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1.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ordering of changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional data, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes, molecular imaging of cerebral fibrillar ß-amyloid with positron emission tomography (PET) using the [11C] benzothiazole tracer, Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based brain structures, and clinical/cognitive outcomes harmonized from 8 studies, collectively involving 3,284 cognitively normal individuals of 18-101 years, were analyzed. The age at which each marker exhibited an accelerated change (called the change-point) was estimated, and compared across the markers. RESULTS: Accelerated changes in CSF Aß1-42 (Aß42) occurred at 48.28 years of age and Aß42/Aß40 ratio at 46.02 years, followed by PiB mean cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) with a change-point at 54.47 years. CSF total tau (Tau) and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (Ptau) had a change-point at about 60 years, similar to those for MRI hippocampal volume and cortical thickness. The change-point for a cognitive composite occurred at 62.41 years. The change-points for CSF Aß42 and Aß42/Aß40 ratio, albeit not significantly different from that for PiB SUVR, occurred significantly earlier than that for CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers and the cognitive composite. Adjusted analyses confirmed that accelerated changes in CSF Tau, Ptau, MRI markers, and the cognitive composite occurred at ages not significantly different from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesized early changes of amyloid in preclinical AD, and suggest that changes in neuronal injury and neurodegeneration markers occur close in time to cognitive decline.

2.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterise C9orf72 expansions in relation to genetic ancestry and age at onset (AAO), and to use these parameters to discriminate the behavioural from the language variant syndrome, in a large pan-European cohort of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases. METHODS: We evaluated expansions frequency in the entire cohort (n=1396; bvFTD [n=800], PPA [n=495] and FTLD-MND [n=101]). We then focused on the bvFTD and PPA cases and tested for association between expansion status, syndromes, genetic ancestry, and AAO applying statistical tests comprising Fisher's Exact, ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc tests, and logistic and non-linear mixed-effects model regressions. RESULTS: We found C9orf72 pathogenic expansions in 4% of all cases (56/1396). Expansion carriers differently distributed across syndromes: 12/101 FTLD-MNDs (11.9%), 40/800 bvFTDs (5%) and 4/495 of PPAs (0.8%). While addressing population-substructure through principal component analysis (PCA), we defined 2 patients groups with Central/Northern (n=873) and Southern European (n=523) ancestry. The proportion of expansion carriers was significantly higher in bvFTDs compared to PPAs (5% vs. 0.8% [p=2.17x10-5; OR=6.4; CI:2.31-24.99]), as well as in individuals with Central/Northern European compared to Southern European ancestry (4.4% vs. 1.8% [p=1.1x10-2; OR=2.5; CI:1.17-5.99]). Pathogenic expansions and Central/Northern European ancestry independently and inversely correlated with AAO. Our prediction model (based on expansions status, genetic ancestry and AAO) predicted a diagnosis of bvFTD with 64% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate correlation between pathogenic C9orf72 expansions, AAO, PCA-based Central/Northern European ancestry and a diagnosis of bvFTD, implying to complex genetic risk-architectures differently underpinning the behavioural and language variant syndromes.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(4): 1469-1482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare variants in PLCG2 (p.P522R), ABI3 (p.S209F), and TREM2 (p.R47H, p.R62H) have been associated with late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk in Caucasians. After the initial report, several studies have found positive results in cohorts of different ethnic background and with different phenotype. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to evaluate the association of rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 with LOAD risk and their effect at different time points of the disease. METHODS: We used a European American cohort to assess the association of the variants prior onset (using CSF Aß42, tau, and pTau levels, and amyloid imaging as endophenotypes) and after onset (measured as rate of memory decline). RESULTS: We confirm the association with LOAD risk of TREM2 p.R47H, p.R62H and ABI3 p.S209F variants, and the protective effect of PLCG2 p.P522R. In addition, ABI3 and TREM2 gene-sets showed significant association with LOAD risk. TREM2 p.R47H and PLCG2 p.P522R variants were also statistically associated with increase of amyloid imaging and AD progression, respectively. We did not observe any association of ABI3 p.S209F with any of the other AD endophenotypes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the importance of including biomarkers and alternative phenotypes to better understand the role of novel candidate genes with the disease.

