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1.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(8): 1133-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286291

RESUMO

Micro-costing studies still deserving for methods orientation that contribute to achieve a patient-specific resource use level of analysis. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is often employed by health organizations in micro-costing studies with that objective. However, the literature shows many deviations in the implementation of TDABC, which might compromise the accuracy of the results obtained. One reason for that can be attributed to the non-existence of a step-by-step orientation to conduct cost analytics with the TDABC specific for micro-costing studies in healthcare. This article aimed at exploring the literature and practical cases to propose an eight-step framework to apply TDABC in micro-costing studies for health care organizations. The 8-step TDABC framework is presented and detailed exploring online spreadsheets already coded to demonstrate data structure and math formula building. A list of analyses that can be performed is suggested, including an explanation about the information that each analysis can provide to increase the organization capability to orient decision making. The case study developed show that actual micro-costing of health care processes can be achieved with the 8-step TDABC framework and its use in future researches can contribute to increase the number of studies that achieve high-quality level in cost information, and consequently, in health resource evaluation.

2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS: We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS: The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/economia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-976240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/reabilitação , Esquistossomose mansoni/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006742, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with high prevalence and burden in Latin America. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, and amiodarone has been widely used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of amiodarone in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODOLOGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to January 2018. Data from randomized and observational studies evaluating amiodarone use in Chagas cardiomyopathy were included. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Overall quality of evidence was accessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 9 studies (3 before-after studies, 5 case series and 1 randomized controlled trial). Two studies with a total of 38 patients had the full dataset, allowing individual patient data (IPD) analysis. In 24-hour Holter, amiodarone reduced the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes in 99.9% (95%CI 99.8%-100%), ventricular premature beats in 93.1% (95%CI 82%-97.4%) and the incidence of ventricular couplets in 79% (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11-0.39). Studies not included in the IPD analysis showed a reduction of ventricular premature beats (5 studies), ventricular tachycardia (6 studies) and ventricular couplets (1 study). We pooled the incidence of adverse side effects with random effects meta-analysis; amiodarone was associated with corneal microdeposits (61.1%, 95%CI 19.0-91.3, 5 studies), gastrointestinal events (16.1%, 95%CI 6.61-34.2, 3 studies), sinus bradycardia (12.7%, 95%CI 3.71-35.5, 6 studies), dermatological events (10.6%, 95%CI 4.77-21.9, 3 studies) and drug discontinuation (7.68%, 95%CI 4.17-13.7, 5 studies). Quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações
6.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(5): 238-244, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945168

RESUMO

Background: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been used to express the impact of neglected diseases and to generate indicators for health economic assessments. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a neglected disease with various clinical manifestations, including severe repercussions, caused by parasitic worms. Here we describe the quality of life of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients and estimate the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015. Methods: A HRQoL study was carried out using the three-level European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in 147 chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients at an outpatient monitoring facility of an endemic state for schistosomiasis. Results: Losses in HRQoL were observed in all five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L. Patients >60 y and 40-49 y of age reported the highest frequencies of problems. The average utility index was 0.71, and the median index was significantly lower among female patients and patients with comorbidities (0.68; p<0.05) compared with the entire sample. Approximately 26.7 QALYs were estimated for the study population and 31.2 QALYs for the chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazil. Conclusions: The advanced forms of schistosomiasis mansoni, even during treatment, contribute to important health losses in the population dealing with the disease.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Esquistossomose mansoni/fisiopatologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 88-93, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the measurement equivalence of the original paper version of an adapted tablet version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D). METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 509 individuals aged 18 to 64 years from the general population responded to the EQ-5D at two time points separated by a minimum interval of 24 hours and were allocated to one of the following groups: test-retest group (tablet-tablet) or crossover group (paper-tablet and tablet-paper). Agreement between methods was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the κ coefficient. RESULTS: In the crossover group, the following ICC values were obtained: 0.76 (confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.84) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the tablet version; 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.75 (CI 0.67-0.85) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the paper version. In the test-retest group, the ICC was 0.85 (CI 0.73-0.91) for EQ-5D scores and 0.79 (CI 0.66-0.87) for visual analogue scale. The κ values were higher than 0.69 in this group. The internal consistencies of the paper and tablet methods were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The paper and tablet versions of the EQ-5D are equivalent. Test-retest and crossover agreement was high and the acceptability of the methods was similar among individuals.


