Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 427
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article provides updated GRADE guidance about how authors of systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTA) and guideline developers can rate the certainty of evidence (also known as quality of the evidence or confidence in the estimates) of a body of evidence addressing test accuracy (TA) on the domains imprecision, inconsistency, publication bias and other domains. It also provides guidance for how to present synthesized information in evidence profiles and summary of findings tables. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We present guidance for rating certainty in TA in clinical and public health and review the presentation of results of a body of evidence regarding tests. RESULTS: Supplemented by practical examples, we describe how raters of the evidence can apply the GRADE domains inconsistency, imprecision, and publication bias to a body of evidence of TA studies. CONCLUSIONS: Using GRADE in Cochrane and other reviews as well as World Health Organization and other guidelines helped refining the GRADE approach for rating the certainty of a body of evidence from TA studies. While several of the GRADE domains (e.g., imprecision and magnitude of the association) require further methodological research to help operationalize them, judgments need to be made on the basis of what is known so far.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western guidelines recommend an international normalized ratio (INR) range of 2 to 3 when using warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), but lower INR ranges are frequently used in East Asia. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in AF patients comparing the effect of lower versus standard INR targets on thromboembolism, major bleeding, and mortality. METHODS: We searched Western databases including Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase as well as Chinese databases including SinoMed, CNKI, and Wanfang Data. We pooled risk ratios (RRs) using random-effects model. We grouped INR targets in two ways: (1) any study-specific lower versus standard targets and (2) INR ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. RESULTS: Seventy-nine RCTs (n = 12,928) met eligibility criteria: 74 (n = 11,322) from East Asia and 5 (n = 1,606) from Western countries. Compared with standard targets, lower INR ranges were associated with higher rates of thromboembolism (76 RCTs, n = 12,577: 7.1% vs. 4.4%, RR 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.74, I 2 = 0%), lower rates of major bleeding (61 RCTs, n = 10,815: 2.2% vs. 4.4%, RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.44-0.67, I 2 = 0%), and similar mortality (32 RCTs, n = 7,327: 4.8% vs. 5.2%, RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.85-1.19, I 2 = 0%). Results were similar when comparing target ranges of approximately 1.5 to 2 versus 2 to 3. CONCLUSION: Moderate quality evidence suggests lower INR targets reduce bleeding but increase thromboembolism in AF. The data are dominated by East-Asian studies, limiting generalizability to Western populations. Until higher quality data demonstrate otherwise, an INR range of 2 to 3 should remain standard for thromboembolic prophylaxis in AF.

3.
Blood ; 135(4): 239-251, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812994

RESUMO

The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, including anti-ß2-glycoprotein-I (anti-ß2GPI), that are considered central to APS pathogenesis. Based on animal studies showing a role of complement in APS-related clinical events, we used the modified Ham (mHam) assay (complement-dependent cell killing) and cell-surface deposition of C5b-9 to test the hypothesis that complement activation is associated with thrombotic events in APS. A positive mHam (and corresponding C5b-9 deposition) were present in 85.7% of catastrophic APS (CAPS), 35.6% of APS (and 68.5% of samples collected within 1 year of thrombosis), and only 6.8% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera. A positive mHam assay was associated with triple positivity (for lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin, and anti-ß2GPI antibodies) and recurrent thrombosis. Patient-derived anti-ß2GPI antibodies also induced C5b-9 deposition, which was blocked completely by an anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, but not by a factor D inhibitor, indicating that complement activation by anti-ß2GPI antibodies occurs primarily through the classical complement pathway. Finally, patients with CAPS have high rates of rare germline variants in complement regulatory genes (60%), compared with patients with APS (21.8%) or SLE (28.6%) or normal controls (23.3%), and have mutations at a rate similar to that of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (51.5%). Taken together, our data suggest that anti-ß2GPI antibodies activate complement and contribute to thrombosis in APS, whereas patients with CAPS have underlying mutations in complement regulatory genes that serve as a "second hit," leading to uncontrolled complement activation and a more severe thrombotic phenotype.

