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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

2.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 326-335, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474763

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans, with highly variable phenotypic expression. Whereas congenital heart defects, palatal anomalies, immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and neuropsychiatric conditions are observed in over 50% of patients with 22q11DS, a subset of patients present with additional "atypical" findings such as craniosynostosis and anorectal malformations. Recently, pathogenic variants in the CDC45 (Cell Division Cycle protein 45) gene, located within the LCR22A-LCR22B region of chromosome 22q11.2, were noted to be involved in the pathogenesis of craniosynostosis. METHODS: We performed next-generation sequencing on DNA from 15 patients with 22q11.2DS and atypical phenotypic features such as craniosynostosis, short stature, skeletal differences, and anorectal malformations. RESULTS: We identified four novel rare nonsynonymous variants in CDC45 in 5/15 patients with 22q11.2DS and craniosynostosis and/or other atypical findings. CONCLUSION: This study supports CDC45 as a causative gene in craniosynostosis, as well as a number of other anomalies. We suggest that this association results in a condition independent of Meier-Gorlin syndrome, perhaps representing a novel condition and/or a cause of features associated with Baller-Gerold syndrome. In addition, this work confirms that the phenotypic variability observed in a subset of patients with 22q11.2DS is due to pathogenic variants on the nondeleted chromosome.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 26-40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870554

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%-70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64-4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10-5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1184-1195, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038278

RESUMO

Palatal involvement occurs commonly in patients with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS), and includes palatal clefting and velopharyngeal dysfunction in the absence of overt or submucous clefts. The reported incidence and distribution of palatal abnormalities vary in the literature. The aim of this article is to revisit the incidence and presenting features of palatal abnormalities in a large cohort of patients with 22qDS, summarize the surgical treatments performed in this cohort, and provide an overview of surgical treatment protocols and management guidelines for palatal abnormalities in this syndrome. Charts of 1,121 patients seen through the 22q and You Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia were reviewed for palatal status, demographic factors, deletion size, and corrective surgical procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-squared test to identify differences between gender, deletion size, and palatal abnormality. Of the patients with complete evaluations, 67% were found to have a palatal abnormality. The most common finding was velopharyngeal dysfunction in 55.2% of patients, and in 33.3% of patients, this occurred in the absence of palatal clefting. There was no significant difference in the incidence of palatal abnormalities by gender; however, a difference was noted among race (p < 0.01) and deletion sizes (p < 0.01). For example, Caucasian and Asian patients presented with a much higher prevalence of palatal abnormalities, and conversely those with nested deletions presented with a much lower rate of palatal defects. Overall, 26.9% of patients underwent palatal surgery, and the most common indication was velopharyngeal dysfunction. Palatal abnormalities are a hallmark feature of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome; understanding the incidence, presenting features, and treatment protocols are essential for practitioners counseling and treating families affected with this disorder.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2167-2171, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380188

RESUMO

Hypocalcemia has been reported in ~50% of patients 22q11.2DS and calcium regulation is known to play a role in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Because calcium ions play a role in neuronal function and development, we hypothesized that hypocalcemia would be associated with adverse effects on full scale IQ index (FSIQ) in patients with 22q11.2DS. A retrospective chart review cataloguing the presence or absence of hypocalcemia in 1073 subjects with a laboratory confirmed chromosome 22q11.2 deletion evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was conducted. 852/1073 patients had an endocrinology evaluation with laboratory confirmed calcium levels. 466/852 (54.7%) had a diagnosis of hypocalcemia. 265/1073 subjects ranging from 0 to 51 years of age had both calcium levels measured and a neuropsychological evaluation yielding a FSIQ. The mean FSIQ for 146/265 patients with hypocalcemia was 77.09 (SD = 13.56) and the mean FSIQ for 119/265 patients with normocalcemia was 77.27 (SD = 14.25). The distribution of patients with intellectual disability (ID) (FSIQ<69), borderline IQ (FSIQ 70-79), and average IQ (FSIQ>80) between the hypocalcemic and normocalcemic groups was not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.2676, p = 0.8748). Neonatal hypocalcemic seizures were not found to be associated with ID. We found no difference in FSIQ between the hypocalcemic and non-hypocalcemic patients with 22q11.2DS. As our findings differ from a previous report in adult subjects, we speculate that this may reflect a potential benefit from early treatment of hypocalcemia and may support early 22q11.2 deletion detection in order to offer prompt diagnosis and subsequent treatment of hypocalcemia.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/etiologia , Hipocalcemia/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Adolescente , Adulto , Cálcio/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipocalcemia/etiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Wechsler
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2058-2069, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380191

