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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

2.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
3.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 33(3): 195-203, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In England, nearly one child in ten lives in overcrowded housing. Crowding is likely to worsen with increasing population size, urbanisation, and the ongoing concerns about housing shortages. Children with behavioural difficulties are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems and poorer employment prospects. OBJECTIVE: To test the association between the level of crowding in the home and behavioural problems in children, and to explore what factors might explain the relationship. METHODS: Mothers of 2576 children from the Southampton Women's Survey population-based mother-offspring cohort were interviewed. Crowding was measured at age 2 years by people per room (PPR) and behavioural problems assessed at age 3 years with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Both were analysed as continuous measures, and multivariable linear regression models were fitted, adjusting for confounding factors: gender, age, single-parent family, maternal education, receipt of benefits, and social class. Potential mediators were assessed with formal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The characteristics of the sample were broadly representative of the population in England. Median (IQR) SDQ score was 9 (6-12) and PPR was 0.75 (0.6-1). In households that were more crowded, children tended to have more behavioural problems (by 0.20 SDQ points (95% CI 0.08, 0.32) per additional 0.2 PPR, adjusting for confounding factors). This relationship was partially mediated by greater maternal stress, less sleep, and strained parent-child interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Living in a more crowded home was associated with a greater risk of behavioural problems, independent of confounding factors. The findings suggest that improved housing might reduce childhood behavioural problems and that families living in crowded circumstances might benefit from greater support.

4.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(1): 17-26, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many statistical methods are available to model longitudinal growth data and relate derived summary measures to later outcomes. AIM: To apply and compare commonly used methods to a realistic scenario including pre- and postnatal data, missing data, and confounders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 753 offspring in the Southampton Women's Survey with measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) at age 6 years. Ultrasound measures included crown-rump length (11 weeks' gestation) and femur length (19 and 34 weeks' gestation); postnatally, infant length (birth, 6 and 12 months) and height (2 and 3 years) were measured. A residual growth model, two-stage multilevel linear spline model, joint multilevel linear spline model, SITAR and a growth mixture model were used to relate growth to 6-year BMC. RESULTS: Results from the residual growth, two-stage and joint multilevel linear spline models were most comparable: an increase in length at all ages was positively associated with BMC, the strongest association being with later growth. Both SITAR and the growth mixture model demonstrated that length was positively associated with BMC. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities and differences in results from a variety of analytic strategies need to be understood in the context of each statistical methodology.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Densidade Óssea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
5.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669280

RESUMO

Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common during pregnancy. Our aim was to identify whether antenatal vitamin D3 supplementation affects iron status (via hepcidin suppression) and/or inflammation. Using a subset of the UK multicenter Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS)-a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713; EudraCT2007-001716-23)-we performed a secondary laboratory analysis. Women with blood samples from early and late pregnancy (vitamin D3 (1000 IU/day from ~14 weeks gestation n = 93; placebo n = 102) who gave birth in the springtime (March⁻May) were selected as we anticipated seeing the greatest treatment group difference in change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration. Outcomes were hepcidin, ferritin, C-reactive protein, and α1-acid glycoprotein concentration in late pregnancy (25OHD concentration was measured previously). By late pregnancy, 25OHD concentration increased by 17 nmol/L in the vitamin D3 group and decreased by 11 nmol/L in the placebo group; hepcidin, ferritin, and inflammatory markers decreased but no treatment group differences were seen. In late pregnancy, positive relationships between 25OHD and hepcidin and 25OHD and ferritin in the placebo group were observed but not in the treatment group (group × 25OHD interaction, p < 0.02). Vitamin D3 supplementation had no effect on hepcidin, ferritin, or inflammatory status suggesting no adjunctive value of vitamin D3 in reducing rates of antenatal iron deficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Ferritinas/sangue , Hepcidinas/sangue , Inflamação , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/complicações , Ferro/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(2): 433-444, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Choline status has been positively associated with weight and fat mass in animal and human studies. As evidence examining maternal circulating choline concentrations and offspring body composition in human infants/children is lacking, we investigated this in two cohorts. METHODS: Maternal choline concentrations were measured in the UK Southampton Women's Survey (SWS; serum, n = 985, 11 weeks' gestation) and Singapore Growing Up Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO); n = 955, 26-28 weeks' gestation) mother-offspring cohorts. Offspring anthropometry was measured at birth and up to age 5 years. Body fat mass was determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at birth and age 4 years for SWS; and using air-displacement plethysmography at birth and age 5 years for GUSTO. Linear-regression analyses were performed, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: In SWS, higher maternal choline concentrations were associated with higher neonatal total body fat mass {ß = 0.60 standard deviation [SD]/5 µmol/L maternal choline [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-1.16]} and higher subscapular skinfold thickness [ß = 0.55 mm/5 µmol/L (95% CI, 0.12-1.00)] at birth. In GUSTO, higher maternal choline concentrations were associated with higher neonatal body mass index-for-age z-score [ß = 0.31 SD/5 µmol/L (0.10-0.51)] and higher triceps [ß = 0.38 mm/5 µmol/L (95% CI, 0.11-0.65)] and subscapular skinfold thicknesses [ß = 0.26 mm/5 µmol/L (95% CI, 0.01-0.50)] at birth. No consistent trends were observed between maternal choline and offspring gain in body mass index, skinfold thicknesses, abdominal circumference, weight, length/height and adiposity measures in later infancy and early childhood. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that maternal circulating choline concentrations during pregnancy are positively associated with offspring BMI, skinfold thicknesses and adiposity at birth, but not with growth and adiposity through infancy and early childhood to the age of 5 years.