4.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(1): e18-e27, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of venous thromboembolism in children is based on data obtained in adults with little direct documentation of its efficacy and safety in children. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulants in children with venous thromboembolism. METHODS: In a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised study, children (aged 0-17 years) attending 107 paediatric hospitals in 28 countries with documented acute venous thromboembolism who had started heparinisation were assigned (2:1) to bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban (tablets or suspension) in a 20-mg equivalent dose or standard anticoagulants (heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). Randomisation was stratified by age and venous thromboembolism site. The main treatment period was 3 months (1 month in children <2 years of age with catheter-related venous thromboembolism). The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (assessed by intention-to-treat), and the principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (assessed in participants who received ≥1 dose), were centrally assessed by investigators who were unaware of treatment assignment. Repeat imaging was obtained at the end of the main treatment period and compared with baseline imaging tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02234843 and has been completed. FINDINGS: From Nov 14, 2014, to Sept 28, 2018, 500 (96%) of the 520 children screened for eligibility were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 91 days (IQR 87-95) in children who had a study treatment period of 3 months (n=463) and 31 days (IQR 29-35) in children who had a study treatment period of 1 month (n=37), symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in four (1%) of 335 children receiving rivaroxaban and five (3%) of 165 receiving standard anticoagulants (hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·11-1·41). Repeat imaging showed an improved effect of rivaroxaban on thrombotic burden as compared with standard anticoagulants (p=0·012). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in participants who received ≥1 dose occurred in ten (3%) of 329 children (all non-major) receiving rivaroxaban and in three (2%) of 162 children (two major and one non-major) receiving standard anticoagulants (HR 1·58, 95% CI 0·51-6·27). Absolute and relative efficacy and safety estimates of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation estimates were similar to those in rivaroxaban studies in adults. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: In children with acute venous thromboembolism, treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a similarly low recurrence risk and reduced thrombotic burden without increased bleeding, as compared with standard anticoagulants. FUNDING: Bayer AG and Janssen Research & Development.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
5.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(1): 132-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705521

RESUMO

The rapid determination of the presence of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in a patient remains a major challenge in emergency medicine and for rapid medical treatment decisions. All DOACs are excreted into urine. A sensitive and specific point-of-care test has been developed to determine whether they are present in patient urine samples. This prospective multicenter study aimed to demonstrate at least 95% correct positive and negative predictive results for factor Xa and thrombin inhibitors in urine samples using DOAC Dipstick pads compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (NCT03182829). Nine hundred and fourteen subjects were included and 880 were evaluated per protocol (factor Xa inhibitors apixaban, edoxaban, and rivaroxaban: n = 451, thrombin inhibitor dabigatran: n = 429) at 18 centers. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values and agreement between methods for determination of factor Xa inhibitors were at least noninferior to 95% with a 0.5% margin and of thrombin inhibitor superior to 97.5%. These results were compared with LC-MS/MS results in the intention-to-analyze cohort (all p < 0.05). The receiver operating curve showed c-values of 0.989 (factor Xa inhibitors) and 0.995 (thrombin inhibitor). Visual evaluation of the factor Xa and thrombin inhibitor pads was not different between centers. Qualitative determination of both types of DOACs was accurate using the DOAC Dipstick compared with using LC-MS/MS. The high predictive values may impact laboratory and clinical decision-making processes.