Assuntos
Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Cross-Over , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Papel , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escala Visual Analógica
8.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 8(3): 174-184, 10/02/2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-831844

RESUMO

Objetivos: Resumir os principais pontos da Diretriz de Avaliação Econômica em Saúde (AES) do Ministério da Saúde. Métodos: As diretrizes para AES no Brasil foram desenvolvidas por intermédio de múltiplas rodadas de trabalho iterativas por grupo multidisciplinar de especialistas em economia da saúde e foram submetidas à consulta pública. Resultados: O problema deve ser definido por meio de uma questão de pesquisa estruturada. O estudo pode ser baseado em dados primários ou em modelagem, em que o primeiro aumenta a validade interna dos resultados e o segundo, a capacidade de generalização do estudo. Quando o trabalho for baseado em modelagem e focado em doença crônica, o modelo de Markov pode ser usualmente empregado, quando não houver necessidades que apontem para simulação de eventos discretos (como competição dos indivíduos por recursos escassos) ou modelos de transmissão dinâmica (em vacinação e/ou doenças infecciosas com alta transmissão entre indivíduos). O horizonte temporal preferencial é o de tempo de vida, e a taxa de desconto padrão é de 5% para custo e efetividade. Os custos devem representar a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), podendo ser estimados por macrocusteio ou microcusteio. Sempre que possível, os resultados devem ser apresentados no formato de custo por ano de vida salvo ajustado para qualidade, para facilitar comparações com outros estudos. Análises de sensibilidade devem ser extensamente empregadas, de forma a avaliar o impacto da incerteza nos resultados produzidos. Conclusões: Espera-se que, com a padronização da metodologia proposta na Diretriz, a produção de AES no país tenha incremento na sua qualidade e reprodutibilidade.


Objectives: To summarize the main points from the Brazilian's Ministry of Health Economic Evaluations (HEE) guideline. Methods: The guideline was developed through multiple rounds of iterative work, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in health economics, and where submitted to public consultation. Results: The decision problem should be defined through a structured research question. The study can be either primary data or model-based; in the first case, there is greater internal validity, while the second generates a superior generalizability. When the study is model-based and focused on a chronic disease, a Markov model can be usually employed, except for situations that points towards the need of a discrete event simulation (such as competition of individuals for scarce resources) or a dynamic transition model (for example, vaccination models and infectious diseases with high transmission rates between individuals). The preferred time horizon is the lifetime one, and the default discount rate is 5% for both costs and effectiveness. Costs should represent the Unified Health System (SUS) perspective and can be estimated through either gross-costing or micro-costing. Results should be presented as costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) whenever possible, to facilitate comparison with other studies. Sensitivity analyses should be widely employed, in order to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in the results produced by the model. Conclusions: It is expected that, with the standardization proposed in this guideline, the HEE production in Brazil has gains in quality and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia da Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(50): e9113, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the utility and quality-of-life year measurements for patients with coronary artery disease who underwent any of 3 therapeutic strategies with a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Quality-of-life data were obtained from the Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study II trial. To obtain utilities, the 36-Item Short-Form questionnaire was converted to a 6-Dimensional Health State Classification System. RESULTS: Of the 611 initial patients, 579 completed the questionnaire. In all, 188 patients received the surgical treatment-194 the percutaneous, and the remaining 197 the medical. The median utility scores for the 5 years analyzed were 0.809 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.794-0.842) for patients assigned to percutaneous coronary intervention, 0.755 (95% CI 0.723-0.774) for medical treatment, and 0.780 (95% CI 0.761-0.809) for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The difference between percutaneous coronary intervention and medical treatment was statistically significant (P < .05, Dunn test). The median cumulative quality-of-life years across the 5 years were 3.802 (95% CI 3.668-3.936) for percutaneous, 3.540 (95% CI 3.399-3.681) for medical, and 3.764 (95% CI 3.638-3.890) for surgery. Additionally, the median quality-of-life years between percutaneous and medical treatment was 0.262 (95% CI 0.068-0.456), between surgery and medical treatment it was 0.224 (95% CI 0.036-0.413), and between surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention it was -0.038 (95% CI -0.221 to -0.146). CONCLUSION: Coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention were similar regarding cumulative quality-of-life years; however, they were both superior to that of medical treatment. The results presented are valuable data for further cost-utility studies.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 35(2): 186-92, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23904026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Technological advances in medicine have given rise to a dilemma concerning the use of new health technologies in a context of limited financial resources. In the field of psychiatry, health economic evaluation is a recent method that can assist in choosing interventions with different cost and/or effectiveness for specific populations or conditions. This article introduces clinicians to the fundamental concepts required for critical assessment of health economic evaluations. METHODS: The authors conducted a review with systematic methods to assess the essential theoretical framework of health economic evaluation and mental health in Brazil through textbooks and studies indexed in the PubMed, Cochrane Central, LILACS, NHS CRD, and REBRATS databases. A total of 334 studies were found using the specified terms (MeSH - Mental Health AND Economic, Medical) and filters (Brazil AND Humans); however, only five Brazilian economic evaluations were found. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Economic evaluation studies are growing exponentially in the medical literature. Publications focusing on health economics as applied to psychiatry are increasingly common, but Brazilian data are still very incipient. In a country where financial resources are so scarce, economic analyses are necessary to ensure better use of public resources and wider population access to effective health technologies.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Saúde Mental/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 18(7): 1911-21, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23827895