8.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

9.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321476

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated inverse associations between maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D status and perinatal DNA methylation at the retinoid-X-receptor-alpha (RXRA) locus and between RXRA methylation and offspring bone mass. We therefore used an existing randomised trial to test the hypothesis that maternal gestational vitamin D supplementation would lead to reduced perinatal RXRA locus DNA methylation. The Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study (MAVIDOS) was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 1000IU/day cholecalciferol or matched placebo from 14 weeks' gestation until delivery. Umbilical cord (fetal) tissue was collected at birth and frozen at -80° C (n = 453). Pyrosequencing was used to undertake DNA methylation analysis at 10 CpG sites within the RXRA locus (identified previously). T-tests were used to assess differences between treatment groups in methylation at the three most representative CpG sites. Overall, methylation levels were significantly lower in the umbilical cord from offspring of cholecalciferol-supplemented mothers, reaching statistical significance at four CpG sites, represented by CpG5: mean difference in % methylation between the supplemented and placebo groups was -1.98% (95%CI: -3.65 to -0.32, p = 0.02). ENCODE evidence supports functionality of this locus with strong DNase hypersensitivity and enhancer chromatin within biologically relevant cell types including osteoblasts. Enrichment of the enhancer-related H3K4me1 histone mark is also seen in this region, as are binding sites for a range of transcription factors with roles in cell proliferation, response to stress and growth factors. Our findings are consistent with previous observational results and provide new evidence that maternal gestational supplementation with cholecalciferol leads to altered perinatal epigenetic marking, informing mechanistic understanding of early life mechanisms related to maternal vitamin D status, epigenetic marks and bone development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(10): 2528-2537, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354210

RESUMO

Objective- Childhood body mass index (BMI) has been related to vascular structure and function. However, little is known about the differing contributions of fat and lean mass to this relationship. Our objectives were to relate the fat and lean mass (bone excluded) components of BMI (fat mass index and lean mass index; mass [kg]/height [m]2) to vascular measures in prepubertal children. Approach and Results- In the UK Southampton Women's Survey mother-offspring cohort, 983 children had dual x-ray absorptiometry and vascular measurements at 8 to 9 years. Using linear regression analyses, we found that most vascular measures were related to BMI, but fat and lean mass contributed differently. Systolic blood pressure was positively associated with both fat mass index (ß=0.91 [95% CI, 0.52-1.30] mm Hg) and lean mass index (ß=2.16 [95% CI, 1.47-2.85] mm Hg), whereas pulse rate was positively associated with fat mass index (ß=0.93 [95% CI, 0.48-1.38] b/min) but negatively associated with lean mass index (ß=-1.79 [95% CI, -2.59 to -0.99] b/min). The positive relation between BMI and carotid intima-media thickness was mainly due to a positive association with lean mass index (ß=0.013 [95% CI, 0.008-0.019] mm). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, but not carotid-radial pulse wave velocity, was positively associated with fat mass index (ß=0.06 [95% CI, 0.03-0.09] m/s). For systolic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperemia significant interactions indicated that the association with fat mass depended on the amount of lean mass. Conclusions- In prepubertal children, differences in vascular structure and function in relation to BMI probably represent combinations of adverse effects of fat mass, adaptive effects of body size, and relatively protective effects of lean mass.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