6.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019895704, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manual segmentations of intracranial hemorrhage on non-contrast CT images are the gold-standard in measuring hematoma growth but are prone to rater variability. AIMS: We demonstrate that a convex optimization-based interactive segmentation approach can accurately and reliably measure intracranial hemorrhage growth. METHODS: Baseline and 16-h follow-up head non-contrast CT images of 46 subjects presenting with intracranial hemorrhage were selected randomly from the ANNEXA-4 trial imaging database. Three users semi-automatically segmented intracranial hemorrhage to measure hematoma volume for each timepoint using our proposed method. Segmentation accuracy was quantitatively evaluated compared to manual segmentations by using Dice similarity coefficient, Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Dice similarity coefficient and intracranial hemorrhage volumes and volume change were assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient and minimum detectable change. RESULTS: Among the three users, the mean Dice similarity coefficient, Pearson correlation, and mean difference ranged from 76.79% to 79.76%, 0.970 to 0.980 (p < 0.001), and -1.5 to -0.4 ml, respectively, for all intracranial hemorrhage segmentations. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficients between the three users for Dice similarity coefficient and intracranial hemorrhage volume were 0.846 and 0.962, respectively, and the corresponding minimum detectable change was 2.51 ml. Inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient for intracranial hemorrhage volume change ranged from 0.915 to 0.958 for each user compared to manual measurements, resulting in an minimum detectable change range of 2.14 to 4.26 ml. CONCLUSIONS: We spatially and volumetrically validate a novel interactive segmentation method for delineating intracranial hemorrhage on head non-contrast CT images. Good spatial overlap, excellent volume correlation, and good repeatability suggest its usefulness for measuring intracranial hemorrhage volume and volume change on non-contrast CT images.

7.
Thromb Res ; 184: 16-23, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Populations with cancer have been documented to have a greater risk of developing venous thromboembolism. The frequency of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in cancer patients is unclear; while evidence examining this question has grown, it has yet to be systematically summarized. This study aims to systematically review the frequency of ATE in patients with cancer. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science from inception to 28 January, 2019 was conducted. Two independent reviewers screened for eligible studies. Studies comparing the frequency of ATE between populations with cancer and controls were included while studies examining the frequency of ATE in the context of cancer therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy) were excluded. Data corresponding to the follow-up times closest to diagnosis and 1-year follow-up were extracted. Results Twelve retrospective cohort studies involving 1,260,237 patients were included. Ten studies concluded increased ATE risk in populations with malignancies. At the time point closest to diagnosis, patients with bladder, breast, colorectal, gastric, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and pancreatic cancers were at an increased risk. This risk diminished around 1 year after diagnosis except in patients with lung or pancreatic cancers. High heterogeneity within and between studies precluded meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cancer appear to have an increased risk of developing ATE, with the highest risk immediately after diagnosis and in patients with lung and pancreatic cancers. Better information on the attribu01 risk will require prospective studies that record comprehensive patient characteristics and interventions.

9.
Blood ; 134(Supplement_1): 4, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724011

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Chaturvedi: Shire/Takeda: Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy; Alexion: Consultancy. Streiff:Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria; Bayer: Consultancy, Honoraria; Portola: Consultancy, Honoraria; Roche: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Daiichi-Sankyo: Consultancy, Honoraria. Petri:Astellas: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Exagen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Glenmark Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; EMD Serono: Consultancy; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy; IQVIA: Consultancy; Janssen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Aleon Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Momenta Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Blackrock Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Astrazeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding; UCB Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; GSK: Consultancy; Qiagen: Consultancy; Abbive: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; Decision Resources: Consultancy; Principia Biopharma: Consultancy; Eli Lilly: Consultancy; Kezaar Life Sciences: Consultancy. McCrae:Dova Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer Pharmaceutical: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Rigel Pharmaceutical: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Brodsky:Alexion: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Grant funding; Achillion: Research Funding.