4.
Brain ; 143(8): 2561-2575, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844198

RESUMO

Approximately 30% of older adults exhibit the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease without signs of cognitive impairment. Yet, little is known about the genetic factors that allow these potentially resilient individuals to remain cognitively unimpaired in the face of substantial neuropathology. We performed a large, genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two previously validated metrics of cognitive resilience quantified using a latent variable modelling approach and representing better-than-predicted cognitive performance for a given level of neuropathology. Data were harmonized across 5108 participants from a clinical trial of Alzheimer's disease and three longitudinal cohort studies of cognitive ageing. All analyses were run across all participants and repeated restricting the sample to individuals with unimpaired cognition to identify variants at the earliest stages of disease. As expected, all resilience metrics were genetically correlated with cognitive performance and education attainment traits (P-values < 2.5 × 10-20), and we observed novel correlations with neuropsychiatric conditions (P-values < 7.9 × 10-4). Notably, neither resilience metric was genetically correlated with clinical Alzheimer's disease (P-values > 0.42) nor associated with APOE (P-values > 0.13). In single variant analyses, we observed a genome-wide significant locus among participants with unimpaired cognition on chromosome 18 upstream of ATP8B1 (index single nucleotide polymorphism rs2571244, minor allele frequency = 0.08, P = 2.3 × 10-8). The top variant at this locus (rs2571244) was significantly associated with methylation in prefrontal cortex tissue at multiple CpG sites, including one just upstream of ATPB81 (cg19596477; P = 2 × 10-13). Overall, this comprehensive genetic analysis of resilience implicates a putative role of vascular risk, metabolism, and mental health in protection from the cognitive consequences of neuropathology, while also providing evidence for a novel resilience gene along the bile acid metabolism pathway. Furthermore, the genetic architecture of resilience appears to be distinct from that of clinical Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that a shift in focus to molecular contributors to resilience may identify novel pathways for therapeutic targets.

5.
Acta Neuropathol ; 140(4): 513-534, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772264

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) triggered by autoimmune mechanisms. Microglia are critical for the clearance of myelin debris in areas of demyelination, a key step to allow remyelination. TREM2 is expressed by microglia and promotes microglial survival, proliferation, and phagocytic activity. Herein we demonstrate that TREM2 was highly expressed on myelin-laden phagocytes in active demyelinating lesions in the CNS of subjects with MS. In gene expression studies, macrophages from subjects with TREM2 genetic deficiency displayed a defect in phagocytic pathways. Treatment with a new TREM2 agonistic antibody promoted the clearance of myelin debris in the cuprizone model of CNS demyelination. Effects included enhancement of myelin uptake and degradation, resulting in accelerated myelin debris removal by microglia. Most importantly, antibody-dependent TREM2 activation on microglia increased density of oligodendrocyte precursors in areas of demyelination, as well as the formation of mature oligodendrocytes thus enhancing remyelination and axonal integrity. These results are relevant as they propose TREM2 on microglia as a potential new target to promote remyelination.

6.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(9): e12308, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790063

RESUMO

Microglia activation is the brain's major immune response to amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of soluble TREM2 (sTREM2), a biomarker of microglia activation, and microglia PET are increased in AD; however, whether an increase in these biomarkers is associated with reduced amyloid-beta (Aß) accumulation remains unclear. To address this question, we pursued a two-pronged translational approach. Firstly, in non-demented and demented individuals, we tested CSF sTREM2 at baseline to predict (i) amyloid PET changes over ∼2 years and (ii) tau PET cross-sectionally assessed in a subset of patients. We found higher CSF sTREM2 associated with attenuated amyloid PET increase and lower tau PET. Secondly, in the AppNL-G-F mouse model of amyloidosis, we studied baseline 18 F-GE180 microglia PET and longitudinal amyloid PET to test the microglia vs. Aß association, without any confounding co-pathologies often present in AD patients. Higher microglia PET at age 5 months was associated with a slower amyloid PET increase between ages 5-to-10 months. In conclusion, higher microglia activation as determined by CSF sTREM2 or microglia PET shows protective effects on subsequent amyloid accumulation.