12.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 42(6): 1202-1210, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alkaline phosphatase is implicated in intestinal lipid transport and in the development of obesity. Placental alkaline phosphatase is localised to the microvillous plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role is unclear. We investigated the relations of placental alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA expression with maternal body composition and offspring fat mass in humans. METHODS: Term human placentas from the UK Birthright cohort (n = 52) and the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) (n = 95) were studied. In the Birthright cohort, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in placental microvillous plasma membrane vesicles. In the SWS, alkaline phosphatase mRNA was measured using Nanostring. Alkaline phosphatase gene expression was compared to other lipid-related genes. RESULTS: In Birthright samples placental microvillous plasma membrane alkaline phosphatase activity was positively associated with maternal triceps skinfold thickness and BMI (ß = 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01-0.06) and ß = 0.02 (0.00-0.03) µmol/mg protein/min per SD, P = 0.002 and P = 0.05, respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders. In SWS samples placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression in term placenta was positively associated with maternal triceps skinfold (ß = 0.24 (0.04, 0.44) SD/SD, P = 0.02), had no association with neonatal %fat mass (ß = 0.01 (-0.20 to 0.21) SD/SD, P = 0.93) and was negatively correlated with %fat mass at ages 4 (ß = -0.28 (-0.52 to -0.04) SD/SD, P = 0.02), 6-7 (ß = -0.25 (-0.49 to -0.02) SD/SD, P = 0.03) years. When compared with placental expression of other genes, alkaline phosphatase expression was positively related to genes including the lysophosphatidylcholine transporter MFSD2A (major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2A, P < 0.001) and negatively related to genes including the fatty acid transport proteins 2 and 3 (P = 0.001, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest relationships between placental alkaline phosphatase and both maternal and childhood adiposity. The inverse relationship between placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression and childhood %fat mass suggests that placental alkaline phosphatase may help to protect the foetus from the adverse effects of maternal obesity.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 119(12): 1400-1407, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734952

RESUMO

Arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA, supplied primarily from the mother, are required for early development of the central nervous system. Thus, variations in maternal ARA or DHA status may modify neurocognitive development. We investigated the relationship between maternal ARA and DHA status in early (11·7 weeks) or late (34·5 weeks) pregnancy on neurocognitive function at the age of 4 years or 6-7 years in 724 mother-child pairs from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort. Plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition was measured in early and late pregnancy. ARA concentration in early pregnancy predicted 13 % of the variation in ARA concentration in late pregnancy (ß=0·36, P<0·001). DHA concentration in early pregnancy predicted 21 % of the variation in DHA concentration in late pregnancy (ß=0·46, P<0·001). Children's cognitive function at the age of 4 years was assessed by the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and at the age of 6-7 years by the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Executive function at the age of 6-7 years was assessed using elements of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Neither DHA nor ARA concentrations in early or late pregnancy were associated significantly with neurocognitive function in children at the age of 4 years or the age of 6-7 years. These findings suggest that ARA and DHA status during pregnancy in the range found in this cohort are unlikely to have major influences on neurocognitive function in healthy children.

14.
J Nutr ; 148(6): 959-966, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767745

RESUMO

Background: Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. Objective: We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Methods: Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3.3 y (2.2-4.7 y)]. Childhood cognitive function was assessed at age 6-7 y. Full-scale IQ was assessed via the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and executive function through the use of tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Analyses (n = 654 mother-child dyads) were adjusted for potential confounders including maternal intelligence, education, and breastfeeding duration. Results: The median (IQR) urinary iodine concentration was 108.4 µg/L (62.2-167.8 µg/L) and the I/Cr ratio 114 µg/g (76-164 µg/g). The preconception I/Cr ratio was positively associated with child IQ, before and after adjustment for potential confounding influences [ß = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.21)/SD, P = 0.003]. 8.9% of women had a preconception urinary I/Cr ratio <50 µg/g; compared with those with an I/Cr ratio ≥150 µg/g, the IQ of their offspring was 0.49 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.18) SD lower. There were no associations with the executive function outcomes assessed via CANTAB, before or after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion: The positive association between iodine status before conception and child IQ provides some support for demonstrated links between low maternal iodine status in pregnancy and poorer cognitive function reported in other studies. However, given the negative effects on school performance previously observed in children born to iodine-deficient mothers, the lack of associations with measures of executive function in the present study was unexpected. Further data are needed to establish the public health importance of low preconception iodine status.