10.
JAMA ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634905

RESUMO

Importance: Excessive bleeding is a common complication of cardiac surgery. An important cause of bleeding is acquired hypofibrinogenemia (fibrinogen level <1.5-2.0 g/L), for which guidelines recommend fibrinogen replacement with cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrate. The 2 products have important differences, but comparative clinical data are lacking. Objective: To determine if fibrinogen concentrate is noninferior to cryoprecipitate for treatment of bleeding related to hypofibrinogenemia after cardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized clinical trial at 11 Canadian hospitals enrolling adult patients experiencing clinically significant bleeding and hypofibrinogenemia after cardiac surgery (from February 10, 2017, to November 1, 2018). Final 28-day follow-up visit was completed on November 28, 2018. Interventions: Fibrinogen concentrate (4 g; n = 415) or cryoprecipitate (10 units; n = 412) for each ordered dose within 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was blood components (red blood cells, platelets, plasma) administered during 24 hours post bypass. A 2-sample, 1-sided test for the ratio of the mean number of units was conducted to evaluate noninferiority (threshold for noninferiority ratio, <1.2). Results: Of 827 randomized patients, 735 (372 fibrinogen concentrate, 363 cryoprecipitate) were treated and included in the primary analysis (median age, 64 [interquartile range, 53-72] years; 30% women; 72% underwent complex operations; 95% moderate to severe bleeding; and pretreatment fibrinogen level, 1.6 [interquartile range, 1.3-1.9] g/L). The trial met the a priori stopping criterion for noninferiority at the interim analysis after 827 of planned 1200 patients were randomized. Mean 24-hour postbypass allogeneic transfusions were 16.3 (95% CI, 14.9 to 17.8) units in the fibrinogen concentrate group and 17.0 (95% CI, 15.6 to 18.6) units in the cryoprecipitate group (ratio, 0.96 [1-sided 97.5% CI, -∞ to 1.09; P < .001 for noninferiority] [2-sided 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.09; P = .50 for superiority]). Thromboembolic events occurred in 26 patients (7.0%) in the fibrinogen concentrate group and 35 patients (9.6%) in the cryoprecipitate group. Conclusions and Relevance: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery who develop clinically significant bleeding and hypofibrinogenemia after cardiopulmonary bypass, fibrinogen concentrate is noninferior to cryoprecipitate with regard to number of blood components transfused in a 24-hour period post bypass. Use of fibrinogen concentrate may be considered for management of bleeding in patients with acquired hypofibrinogenemia in cardiac surgery. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03037424.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012877, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549567

RESUMO

Background Inherited thrombophilias are well-established predisposing factors for venous thromboembolism, but their role in arterial thrombosis, such as arterial ischemic stroke, remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the association between inherited thrombophilia (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, and antithrombin deficiency) and risk of arterial ischemic stroke in adults. Methods and Results We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library Databases from inception to December 31, 2018. We included case-control or cohort studies of adults reporting the prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in those with arterial ischemic stroke and subjects without arterial ischemic stroke. Two reviewers (T.C., E.D.) independently searched the literature and extracted data. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects model. We identified 68 eligible studies, which collectively enrolled 11 916 stroke patients and 96 057 controls. The number of studies reporting factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, and antithrombin deficiency were 56, 45, 15, 17, and 12, respectively. Compared with controls, patients with arterial ischemic stroke were significantly more likely to have the following inherited thrombophilias: factor V Leiden (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.44; I2=0%), prothrombin G20210A mutation (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.80; I2=0%), protein C deficiency (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.16-3.90; I2=0%), and protein S deficiency (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.34-3.80; I2=8.8%). Statistical significance was not reached for antithrombin deficiency (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.58-2.67; I2=8.8%). Conclusions Inherited thrombophilias (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutation, protein C deficiency, and protein S deficiency) are associated with an increased risk of arterial ischemic stroke in adults. The implications of these findings with respect to clinical management of patients with ischemic stroke require further investigation.