7.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2454-2463, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Blacks endure a nearly 2-fold greater risk of stroke and are 2× to 3× more likely to die from stroke than European Americans. METHODS: The COMPASS (Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke) has conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of stroke in >22 000 individuals of African ancestry (3734 cases, 18 317 controls) from 13 cohorts. RESULTS: In meta-analyses, we identified one single nucleotide polymorphism (rs55931441) near the HNF1A gene that reached genome-wide significance (P=4.62×10-8) and an additional 29 variants with suggestive evidence of association (P<1×10-6), representing 24 unique loci. For validation, a look-up analysis for a 100 kb region flanking the COMPASS single nucleotide polymorphism was performed in SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network) Europeans, SiGN Hispanics, and METASTROKE (Europeans). Using a stringent Bonferroni correction P value of 2.08×10-3 (0.05/24 unique loci), we were able to validate associations at the HNF1A locus in both SiGN (P=8.18×10-4) and METASTROKE (P=1.72×10-3) European populations. Overall, 16 of 24 loci showed evidence for validation across multiple populations. Previous studies have reported associations between variants in the HNF1A gene and lipids, C-reactive protein, and risk of coronary artery disease and stroke. Suggestive associations with variants in the SFXN4 and TMEM108 genes represent potential novel ischemic stroke loci. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the most thorough investigation of genetic determinants of stroke in individuals of African descent, to date.

8.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 34(3): 212-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Associations of physical exercise with Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers and cognitive functioning have been observed cross-sectionally. However, the effects of exercise on longitudinal change in AD biomarkers have not been thoroughly investigated. The current study examined whether individuals with higher baseline exercise exhibited less longitudinal change in AD biomarkers and cognitive functioning, and whether APOE and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotypes moderated the effects of exercise on longitudinal changes. METHODS: Clinically normal individuals completed a questionnaire on physical exercise over the prior 10-year period at baseline. Ninety-five individuals had serial cerebrospinal fluid samples collected to examine Aß42, ptau181 and total tau; 181 individuals underwent multiple assessments of amyloid positron emission tomography imaging with Pittsburgh Compound-B; 327 individuals underwent multiple cognitive assessments, including measures of episodic memory, executive functions, verbal fluency, and processing speed. RESULTS: Greater exercise was associated with less steep decline in processing speed. Baseline exercise did not robustly impact longitudinal change for any other outcomes. Neither APOE nor BDNF genotype robustly moderated the effect of exercise on trajectories of AD biomarkers or cognitive decline. INTERPRETATION: Results suggest that self-reported physical exercise may be limited as a moderator of changes in AD biomarkers.

9.
Neurobiol Dis ; 142: 104960, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522711

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a protein that is selectively expressed in neurons. Increased levels of NfL measured in either cerebrospinal fluid or blood is thought to be a biomarker of neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, there have been limited investigations relating NfL to the concurrent measures of white matter (WM) decline that it should reflect. White matter damage is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that serum levels of NfL would associate with WM lesion volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics cross-sectionally in 117 autosomal dominant mutation carriers (MC) compared to 84 non-carrier (NC) familial controls as well as in a subset (N = 41) of MC with longitudinal NfL and MRI data. In MC, elevated cross-sectional NfL was positively associated with WM hyperintensity lesion volume, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity and negatively with fractional anisotropy. Greater change in NfL levels in MC was associated with larger changes in fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity, all indicative of reduced WM integrity. There were no relationships with NfL in NC. Our results demonstrate that blood-based NfL levels reflect WM integrity and supports the view that blood levels of NfL are predictive of WM damage in the brain. This is a critical result in improving the interpretability of NfL as a marker of brain integrity, and for validating this emerging biomarker for future use in clinical and research settings across multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(8): 1134-1145, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Variability exists in the disease trajectories of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We performed a genome-wide association study to examine rate of cognitive decline (ROD) in patients with AD. METHODS: We tested for interactions between genetic variants and time since diagnosis to predict the ROD of a composite cognitive score in 3946 AD cases and performed pathway analysis on the top genes. RESULTS: Suggestive associations (P < 1.0 × 10-6 ) were observed on chromosome 15 in DNA polymerase-γ (rs3176205, P = 1.11 × 10-7 ), chromosome 7 (rs60465337,P = 4.06 × 10-7 ) in contactin-associated protein-2, in RP11-384F7.1 on chromosome 3 (rs28853947, P = 5.93 × 10-7 ), family with sequence similarity 214 member-A on chromosome 15 (rs2899492, P = 5.94 × 10-7 ), and intergenic regions on chromosomes 16 (rs4949142, P = 4.02 × 10-7 ) and 4 (rs1304013, P = 7.73 × 10-7 ). Significant pathways involving neuronal development and function, apoptosis, memory, and inflammation were identified. DISCUSSION: Pathways related to AD, intelligence, and neurological function determine AD progression, while previously identified AD risk variants, including the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 and ε2 variants, do not have a major impact.

