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Curr Med Chem ; 28(29): 5884-5895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596793


This article presents a simplified view of integrins with emphasis on the α4 (α4ß1/VLA-4) integrin. Integrins are heterodimeric proteins expressed on the cell surface of leukocytes that participate in a wide variety of functions, such as survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, tumour invasion, among others. When the extracellular matrix is degraded or deformed, cells are forced to undergo responsive changes that influence remodelling during physiological and pathological events. Integrins recognize these changes and trigger a series of cellular responses, forming a physical connection between the interior and the outside of the cell. The communication of integrins through the plasma membrane occurs in both directions, from the extracellular to the intracellular (outside-in) and from the intracellular to the extracellular (inside-out). Integrins are valid targets for antibodies and small-molecule antagonists. One example is the monoclonal antibody natalizumab, marketed under the name of TYSABRI®, used in the treatment of recurrent multiple sclerosis, which inhibits the adhesion of α4 integrin to its counter-receptor. α4ß1 Integrin antagonists are summarized here, and their utility as therapeutics are also discussed.

Integrina alfa4beta1 , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Adesão Celular , Integrina alfa4beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Integrina alfa4beta1/fisiologia , Leucócitos
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-23, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427075


Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a well-established target for the design of anti-inflammatory intermediates. Celecoxib was selected as a template molecule to perform ligand-based virtual screening, i.e. to search for structures with similarity in shape and electrostatic potential, with a gradual increase in accuracy through the combined fitting of several steps using eight commercial databases. The molecules ZINC408709 and ZINC2090319 reproduced values within the limits established in an initial study of absorption and distribution in the body. No alert was fired for possible toxic groups when these molecules were subjected to toxicity prediction. Molecular docking results with these compounds showed a higher binding affinity in comparison to rofecoxib for the COX-2 target. Additionally, ZINC408709 and ZINC2090319 were predicted to be potentially biologically active. In in silico prediction of endocrine disruption potential, it was established that the molecule ZINC2090319 binds strongly to the target related to cardiovascular risk in a desirable way as a non-steroidal antagonist and ZINC408709 binds strongly to the target that is associated with the treatment of inflammatory pathologies and similar to celecoxib. Metabolites generated from these compounds are less likely to have side effects. Simulations were used to evaluate the interaction of compounds with COX-1 and COX-2 during 200 ns. Despite the differences, ZINC408709 molecule showed better stability for COX-2 during molecular dynamics simulation. In the calculations of free energy MM/PBSA, the molecule ZINC408709 ΔGbind value has a higher affinity to celecoxib and rofecoxib COX-2. This demonstrates that the selected substances can be considered as promising COX-2 inhibitors. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(9)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858871


The cyclooxygenase-2 receptor is a therapeutic target for planning potential drugs with anti-inflammatory activity. The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor rofecoxib was selected as a pivot molecule to perform virtual ligand-based screening from six commercial databases. We performed the search for similarly shaped Rapid Overlay of Chemical Structures (ROCS) and electrostatic (EON) compounds. After, we used pharmacokinetic and toxicological parameters to determine the best potential compounds, obtained through the softwares QikProp and Derek, respectively. Then, the compounds proceeded to the molecular anchorage study, which showed promising results of binding affinity with the hCOX-2 receptor: LMQC72 (∆G = -11.0 kcal/mol), LMQC36 (∆G = -10.6 kcal/mol), and LMQC50 (∆G = -10.2 kcal/mol). LMQC72 and LMQC36 showed higher binding affinity compared to rofecoxib (∆G = -10.4 kcal/mol). Finally, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to evaluate the interaction of the compounds with the target hCOX-2 during 150 ns. In all MD simulation trajectories, the ligands remained interacting with the protein until the end of the simulation. The compounds were also complexing with hCOX-2 favorably. The compounds obtained the following affinity energy values: rofecoxib: ΔGbind = -45.31 kcal/mol; LMQC72: ΔGbind = -38.58 kcal/mol; LMQC36: ΔGbind = -36.10 kcal/mol; and LMQC50: ΔGbind = -39.40 kcal/mol. The selected LMQC72, LMQC50, and LMQC36 structures showed satisfactory pharmacokinetic results related to absorption and distribution. The toxicological predictions of these compounds did not display alerts for possible toxic groups and lower risk of cardiotoxicity compared to rofecoxib. Therefore, future in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm the anti-inflammatory potential of the compounds selected here with bioinformatics approaches based on rofecoxib ligand.

J Mol Model ; 24(9): 225, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088101


Receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2) plays an essential role in autoimmune response and is suggested as a target for inflammatory diseases. A pharmacophore model was built from a dataset with ponatinib (template) and 18 RIPK2 inhibitors selected from BindingDB database. The pharmacophore model validation was performed by multiple linear regression (MLR). The statistical quality of the model was evaluated by the correlation coefficient (R), squared correlation coefficient (R2), explanatory variance (adjusted R2), standard error of estimate (SEE), and variance ratio (F). The best pharmacophore model has one aromatic group (LEU24 residue interaction) and two hydrogen bonding acceptor groups (MET98 and TYR97 residues interaction), having a score of 24.739 with 14 aligned inhibitors, which were used in virtual screening via ZincPharmer server and the ZINC database (selected in function of the RMSD value). We determined theoretical values of biological activity (logRA) by MLR, pharmacokinetic and toxicology properties, and made molecular docking studies comparing binding affinity (kcal/mol) results with the most active compound of the study (ponatinib) and WEHI-345. Nine compounds from the ZINC database show satisfactory results, yielding among those selected, the compound ZINC01540228, as the most promising RIPK2 inhibitor. After binding free energy calculations, the following molecular dynamics simulations showed that the receptor protein's backbone remained stable after the introduction of ligands.

Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor , Linhagem Celular , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/química , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/metabolismo
Molecules ; 23(2)2018 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463017


The Protein Kinase Receptor type 2 (RIPK2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases; it signals downstream of the NOD1 and NOD2 intracellular sensors and promotes a productive inflammatory response. However, excessive NOD2 signaling has been associated with various diseases, including sarcoidosis and inflammatory arthritis; the pharmacological inhibition of RIPK2 is an affinity strategy that demonstrates an increased expression of pro-inflammatory secretion activity. In this study, a pharmacophoric model based on the crystallographic pose of ponatinib, a potent RIPK2 inhibitor, and 30 other ones selected from the BindingDB repository database, was built. Compounds were selected based on the available ZINC compounds database and in silico predictions of their pharmacokinetic, toxicity and potential biological activity. Molecular docking was performed to identify the probable interactions of the compounds as well as their binding affinity with RIPK2. The compounds were analyzed to ponatinib and WEHI-345, which also used as a control. At least one of the compounds exhibited suitable pharmacokinetic properties, low toxicity and an interesting binding affinity and high fitness compared with the crystallographic pose of WEHI-345 in complex with RIPK2. This compound also possessed suitable synthetic accessibility, rendering it a potential and very promising RIPK2 inhibitor to be further investigated in regards to different diseases, particularly inflammatory ones.

Imidazóis/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Piridazinas/química , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/antagonistas & inibidores , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinase 2 de Interação com Receptor/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interface Usuário-Computador