15.
Lancet ; 391(10132): 1830-1841, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673873

RESUMO

A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread. Poor nutrition and obesity are rife among women of reproductive age, and differences between high-income and low-income countries have become less distinct, with typical diets falling far short of nutritional recommendations in both settings and especially among adolescents. Several studies show that micronutrient supplementation starting in pregnancy can correct important maternal nutrient deficiencies, but effects on child health outcomes are disappointing. Other interventions to improve diet during pregnancy have had little effect on maternal and newborn health outcomes. Comparatively few interventions have been made for preconception diet and lifestyle. Improvements in the measurement of pregnancy planning have quantified the degree of pregnancy planning and suggest that it is more common than previously recognised. Planning for pregnancy is associated with a mixed pattern of health behaviours before conception. We propose novel definitions of the preconception period relating to embryo development and actions at individual or population level. A sharper focus on intervention before conception is needed to improve maternal and child health and reduce the growing burden of non-communicable diseases. Alongside continued efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity in the population, we call for heightened awareness of preconception health, particularly regarding diet and nutrition. Importantly, health professionals should be alerted to ways of identifying women who are planning a pregnancy.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Gravidez
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 20(18): 3316-3325, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between dietary quality and access to different types of food outlets around both home and school in primary school-aged children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Hampshire, UK. SUBJECTS: Children (n 1173) in the Southampton Women's Survey underwent dietary assessment at age 6 years by FFQ and a standardised diet quality score was calculated. An activity space around each child's home and school was created using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid to derive four food environment measures: counts of supermarkets, healthy specialty stores (e.g. greengrocers), fast-food outlets and total number of outlets, and a relative measure representing healthy outlets (supermarkets and specialty stores) as a proportion of total retail and fast-food outlets. RESULTS: In univariate multilevel linear regression analyses, better diet score was associated with exposure to greater number of healthy specialty stores (ß=0·025 sd/store: 95 % CI 0·007, 0·044) and greater exposure to healthy outlets relative to all outlets in children's activity spaces (ß=0·068 sd/10 % increase in healthy outlets as a proportion of total outlets, 95 % CI 0·018, 0·117). After adjustment for mothers' educational qualification and level of home neighbourhood deprivation, the relationship between diet and healthy specialty stores remained robust (P=0·002) while the relationship with the relative measure weakened (P=0·095). Greater exposure to supermarkets and fast-food outlets was associated with better diet only in the adjusted models (P=0·017 and P=0·014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results strengthen the argument for local authorities to increase the number of healthy food outlets to which young children are exposed.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Fast Foods , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(10): 1291-1299, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28816002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is increasingly prevalent in many westernized countries. Many studies report associations between maternal obesity and childhood wheeze or asthma but few have considered maternal obesity in relation to respiratory infections or symptoms other than wheeze during infancy. This study assesses the relationship between maternal BMI and reported wheeze, cough and respiratory infections during the first year of life. METHODS: In 2799 mother-child pairs, we examined the relations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain and reported offspring wheeze, prolonged cough, lower respiratory tract infection, croup, and ear infection before age 1 year, along with reported diarrhea or vomiting. Maternally reported paternal BMI was included in the models as a proxy for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors. RESULTS: Higher maternal BMI was associated with increased risks of offspring wheeze, prolonged cough and lower respiratory tract infection (relative risks (95%CI) per 5 kg/m2 1.09 (1.05-1.13), 1.09 (1.03-1.14), and 1.13 (1.07-1.20), respectively). These associations remained after adjusting for maternally reported paternal BMI. No associations were found with croup, ear infection, or diarrhea or vomiting. Pregnancy weight gain was not associated with any of the offspring symptoms or illnesses. DISCUSSION: Higher maternal BMI is associated with increased risk of wheeze, cough, and maternally reported lower respiratory tract infection in infancy. These associations were independent of maternally reported paternal BMI. These observations might be explained by intrauterine effects of maternal obesity upon respiratory or immune development.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sons Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Tosse/epidemiologia , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecção/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mães , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(8): 2941-2949, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575224