11.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(5): 963, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172342

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Supplementary Tables 3 and 4 are not available with the rest of the supplementary material available online.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(529)2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024799

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype is associated with increased risk of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanism is not clear, because patients often have a mixture of α-synuclein (αSyn), amyloid-ß (Aß), and tau pathologies. APOE ε4 exacerbates brain Aß pathology, as well as tau pathology, but it is not clear whether APOE genotype independently regulates αSyn pathology. In this study, we generated A53T αSyn transgenic mice (A53T) on Apoe knockout (A53T/EKO) or human APOE knockin backgrounds (A53T/E2, E3, and E4). At 12 months of age, A53T/E4 mice accumulated higher amounts of brainstem detergent-insoluble phosphorylated αSyn compared to A53T/EKO and A53T/E3; detergent-insoluble αSyn in A53T/E2 mice was undetectable. By immunohistochemistry, A53T/E4 mice displayed a higher burden of phosphorylated αSyn and reactive gliosis compared to A53T/E2 mice. A53T/E2 mice exhibited increased survival and improved motor performance compared to other APOE genotypes. In a complementary model of αSyn spreading, striatal injection of αSyn preformed fibrils induced greater accumulation of αSyn pathology in the substantia nigra of A53T/E4 mice compared to A53T/E2 and A53T/EKO mice. In two separate cohorts of human patients with PD, APOE ε4/ε4 individuals showed the fastest rate of cognitive decline over time. Our results demonstrate that APOE genotype directly regulates αSyn pathology independent of its established effects on Aß and tau, corroborate the finding that APOE ε4 exacerbates pathology, and suggest that APOE ε2 may protect against αSyn aggregation and neurodegeneration in synucleinopathies.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 219-228, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although some members of families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutations learn their mutation status, most do not. How knowledge of mutation status affects clinical disease progression is unknown. This study quantifies the influence of mutation awareness on clinical symptoms, cognition, and biomarkers. METHODS: Mutation carriers and non-carriers from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) were stratified based on knowledge of mutation status. Rates of change on standard clinical, cognitive, and neuroimaging outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Mutation knowledge had no associations with cognitive decline, clinical progression, amyloid deposition, hippocampal volume, or depression in either carriers or non-carriers. Carriers who learned their status mid-study had slightly higher levels of depression and lower cognitive scores. DISCUSSION: Knowledge of mutation status does not affect rates of change on any measured outcome. Learning of status mid-study may confer short-term changes in cognitive functioning, or changes in cognition may influence the determination of mutation status.