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to provide normative SF-36 scores in a general population sample in Brazil and to describe differences in mean scores according to socio-demographic characteristics. The SF-36 questionnaire was distributed to a randomly selected sample of the general population of Porto Alegre in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The response rate was 68% and 755 subjects were included (38% male, 62% female). Lower health status was revealed among females in the 30 to 44 year age bracket, from the lower income class, with less education and self-reported chronic medical conditions. The results and percentiles of scores of the SF-36 are reported as normative data for the general population. The SF-36 was an acceptable and practical instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in a sample of Brazilians. The results of this study can be useful for researchers using the SF-36 questionnaire in other groups to compare the scores with normative data. The SF-36 may prove a valuable tool for discovering vulnerable groups in epidemiological studies due to the ability to discriminate between different population subgroups.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 18(7): 1911-1921, Jul. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-679590

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to provide normative SF-36 scores in a general population sample in Brazil and to describe differences in mean scores according to socio-demographic characteristics. The SF-36 questionnaire was distributed to a randomly selected sample of the general population of Porto Alegre in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The response rate was 68% and 755 subjects were included (38% male, 62% female). Lower health status was revealed among females in the 30 to 44 year age bracket, from the lower income class, with less education and self-reported chronic medical conditions. The results and percentiles of scores of the SF-36 are reported as normative data for the general population. The SF-36 was an acceptable and practical instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in a sample of Brazilians. The results of this study can be useful for researchers using the SF-36 questionnaire in other groups to compare the scores with normative data. The SF-36 may prove a valuable tool for discovering vulnerable groups in epidemiological studies due to the ability to discriminate between different population subgroups.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi disponibilizar escores normativos do SF-36 em uma amostra da população geral no Brasil e descrever as diferenças de escores médios de acordo com características sociodemográficas. O questionário SF-36 foi aplicado a uma amostra aleatória da população geral de Porto Alegre. A taxa de resposta foi de 68% e 755 indivíduos foram incluídos, 38% homens e 62% mulheres. O pior estado de saúde foi visto em mulheres, em indivíduos na faixa etária de 30 a 44 anos, de uma classe econômica mais baixa, com menor escolaridade e com autorrelato de uma condição médica crônica. Os resultados dos escores do SF-36 são apresentados como dados normativos para a população geral. O SF-36 foi um instrumento aceitável e prático para medir a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde. Os resultados deste estudo podem ser úteis para pesquisadores utilizando o SF-36 em outros grupos para comparar os escores com dados normativos, ele pode ser uma boa ferramenta para detectar grupos vulneráveis em estudos epidemiológicos, pela capacidade de discriminar diferentes subgrupos da população.