RESUMO

Context: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to vitamin D metabolism have been associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, but these relationships have not been examined following antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation. Objective: To determine whether SNPs in DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1, and GC are associated with the response to gestational cholecalciferol supplementation. Design: Within-randomization group analysis of the Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study trial of antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation. Setting: Hospital antenatal clinics. Participants: In total, 682 women of white ethnicity (351 placebo, 331 cholecalciferol) were included. SNPs at rs12785878 (DHCR7), rs10741657 (CYP2R1), rs6013897 (CYP24A1), and rs2282679 (GC) were genotyped. Interventions: 1000 IU/d cholecalciferol from 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Main Outcome Measure: 25(OH)D at randomization and 34 weeks of gestation were measured in a single batch (Liaison; Diasorin, Dartford, UK). Associations between 25(OH)D and the SNPs were assessed by linear regression using an additive model [ß represents the change in 25(OH)D per additional common allele]. Results: Only rs12785878 (DHCR7) was associated with baseline 25(OH)D [ß = 3.1 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 5.2 nmol/L; P < 0.004]. In contrast, rs10741657 (CYP2R1) (ß = -5.2 nmol/L; 95% CI, -8.2 to -2.2 nmol/L; P = 0.001) and rs2282679 (GC) (ß = 4.2 nmol/L; 95% CI, 0.9 to 7.5 nmol/L; P = 0.01) were associated with achieved 25(OH)D status following supplementation, whereas rs12785878 and rs6013897 (CYP24A1) were not. Conclusions: Genetic variation in DHCR7, which encodes 7-dehyrocholesterol reductase in the epidermal vitamin D biosynthesis pathway, appears to modify baseline 25(OH)D. In contrast, the response to antenatal cholecalciferol supplementation was associated with SNPs in CYP2R1, which may alter 25-hydroxylase activity, and GC, which may affect vitamin D binding protein synthesis or metabolite affinity.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alelos , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170946, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28231292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is linked to reduced birth weight but the gestation at onset of this relationship is not certain. We present a systematic review of the literature describing associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and ultrasound measurements of fetal size, together with an accompanying meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies were selected from electronic databases (OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar) that examined associations between maternal smoking or smoke exposure and antenatal fetal ultrasound measurements. Outcome measures were first, second or third trimester fetal measurements. RESULTS: There were 284 abstracts identified, 16 papers were included in the review and the meta-analysis included data from eight populations. Maternal smoking was associated with reduced second trimester head size (mean reduction 0.09 standard deviation (SD) [95% CI 0.01, 0.16]) and femur length (0.06 [0.01, 0.10]) and reduced third trimester head size (0.18 SD [0.13, 0.23]), femur length (0.27 SD [0.21, 0.32]) and estimated fetal weight (0.18 SD [0.11, 0.24]). Higher maternal cigarette consumption was associated with a lower z score for head size in the second (mean difference 0.09 SD [0, 0.19]) and third (0.15 SD [0.03, 0.26]) trimesters compared to lower consumption. Fetal measurements were not reduced for those whose mothers quit before or after becoming pregnant compared to mothers who had never smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced fetal measurements after the first trimester, particularly reduced head size and femur length. These effects may be attenuated if mothers quit or reduce cigarette consumption during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Cabeça/embriologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
20.
Matern Child Nutr ; 13(4)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896913

RESUMO

Experiences of nausea and/or vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) vary greatly, but the paucity of studies with pre-pregnancy dietary data mean that little is known about the effects of NVP on diet. Using an administered food frequency questionnaire, diet was assessed before pregnancy and at 11 and 34 weeks' gestation in 2270 participants in a UK birth cohort study (Southampton Women's Survey). Experience of NVP in early pregnancy was graded as none, mild, moderate, or severe. Participants reported their level of food consumption as more, the same, or less than before pregnancy. "Prudent" diet scores (derived using principal component analysis) were used to describe participants' diet quality before, in early and late pregnancy. In early pregnancy, 89% of women were nauseous, although most commonly, the NVP experienced was mild (48%) or moderate (30%); 11% had severe NVP. A total of 39% of women reported an increase in their level of food intake in early pregnancy; 34% reported a reduction. Increasing severity of nausea was associated with changes in intake of a range of foods, most notably reduced consumption of vegetables, tea/coffee, rice/pasta, breakfast cereals, beans/pulses and citrus fruits/fruit juices and increased consumption of white bread, and soft drinks. Increasing severity of nausea was also associated with decreasing prudent diet score from before to early pregnancy, such that women with severe nausea had prudent diet scores 0.29 SDs lower than those with no nausea (P < 0.001). However, this was transient as NVP was not related to change in diet quality from before to late pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Náusea/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vômito/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Componente Principal
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