14.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(4): 1585-1595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958084

RESUMO

CCL23 is a chemokine implicated in inflammation and host defense responses. It has been recently associated with acquired brain damage and stroke outcomes. In this study, we reported the role of CCL23 in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the levels of CCL23 in 659 individuals: cognitively normal, mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD patients. Two cross-sectional (study 1, n = 53; study 2, n = 200) and two longitudinal (study 3, n = 74; study 4, n = 332) studies were analyzed separately. CCL23 levels in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of each study were measured by immunoassays. Globally, our results suggest a predictive role of CCL23 protein levels both in the plasma in study 3 (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5 (confidence interval (CI) 95% : 1.2-5.3), p = 0.02) and in the CSF in study 4 (HR = 3.05 (CI 95% : 1.02-5), p = 0.04) in cases of MCI that progress to AD. Moreover, we observed that the APOEɛ4 allele was associated with higher levels of CCL23 in study 2 (470.33 pg/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 303.33-597.76) versus 377.94 pg/mL (IQR: 267.16-529.19), p = 0.01) (APOE genotypes were available in studies 2 and 4). Together, these findings support the role of CCL23 in neuroinflammation in the early stages of AD, suggesting that CCL23 might be a candidate blood biomarker for MCI to AD progression.

15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(1): 45-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456032

RESUMO

Apart from amyloid ß deposition and tau neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss and astrocytosis in the cerebral cortex. The goal of this study is to investigate genetic factors associated with the neuronal proportion in health and disease. To identify cell-autonomous genetic variants associated with neuronal proportion in cortical tissues, we inferred cellular population structure from bulk RNA-Seq derived from 1536 individuals. We identified the variant rs1990621 located in the TMEM106B gene region as significantly associated with neuronal proportion (p value = 6.40 × 10-07) and replicated this finding in an independent dataset (p value = 7.41 × 10-04) surpassing the genome-wide threshold in the meta-analysis (p value = 9.42 × 10-09). This variant is in high LD with the TMEM106B non-synonymous variant p.T185S (rs3173615; r2 = 0.98) which was previously identified as a protective variant for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We stratified the samples by disease status, and discovered that this variant modulates neuronal proportion not only in AD cases, but also several neurodegenerative diseases and in elderly cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, we did not find a significant association in younger controls or schizophrenia patients, suggesting that this variant might increase neuronal survival or confer resilience to the neurodegenerative process. The single variant and gene-based analyses also identified an overall genetic association between neuronal proportion, AD and FTLD risk. These results suggest that common pathways are implicated in these neurodegenerative diseases, that implicate neuronal survival. In summary, we identified a protective variant in the TMEM106B gene that may have a neuronal protection effect against general aging, independent of disease status, which could help elucidate the relationship between aging and neuronal survival in the presence or absence of neurodegenerative disorders. Our findings suggest that TMEM106B could be a potential target for neuronal protection therapies to ameliorate cognitive and functional deficits.

16.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 347-364, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845298

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding an association between Parkinson disease (PD) and cutaneous melanoma (melanoma). Identifying shared genetic architecture between these diseases can support epidemiologic findings and identify common risk genes and biological pathways. Here, we apply polygenic, linkage disequilibrium-informed methods to the largest available case-control, genome-wide association study summary statistic data for melanoma and PD. We identify positive and significant genetic correlation (correlation: 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.24; P = 4.09 × 10-06) between melanoma and PD. We further demonstrate melanoma and PD-inferred gene expression to overlap across tissues (correlation: 0.14, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.22; P = 7.87 × 10-04) and highlight seven genes including PIEZO1, TRAPPC2L, and SOX6 as potential mediators of the genetic correlation between melanoma and PD. These findings demonstrate specific, shared genetic architecture between PD and melanoma that manifests at the level of gene expression.

17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1913491, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617930