Assuntos
Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil
14.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 35(2): 186-192, April-June/2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-680900

RESUMO

Objective: Technological advances in medicine have given rise to a dilemma concerning the use of new health technologies in a context of limited financial resources. In the field of psychiatry, health economic evaluation is a recent method that can assist in choosing interventions with different cost and/or effectiveness for specific populations or conditions. This article introduces clinicians to the fundamental concepts required for critical assessment of health economic evaluations. Methods: The authors conducted a review with systematic methods to assess the essential theoretical framework of health economic evaluation and mental health in Brazil through textbooks and studies indexed in the PubMed, Cochrane Central, LILACS, NHS CRD, and REBRATS databases. A total of 334 studies were found using the specified terms (MeSH - Mental Health AND Economic, Medical) and filters (Brazil AND Humans); however, only five Brazilian economic evaluations were found. Results and conclusions: Economic evaluation studies are growing exponentially in the medical literature. Publications focusing on health economics as applied to psychiatry are increasingly common, but Brazilian data are still very incipient. In a country where financial resources are so scarce, economic analyses are necessary to ensure better use of public resources and wider population access to effective health technologies. .


Assuntos
Humanos , Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Saúde Mental/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 41(4): 317-26, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23240927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of home visits for advising mothers about breastfeeding and weaning on pacifier use in the first year of life. METHOD: A randomized field trial was conducted on mothers who gave birth within the public health system in the Brazilian city of Sao Leopoldo (intervention group = 200; controls = 300). The intervention group received the advice 10 days after the child's birth, monthly up to 6 months, at 8, 10, and 12 months, based on the 'Ten Steps for Healthy Feeding', a Brazilian national health policy for primary care, which follows WHO guidelines. Relative risk (RR) was used to estimate the effects of the intervention on the risk of using a pacifier. RESULTS: 55.4% of the children in the intervention group and 66.1% of the controls used a pacifier in the first year of life. The risk of using a pacifier was 16% lower for the intervention group (RR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). A multivariable Poisson regression model showed higher adjusted risk of using a pacifier for children who had breastfeeding interrupted in the first month of life (RR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.21-1.69) and whose mothers presented higher level of depression (RR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.17-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Pacifier use is highly prevalent in the population studied. The home visits for dietary advice appear to help in reducing pacifier use in infants. These findings suggest the need for public health strategies that address early advice on pacifier use to promote child oral and general health.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Mães/educação , Chupetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desmame , Adulto , Brasil , Depressão Pós-Parto , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Análise Multivariada , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 16(6): 1257-65, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21948218

RESUMO

To identify risk factors for discontinuing breastfeeding during an infant's first year of life. A cohort study recruited mothers in a hospital in São Leopoldo, Brazil, which mainly serves the low-income population. In order to obtain socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral information, face-to-face interviews with mothers were conducted after birth, and when their infants were 6 and 12 months old. The duration of breastfeeding was investigated at 6 and 12 months, and recorded separately for each month. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory. The multivariate model for predicting the discontinuation of breastfeeding, adjusted Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression were used. Of the 360 participants, 201 (55.8%) discontinued breastfeeding within the first 12 months. A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that symptoms of maternal depression (low levels: RR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.02-2.47; moderate to severe: RR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.01), bottle feeding (RR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.31-3.28) and pacifier use in the first month of life (RR = 3.12, 95% CI 2.13-4.57) were independently associated with the outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Breastfeeding cessation rates were lower for children who did not use bottle feeding or a pacifier in the first month of life and for the children whose mothers presented with minimal depression. Early pacifier use and bottle feeding must be strongly discouraged to support long-term breastfeeding. In addition, screening maternal depression at a primary care service can be a step forward in promoting a longer duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Desmame , Adolescente , Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Idade Materna , Chupetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 45(10): 953-61, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19771379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are associated with impaired quality of life (QOL). However, there are scarce data comparing the magnitude of depression on QOL among persons with different chronic diseases in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of depression on QOL in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey conducted in 173 patients: 103 with IHD and 70 in hemodialysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-5.0 and depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory. QOL was assessed through the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-brief (WHOQOL-brief). Multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between variables and QOL. RESULTS: Depression prevalence was 14.3% among IHD patients and 9.9% in the hemodialysis group, and depressive symptoms were present in 39 and 36%, respectively. Regardless of the chronic condition, depressed patients presented lower QOL scores than non-depressed ones in all domains, and the most affected were role emotional, mental health and social functioning of SF-36, and psychological domain of WHOQOL-brief. In linear regression analysis, depressive symptoms were predictive for lower QOL in all domains, with the highest standardized beta coefficients (ranging from -0.26 to -0.64). CONCLUSION: Depression is an independent factor associated with worse QOL in IHD and ESRD patients. Among the priorities aiming at improving QOL must be evaluation and management of depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Falência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Rev. HCPA & Fac. Med. Univ. Fed. Rio Gd. do Sul ; 30(2): 185-191, 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-834332