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by recurrent, chromosome-specific, low copy repeat (LCR)-mediated copy-number losses of chromosome 22q11. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has been involved in the clinical care of individuals with what is now known as 22q11.2DS since our initial report of the association with DiGeorge syndrome in 1982. We reviewed the medical records on our continuously growing longitudinal cohort of 1,421 patients with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2DS from 1992 to 2018. Most individuals are Caucasian and older than 8 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.9 years. The majority of patients (85%) had typical LCR22A-LCR22D deletions, and only 7% of these typical deletions were inherited from a parent harboring the deletion constitutionally. However, 6% of individuals harbored other nested deletions that would not be identified by traditional 22q11.2 FISH, thus requiring an orthogonal technology to diagnose. Major medical problems included immune dysfunction or allergies (77%), palatal abnormalities (67%), congenital heart disease (64%), gastrointestinal difficulties (65%), endocrine dysfunction (>50%), scoliosis (50%), renal anomalies (16%), and airway abnormalities. Median full-scale intelligence quotient was 76, with no significant difference between individuals with and without congenital heart disease or hypocalcemia. Characteristic dysmorphic facial features were present in most individuals, but dermatoglyphic patterns of our cohort are similar to normal controls. This is the largest longitudinal study of patients with 22q11.2DS, helping to further describe the condition and aid in diagnosis and management. Further surveillance will likely elucidate additional clinically relevant findings as they age.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Comorbidade , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mortalidade , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 936-944, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575622

RESUMO

Clinical molecular testing has been available for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) for over two decades yet under-recognition and diagnostic delays are common. To characterize the "diagnostic odyssey" in 22q11.2DS we studied 202 well-characterized unrelated adults, none ascertained through an affected relative. We used a regression model to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with length of time to molecular diagnosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis compared time to diagnosis for the molecular testing era (since 1994) and earlier birth cohorts. The results showed that the median time to molecular diagnosis of the 22q11.2 deletion was 4.7 (range 0-20.7) years. Palatal and cardiac anomalies, but not developmental delay/intellectual disability, were associated with a shorter time to molecular diagnosis. Non-European ethnicity was associated with longer time to diagnosis. Inclusion of a cohort from another 22q11.2DS center increased power to observe a significantly earlier diagnosis for patients born in the molecular testing era. Nonetheless, only a minority were diagnosed in the first year of life. On average, patients were seen in seven (range 2-15) different clinical specialty areas prior to molecular diagnosis. The findings indicate that even for those born in the molecular testing era, individuals with 22q11.2DS and their families face a diagnostic odyssey that is often prolonged, particularly in the absence of typical physical congenital features or for those of non-European ancestry. The results support educational efforts to improve clinical recognition and testing, and ultimately newborn screening as a means of maximizing early detection that would provide the best opportunity to optimize outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Síndrome de DiGeorge/mortalidade , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 96: 11-14, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28390597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) presents with complex but variable symptoms, including cardiac, immune, palatal, endocrine, cognitive, and psychiatric issues. However, an association of 22q11.2DS with structural airway abnormalities has not been formally described. The aim of this study was to document the frequency of this association. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with 22q11.2DS evaluated in the 22q and You Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1999 and 2015 referred to otolaryngology for an airway assessment. Type of airway abnormality and presence of comorbidities, such as congenital heart disease, tracheostomy, and association with prenatal symptomatology such as polyhydramnios, were noted. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients who underwent an otolaryngology procedure (microlaryngoscopy or bronchoscopy), 71% (n = 74) had airway abnormalities. Patients with airway abnormalities ranged in age from 5 months to 37 years, with similar prevalence among males and females. Observed airway abnormalities included tracheomalacia (36%), subglottic stenosis (28%), laryngomalacia (26%), glottic web (21%), and bronchomalacia (16%). Most patients with airway abnormalities (91%) had an associated congenital heart defect, with ventricular septal defect and Tetralogy of Fallot being the most prevalent. Importantly, 30% of patients required a tracheostomy, and overall polyhydramnios was noted in 16% of pregnancies. CONCLUSION: Airway abnormalities are a common feature of 22q11.2DS, leading to substantial morbidity, particularly when combined with complex cardiac disease. Polyhydramnios may be an important prenatal clue to both the diagnosis of 22q11.2DS and airway anomalies. Postnatal assessment of airway structure and function among patients with 22q11.2DS is an important component of overall evaluation and will help guide long-term management.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Philadelphia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/congênito , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(4): 879-888, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328118

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and is underdiagnosed in diverse populations. This syndrome has a variable phenotype and affects multiple systems, making early recognition imperative. In this study, individuals from diverse populations with 22q11.2 DS were evaluated clinically and by facial analysis technology. Clinical information from 106 individuals and images from 101 were collected from individuals with 22q11.2 DS from 11 countries; average age was 11.7 and 47% were male. Individuals were grouped into categories of African descent (African), Asian, and Latin American. We found that the phenotype of 22q11.2 DS varied across population groups. Only two findings, congenital heart disease and learning problems, were found in greater than 50% of participants. When comparing the clinical features of 22q11.2 DS in each population, the proportion of individuals within each clinical category was statistically different except for learning problems and ear anomalies (P < 0.05). However, when Africans were removed from analysis, six additional clinical features were found to be independent of ethnicity (P ≥ 0.05). Using facial analysis technology, we compared 156 Caucasians, Africans, Asians, and Latin American individuals with 22q11.2 DS with 156 age and gender matched controls and found that sensitivity and specificity were greater than 96% for all populations. In summary, we present the varied findings from global populations with 22q11.2 DS and demonstrate how facial analysis technology can assist clinicians in making accurate 22q11.2 DS diagnoses. This work will assist in earlier detection and in increasing recognition of 22q11.2 DS throughout the world.


Assuntos
Identificação Biométrica/métodos , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , /diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/química , Síndrome de DiGeorge/etnologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Facies , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etnologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , /genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
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