RESUMO

Importance: Acquired and heritable traits are associated with dementia risk; however, how these traits are associated with age at symptomatic onset (AAO) of Alzheimer disease (AD) is unknown. Identifying the associations of acquired and heritable factors with variability in intergenerational AAO of AD could facilitate diagnosis, assessment, and counseling of the offspring of parents with AD. Objective: To quantify the associations of acquired and heritable factors with intergenerational differences in AAO of AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested cohort study used data from the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center that included community-dwelling participants with symptomatic AD, parental history of dementia, and available DNA data who were enrolled in prospective studies of memory and aging from September 1, 2005, to August 31, 2016. Clinical, biomarker, and genetic data were extracted on January 17, 2017, and data analyses were conducted from July 1, 2017, to August 20, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of acquired (ie, years of education; body mass index; history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, active depression within 2 years, traumatic brain injury, tobacco use, and unhealthy alcohol use; and retrospective determination of AAO) and heritable factors (ie, ethnicity/race, paternal or maternal inheritance, parental history of early-onset dementia, APOE ε4 allele status, and AD polygenic risk scores) to intergenerational difference in AAO of AD were quantified using stepwise forward multivariable regression. Missense or frameshift variants within genes associated with AD pathogenesis were screened using whole-exome sequencing. Results: There were 164 participants with symptomatic AD, known parental history of dementia, and available DNA data (mean [SD] age, 70.9 [8.3] years; 90 [54.9%] women) included in this study. Offspring were diagnosed with symptomatic AD a mean (SD) 6.1 (10.7) years earlier than their parents (P < .001). The adjusted R2 for measured acquired and heritable factors for intergenerational difference in AAO of AD was 0.29 (F8,155 = 9.13; P < .001). Paternal (ß = -9.52 [95% CI, -13.79 to -5.25]) and maternal (ß = -6.68 [95% CI, -11.61 to -1.75]) history of dementia, more years of education (ß = -0.58 [95% CI -1.08 to -0.09]), and retrospective determination of AAO (ß = -3.46 [95% CI, -6.40 to -0.52]) were associated with earlier-than-expected intergenerational difference in AAO of AD. Parental history of early-onset dementia (ß = 21.30 [95% CI, 15.01 to 27.59]), presence of 1 APOE ε4 allele (ß = 5.00 [95% CI, 2.11 to 7.88]), and history of hypertension (ß = 3.81 [95% CI, 0.88 to 6.74]) were associated with later-than-expected intergenerational difference in AAO of AD. Missense or frameshift variants within genes associated with AD pathogenesis were more common in participants with the greatest unexplained variability in intergenerational AAO of AD (19 of 48 participants [39.6%] vs 26 of 116 participants [22.4%]; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: Acquired and heritable factors were associated with a substantial proportion of variability in intergenerational AAO of AD. Variants in genes associated with AD pathogenesis may contribute to unexplained variability, justifying further study.

19.
J Stroke ; 21(3): 276-289, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590472

RESUMO

Stroke is a complex disease and one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among the adult population. A huge variety of factors is known to influence patient outcome, including demographic variables, comorbidities or genetics. In this review, we expound what is known about the influence of clinical variables and related genetic risk factors on ischemic stroke outcome, focusing on acute and subacute outcome (within 24 to 48 hours after stroke and until day 10, respectively), as they are the first indicators of stroke damage. We searched the PubMed data base for articles that investigated the interaction between clinical variables or genetic factors and acute or subacute stroke outcome. A total of 61 studies were finally included in this review. Regarding the data collected, the variables consistently associated with acute stroke outcome are: glucose levels, blood pressure, presence of atrial fibrillation, prior statin treatment, stroke severity, type of acute treatment performed, severe neurological complications, leukocyte levels, and genetic risk factors. Further research and international efforts are required in this field, which should include genome-wide association studies.

20.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1903-1912, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591557

RESUMO

Parietal cortex RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data were generated from individuals with and without Alzheimer disease (AD; ncontrol = 13; nAD = 83) from the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (Knight ADRC). Using this and an independent (Mount Sinai Brain Bank (MSBB)) AD RNA-seq dataset, cortical circular RNA (circRNA) expression was quantified in the context of AD. Significant associations were identified between circRNA expression and AD diagnosis, clinical dementia severity and neuropathological severity. It was demonstrated that most circRNA-AD associations are independent of changes in cognate linear messenger RNA expression or estimated brain cell-type proportions. Evidence was provided for circRNA expression changes occurring early in presymptomatic AD and in autosomal dominant AD. It was also observed that AD-associated circRNAs co-expressed with known AD genes. Finally, potential microRNA-binding sites were identified in AD-associated circRNAs for miRNAs predicted to target AD genes. Together, these results highlight the importance of analyzing non-linear RNAs and support future studies exploring the potential roles of circRNAs in AD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Atlas como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lobo Parietal/metabolismo , RNA Circular/biossíntese , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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