13.
A A Pract ; 13(8): 306-309, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313663

RESUMO

We report the clinical case of a septic patient with antiphospholipid syndrome who developed ischemia in all 4 limbs, despite a normal systemic blood pressure. Prolonged coagulation times suggested a hemorrhagic diathesis, requiring transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma and discontinuation of heparin infusion. In contrast, the study of the viscoelastic properties of the clot by thromboelastography suggested an uncontrolled activation of the coagulation cascade. This observation led to the reintroduction of heparin with improvement in the patient's laboratory findings. Anesthesiologists should consider thromboelastography to correct coagulopathies in patients with septic shock in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(11): 1956-1965, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of a hypercoagulable disorder such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) may protect against anticoagulant-associated bleeding. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of major bleeding in patients with suspected HIT. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 310 patients suspected of having HIT from the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and an affiliated community hospital. We compared the cumulative incidence of major bleeding following suspicion for HIT by ultimate HIT status (HIT+ or HIT-) and exposure to an alternative anticoagulant (Tx+ or Tx-). Secondary outcomes included the incidence of new/progressive thrombosis and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: The incidence of major bleeding was high in the HIT+Tx+, HIT- Tx+, and HIT-Tx- groups (35.7%, 44.0%, and 37.3%, respectively). The time to first major bleeding event did not differ between groups (P = .24). Factors associated with increased risk of major bleeding included intensive care unit admission (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.44-3.47), platelet count < 25 × 109 /L (HR 2.13, 1.10-4.12), and renal dysfunction (HR 1.56, 1.06-2.27); 35.7% of HIT+Tx+, 13.8% HIT-Tx+, and 9.3% of HIT-Tx- patients experienced new or progressive thrombosis. Mortality was similar among the three groups (26.2% HIT+Tx+, 34.5% HIT-Tx+, and 26.7% of HIT-Tx- [P = .34]). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with suspected HIT, major bleeding was common regardless of HIT status. Contrary to our hypothesis, HIT+ patients were not protected from major bleeding. A better understanding of bleeding risk is needed to inform management decisions in patients with suspected HIT.

15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(2): 418-421, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218995

RESUMO

We report two unusual cases of clinical strongyloidiasis that present as extensive thrombosis: a case of hyperinfection with concurrent eosinophilia and a case of disseminated infection as a complication of immunosuppression. We discuss risk factors for the development of Strongyloides stercoralis infection and thromboembolism, and the recommended management.

16.
JAMA ; 321(20): 1993-2002, 2019 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104069

RESUMO

Importance: Previous research suggested that soluble human recombinant thrombomodulin may reduce mortality among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy. Objective: To determine the effect of human recombinant thrombomodulin vs placebo on 28-day all-cause mortality among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SCARLET trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, multicenter phase 3 study conducted in intensive care units at 159 sites in 26 countries. All adult patients admitted to one of the participating intensive care units between October 2012 and March 2018 with sepsis-associated coagulopathy and concomitant cardiovascular and/or respiratory failure, defined as an international normalized ratio greater than 1.40 without other known etiology and a platelet count in the range of 30 to 150 × 109/L or a greater than 30% decrease in platelet count within 24 hours, were considered for inclusion. The final date of follow-up was February 28, 2019. Interventions: Patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy were randomized and treated with an intravenous bolus or a 15-minute infusion of thrombomodulin (0.06 mg/kg/d [maximum, 6 mg/d]; n = 395) or matching placebo (n = 405) once daily for 6 days. Main Outcome and Measures: The primary end point was 28-day all-cause mortality. Results: Among 816 randomized patients, 800 (mean age, 60.7 years; 437 [54.6%] men) completed the study and were included in the full analysis set. In these patients, the 28-day all-cause mortality rate was not statistically significantly different between the thrombomodulin group and the placebo group (106 of 395 patients [26.8%] vs 119 of 405 patients [29.4%], respectively; P = .32). The absolute risk difference was 2.55% (95% CI, -3.68% to 8.77%). The incidence of serious major bleeding adverse events (defined as any intracranial hemorrhage; life-threatening bleeding; or bleeding event classified as serious by the investigator, with administration of at least 1440 mL [typically 6 units] of packed red blood cells over 2 consecutive days) was 23 of 396 patients (5.8%) in the thrombomodulin group and 16 of 404 (4.0%) in the placebo group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with sepsis-associated coagulopathy, administration of a human recombinant thrombomodulin, compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce 28-day all-cause mortality. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01598831.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/complicações , Trombomodulina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intravenosas , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento
17.
Am J Hematol ; 94(6): 697-709, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916798