RESUMO

A estatística descritiva é uma poderosa ferramenta para se analisar conjuntos de dados, entretanto é muito pouco utilizada. Uma análise descritiva bem conduzida pode evitar vários problemas que podem ocorrer em análises mais complexas, além de fornecer um retrato da amostra em estudo. Na estatística descritiva existem os métodos gráficos, que se bem empregados, são bem mais informativos que tabelas. Dentre os tipos de gráficos mais conhecidos existem o boxplot, histograma, gráfico de dispersão, ou de barras. O objetivo desse artigo é descrever um novo tipo de gráfico chamado beanplot que pode ser feito no aplicativo R. Através de exemplos é mostrado como fazer o beanplot no R e como interpretar seus resultados. Nesse gráfico podemos representar várias informações sobre variáveis quantitativas, tais como: média, mediana, distribuição dos dados, etc. Além disso, através desse gráfico podemos comparar distribuições de diversas variáveis ou da mesma variável em diferentes grupos.


Descriptive analysis is a powerful tool to analyze data sets, but is rarely used. It can avoid many problems that can occur in more complex analyses, providing a picture of the sample under study. Some graphical methods are much more informative than tables. There are several types of graphics which are well known: boxplot, histogram, scatter plot, or bar plot. The aim of this paper is to present a new type of graph called beanplot, describing the steps to build the graphs using the statistical software R. Besides, some examples are presented to discuss how to interpret the results. Through beanplot graphs, it is possible to represent a plenty of information regarding quantitative variables, such as mean, median, distribution of data, etc. Moreover, through this graphic we compare distributions of several variables or the same variable in different groups.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gráficos por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Apresentação de Dados , Distribuições Estatísticas , Estatística como Assunto
19.
Psychol Health Med ; 14(5): 619-28, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19844840

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL)-brief and SF-36 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Considering that depression is known to be associated with bad outcomes in CAD and it is highly associated with poor Quality of Life (QOL), we tested the correlation between WHOQOL and SF-36 and an instrument to screen depressive symptoms. It is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 103 patients with documented CAD. QOL was measured through WHOQOL-brief and SF-36 and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). To evaluate convergent validity, the correlations between both QOL assessment instruments were examined; discriminant validity was assessed through BDI and QOL instruments correlations. Coefficient Cronbach's alpha was used to test reliability. Percentages of floor and ceiling effects were higher in SF-36 scores than the WHOQOL-brief ones. Although WHOQOL-brief showed a maximum of 1% of floor effect and 9% of ceiling effect, SF-36 presented 40 and 32%, respectively. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.85 for the WHOQOL-brief and 0.57 to 0.89 for the SF-36. Correlations between subscales of WHOQOL-brief and BDI ranged from -0.74 to -0.61 and correlations between subscales of SF-36 and BDI ranged from -0.68 to -0.26. SF-36 and WHOQOL-brief seem to be valid and consistent QOL measures in patients with CAD. Researchers should define the aims of their studies before choosing which instrument to use, because they appear to measure different constructs of QOL.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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