the curve glucose and 11ß-HSD1 expression. Global 11ß-HSD1 activity did not change and was not different between deteriorators and improvers at baseline or follow-up. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal deterioration in metabolic phenotype is not associated with increased 11ß-HSD1 activity, but decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression. These changes may represent a compensatory mechanism to decrease local glucocorticoid exposure in the face of an adverse metabolic phenotype.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Corticosteroides/metabolismo , Corticosteroides/urina , Adulto , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/urina , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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