RESUMO

Two specific reversal agents for direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been approved in the United States: idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal and andexanet alfa for apixaban and rivaroxaban reversal. Non-specific prohemostatic agents such as prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and activated PCC have also been used for DOAC reversal. The goal of this document is to provide comprehensive guidance from the Anticoagulation Forum, a North American organization of anticoagulation providers, regarding use of DOAC reversal agents. We discuss indications for reversal, provide guidance on how the individual reversal agents should be administered, and offer suggestions for stewardship at the health system level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Haemophilia ; 25(3): 365-372, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Patient Reported Outcomes Burdens and Experience (PROBE) study has developed and validated the PROBE questionnaire for assessing patient-reported outcomes in people with haemophilia and participants without bleeding disorders. OBJECTIVE: To explore the regional variations in the international implementation of the PROBE questionnaire. METHODS: Data were collected from participants in four regions (Western Pacific, South America, North America and Europe). Participants were able to choose English or translated versions of the PROBE questionnaire into their first language. We used analysis of variance methods and multivariable regression to determine the relative contribution of the variance explained by region controlling for haemophilia diagnosis, age group and levels of educations. We also explored interactions between region and the other components. RESULTS: We used 862 questionnaires from 14 countries. Mean age of participants was 40.03 years (standard deviation 13.89), and 73.67% were male. After adjusting, region contributed 0.44%-7.98% of the variance component in subitem scores and 0.26% in the PROBE score. Years of education contributed 0.34% in the PROBE score. Age and haemophilia diagnosis contributed 3.42% and 22.42% of the PROBE score. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the PROBE questionnaire is valid to implement for assessing health status among patients with haemophilia and participants without bleeding disorders across regions.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Hemofilia A/epidemiologia , Internacionalidade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Hemofilia A/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
N Engl J Med ; 380(14): 1326-1335, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Andexanet alfa is a modified recombinant inactive form of human factor Xa developed for reversal of factor Xa inhibitors. METHODS: We evaluated 352 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients received a bolus of andexanet, followed by a 2-hour infusion. The coprimary outcomes were the percent change in anti-factor Xa activity after andexanet treatment and the percentage of patients with excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours after the end of the infusion, with hemostatic efficacy adjudicated on the basis of prespecified criteria. Efficacy was assessed in the subgroup of patients with confirmed major bleeding and baseline anti-factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.25 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin). RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 77 years, and most had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly intracranial (in 227 patients [64%]) or gastrointestinal (in 90 patients [26%]). In patients who had received apixaban, the median anti-factor Xa activity decreased from 149.7 ng per milliliter at baseline to 11.1 ng per milliliter after the andexanet bolus (92% reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 91 to 93); in patients who had received rivaroxaban, the median value decreased from 211.8 ng per milliliter to 14.2 ng per milliliter (92% reduction; 95% CI, 88 to 94). Excellent or good hemostasis occurred in 204 of 249 patients (82%) who could be evaluated. Within 30 days, death occurred in 49 patients (14%) and a thrombotic event in 34 (10%). Reduction in anti-factor Xa activity was not predictive of hemostatic efficacy overall but was modestly predictive in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute major bleeding associated with the use of a factor Xa inhibitor, treatment with andexanet markedly reduced anti-factor Xa activity, and 82% of patients had excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours, as adjudicated according to prespecified criteria. (Funded by Portola Pharmaceuticals; ANNEXA-4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02329327.).


Assuntos
Coagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/metabolismo , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Curva ROC
20.
Kardiol Pol ; 77(1): 3-11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338501

RESUMO

The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including dabigatran, which inhibits thrombin, as well as rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and betrixaban, which inhibit coagulation factor Xa, are as-sociated with similar or lower risk of bleeding compared with warfarin. The need for reversal of their anticoagulant effect may occur in patients with life-threatening bleeding or those requiring urgent surgery. Currently, the only specific reversal agent for dabigatran, idarucizumab, is widely available, while andexanet alfa, which reverses factor Xa inhibitors, was approved in the United States in May 2018. Ciraparantag, which has been designed to reverse all DOACs and other anticoagulants, is being investigated in clinical trials. In the absence of licensed reversal agents for the oral factor Xa inhibitors, prothrombin complex concentrates are suggested in patients with life-threatening bleeding. Vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma should not be used to reverse DOACs. This review presents the current evidence regarding bleeding risk on DOACs and the reversal strategies to provide guidance on the management of patients treated with DOACs, who experience serious bleeding.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/uso terapêutico , Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA