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1.
Eur J Health Econ ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286291

RESUMO

Micro-costing studies still deserving for methods orientation that contribute to achieve a patient-specific resource use level of analysis. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is often employed by health organizations in micro-costing studies with that objective. However, the literature shows many deviations in the implementation of TDABC, which might compromise the accuracy of the results obtained. One reason for that can be attributed to the non-existence of a step-by-step orientation to conduct cost analytics with the TDABC specific for micro-costing studies in healthcare. This article aimed at exploring the literature and practical cases to propose an eight-step framework to apply TDABC in micro-costing studies for health care organizations. The 8-step TDABC framework is presented and detailed exploring online spreadsheets already coded to demonstrate data structure and math formula building. A list of analyses that can be performed is suggested, including an explanation about the information that each analysis can provide to increase the organization capability to orient decision making. The case study developed show that actual micro-costing of health care processes can be achieved with the 8-step TDABC framework and its use in future researches can contribute to increase the number of studies that achieve high-quality level in cost information, and consequently, in health resource evaluation.

2.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1005738

RESUMO

Objetivo: No cenário da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS), as estimativas de custos são um fator crítico no desenvolvimento das avaliações econômicas completas, especialmente pelo uso de diferentes metodologias de custeio. A fim de contribuir com a acurácia dos dados de custos usados nessas análises, este artigo sugere recomendações para apuração de custos em saúde no Brasil. Métodos: Reuniram-se pesquisadores de ATS de diferentes expertises e centros de pesquisa do Brasil, e ao longo de dois anos foram conduzidas revisões da literatura nacional e internacional e discussões sobre as formas de abordar a temática. Três simpósios foram realizados reunindo os pesquisadores com o propósito de alcançar o consenso entre os autores sobre as melhores recomendações para a realização de estudos de Microcusteio. Resultados: Consolidou-se em forma de uma recomendação este artigo que representa uma versão compacta da diretriz completa a ser publicada pela Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde. A metodologia de Microcusteio é considerada como padrão-ouro para a identificação dos custos em saúde. Os métodos de definição do estudo, coleta e análise de dados apresentados são descritos de modo a permitir uma valoração dos custos validada e homogênea, principalmente para o uso dessa informação em avaliações econômicas de saúde. Conclusão: Essa recomendação tem o propósito de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas dos custos de saúde no nosso meio e homogeneizar a comunicação entre estudos conduzidos por diferentes grupos de pesquisa. Por fim, é esperado que a utilização dessas recomendações contribua para que as decisões baseadas em dados econômicos sejam mais acuradas e equânimes quando da incorporação de tecnologias no país.


Objective: In the context of health technology assessment (HTA), cost estimates are a critical factor in the development of economic evaluations, especially through the use of different costing methodologies. In order to contribute to the accuracy of the cost data used in these analyzes, this article suggests recommendations to develop health cost analysis in Brazil. Methods: HTA researchers with heterogeneous background and from different Brazilian research centers were engaged on the development of this health cost analysis recommendation over two years. Reviews of national and international literature and discussions on how to approach the theme were conducted. Three symposia were held bringing together the researchers with the purpose of reaching consensus among the authors on the best recommendations for micro-accounting studies. Results: This article was consolidated as a recommendation, which represents a compact version of the complete guideline that will be published by the Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Network (REBRATS). The Microcosting methodology is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of health costs. Methods to define the study, to perform data collection and analysis are described in order to allow a validated and homogeneous cost evaluation, mainly for the use of this information in economic health assessments. Conclusion: This recommendation is intended to increase the health cost estimated accuracy in our country and to homogenize the communication between studies conducted by different research groups. Finally, it is expected that the use of these recommendations will contribute to make decisions based on economic data more accurate and equitable when incorporating health technologies in the country.

3.
Value Health ; 22(3): 267-275, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832964

RESUMO

Cost-effectiveness models that present results in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year for health technologies are used to inform policy decisions in many parts of the world. Health state utilities (HSUs) are required to calculate the quality-adjusted life-years. Even when clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of health technologies collect data on HSUs to populate a cost-effectiveness model, which rarely happens, analysts typically need to identify at least some additional HSUs from alternative sources. When possible, HSUs are identified by a systematic review of the literature, but, again, this rarely happens. In 2014, ISPOR established a Good Practices for Outcome Research Task Force to address the use of HSUs in cost-effectiveness models. This task force report provides recommendations for researchers who identify, review, and synthesize HSUs for use in cost-effectiveness models; analysts who use the results in models; and reviewers who critically appraise the suitability and validity of the HSUs selected for use in models. The associated Minimum Reporting Standards of Systematic Review of Utilities for Cost-Effectiveness checklist created by the task force provides criteria to judge the appropriateness of the HSUs selected for use in cost-effectiveness models and is suitable for use in different international settings.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Relatório de Pesquisa , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Comitês Consultivos/tendências , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/tendências , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências
5.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS: We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS: The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/economia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-976240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/reabilitação , Esquistossomose mansoni/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

8.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 158-163, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm for the treatment of mixed episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) using the medications available under the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) in Brazil. METHODS: The study included 107 individuals with BD in a current mixed episode, assessed biweekly for the outcomes of response and remission. The subjects were randomly assigned to start treatment with lithium, valproic acid, or carbamazepine, following a clinical protocol at a public outpatient clinic. Eligibility screening instruments, semistructured interview, and clinical psychiatric evaluation were used for diagnosis. To measure response and remission, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Young Mania Rating Scale were used. A parameter of 50% or less in the symptom scales was used to define responses, as assessed by Kaplan-Meier time-event analysis. RESULTS: For the main outcome, response to treatment, all interventions proposed were proven to be effective, with no difference in response time for any of them. There was a lack of placebo control and blinding for intervention or outcomes. Individuals with mixed episodes in BD often face contradictory symptoms, and these inherent difficulties are the main obstacles to stabilize such a condition. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study show that the treatments available under the Unified Health System are able to reduce the overall burden of disease in terms of symptom reduction.

9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006836, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease. About 6 to 8 million people are chronically infected and 10% to 15% develop irreversible gastrointestinal disorders, including megaesophagus. Treatment focuses on improving symptoms, and isosorbide and nifedipine may be used for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for Chagas' megaesophagus. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS databases up to January 2018. We included both observational studies and RCTs evaluating the effects of isosorbide or nifedipine in adult patients with Chagas' megaesophagus. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, selected eligible studies and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias using NIH 'Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group' and RoB 2.0 tool. Overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included eight studies (four crossover RCTs, four before-after studies). Three studies evaluated the effect of isosorbide on lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), showing a significant reduction (mean difference -10.52mmHg, 95%CI -13.57 to-7.47, very low quality of evidence). Three studies reported the effect of isosorbide on esophageal emptying, showing a decrease in esophageal retention rates (mean difference -22.16%, 95%CI -29.94 to -14.38, low quality of evidence). In one study, patients on isosorbide reported improvement in the frequency and severity of dysphagia (moderate quality of evidence). Studies evaluating nifedipine observed a decrease in LESP but no effect on esophageal emptying (very low and low quality of evidence, respectively). Isosorbide had a higher incidence of headache as a side effect than nifedipine. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited, available evidence shows that both isosorbide and nifedipine are effective in reducing esophageal symptoms. Isosorbide appears to be more effective, and its use is supported by a larger number of studies; nifedipine, however, appears to have a better tolerability profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017055143. ClinicalTrials.gov CRD42017055143.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006742, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with high prevalence and burden in Latin America. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, and amiodarone has been widely used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of amiodarone in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODOLOGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to January 2018. Data from randomized and observational studies evaluating amiodarone use in Chagas cardiomyopathy were included. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Overall quality of evidence was accessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 9 studies (3 before-after studies, 5 case series and 1 randomized controlled trial). Two studies with a total of 38 patients had the full dataset, allowing individual patient data (IPD) analysis. In 24-hour Holter, amiodarone reduced the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes in 99.9% (95%CI 99.8%-100%), ventricular premature beats in 93.1% (95%CI 82%-97.4%) and the incidence of ventricular couplets in 79% (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11-0.39). Studies not included in the IPD analysis showed a reduction of ventricular premature beats (5 studies), ventricular tachycardia (6 studies) and ventricular couplets (1 study). We pooled the incidence of adverse side effects with random effects meta-analysis; amiodarone was associated with corneal microdeposits (61.1%, 95%CI 19.0-91.3, 5 studies), gastrointestinal events (16.1%, 95%CI 6.61-34.2, 3 studies), sinus bradycardia (12.7%, 95%CI 3.71-35.5, 6 studies), dermatological events (10.6%, 95%CI 4.77-21.9, 3 studies) and drug discontinuation (7.68%, 95%CI 4.17-13.7, 5 studies). Quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.

11.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(5): 238-244, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945168

RESUMO

Background: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been used to express the impact of neglected diseases and to generate indicators for health economic assessments. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a neglected disease with various clinical manifestations, including severe repercussions, caused by parasitic worms. Here we describe the quality of life of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients and estimate the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015. Methods: A HRQoL study was carried out using the three-level European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in 147 chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients at an outpatient monitoring facility of an endemic state for schistosomiasis. Results: Losses in HRQoL were observed in all five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L. Patients >60 y and 40-49 y of age reported the highest frequencies of problems. The average utility index was 0.71, and the median index was significantly lower among female patients and patients with comorbidities (0.68; p<0.05) compared with the entire sample. Approximately 26.7 QALYs were estimated for the study population and 31.2 QALYs for the chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazil. Conclusions: The advanced forms of schistosomiasis mansoni, even during treatment, contribute to important health losses in the population dealing with the disease.

12.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 88-93, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the measurement equivalence of the original paper version of an adapted tablet version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D). METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 509 individuals aged 18 to 64 years from the general population responded to the EQ-5D at two time points separated by a minimum interval of 24 hours and were allocated to one of the following groups: test-retest group (tablet-tablet) or crossover group (paper-tablet and tablet-paper). Agreement between methods was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the κ coefficient. RESULTS: In the crossover group, the following ICC values were obtained: 0.76 (confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.84) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the tablet version; 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.75 (CI 0.67-0.85) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the paper version. In the test-retest group, the ICC was 0.85 (CI 0.73-0.91) for EQ-5D scores and 0.79 (CI 0.66-0.87) for visual analogue scale. The κ values were higher than 0.69 in this group. The internal consistencies of the paper and tablet methods were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The paper and tablet versions of the EQ-5D are equivalent. Test-retest and crossover agreement was high and the acceptability of the methods was similar among individuals.

13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 26-34, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-899409

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. Methods: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Results: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. Conclusions: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. Clinical trial registration: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097

14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(3)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960796

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that a neutropenic diet has lower microbe content. Here, the microbiological and nutritional contents of regular and neutropenic diets offered to pediatric patients were analyzed. Microbiological contamination was detected in five of 36 of the food samples analyzed, yet there was no statistical differences between the diets (P = 1.00) or in their odds ratio (0.62) (95% CI = 0.05-6.35; P = 0.63). The strict neutropenic diet did have less fiber (P = 0.05) and vitamin C (P = 0.01). Thus, the regular diet appears safe, and possibly provides greater benefits, for pediatric patients with neutropenia.

15.
Braz J Psychiatr ; 40(1): 26-34, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. METHODS: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 8(3): 174-184, 10/02/2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-831844

RESUMO

Objetivos: Resumir os principais pontos da Diretriz de Avaliação Econômica em Saúde (AES) do Ministério da Saúde. Métodos: As diretrizes para AES no Brasil foram desenvolvidas por intermédio de múltiplas rodadas de trabalho iterativas por grupo multidisciplinar de especialistas em economia da saúde e foram submetidas à consulta pública. Resultados: O problema deve ser definido por meio de uma questão de pesquisa estruturada. O estudo pode ser baseado em dados primários ou em modelagem, em que o primeiro aumenta a validade interna dos resultados e o segundo, a capacidade de generalização do estudo. Quando o trabalho for baseado em modelagem e focado em doença crônica, o modelo de Markov pode ser usualmente empregado, quando não houver necessidades que apontem para simulação de eventos discretos (como competição dos indivíduos por recursos escassos) ou modelos de transmissão dinâmica (em vacinação e/ou doenças infecciosas com alta transmissão entre indivíduos). O horizonte temporal preferencial é o de tempo de vida, e a taxa de desconto padrão é de 5% para custo e efetividade. Os custos devem representar a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), podendo ser estimados por macrocusteio ou microcusteio. Sempre que possível, os resultados devem ser apresentados no formato de custo por ano de vida salvo ajustado para qualidade, para facilitar comparações com outros estudos. Análises de sensibilidade devem ser extensamente empregadas, de forma a avaliar o impacto da incerteza nos resultados produzidos. Conclusões: Espera-se que, com a padronização da metodologia proposta na Diretriz, a produção de AES no país tenha incremento na sua qualidade e reprodutibilidade.


Objectives: To summarize the main points from the Brazilian's Ministry of Health Economic Evaluations (HEE) guideline. Methods: The guideline was developed through multiple rounds of iterative work, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in health economics, and where submitted to public consultation. Results: The decision problem should be defined through a structured research question. The study can be either primary data or model-based; in the first case, there is greater internal validity, while the second generates a superior generalizability. When the study is model-based and focused on a chronic disease, a Markov model can be usually employed, except for situations that points towards the need of a discrete event simulation (such as competition of individuals for scarce resources) or a dynamic transition model (for example, vaccination models and infectious diseases with high transmission rates between individuals). The preferred time horizon is the lifetime one, and the default discount rate is 5% for both costs and effectiveness. Costs should represent the Unified Health System (SUS) perspective and can be estimated through either gross-costing or micro-costing. Results should be presented as costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) whenever possible, to facilitate comparison with other studies. Sensitivity analyses should be widely employed, in order to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in the results produced by the model. Conclusions: It is expected that, with the standardization proposed in this guideline, the HEE production in Brazil has gains in quality and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia da Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(50): e9113, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the utility and quality-of-life year measurements for patients with coronary artery disease who underwent any of 3 therapeutic strategies with a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Quality-of-life data were obtained from the Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study II trial. To obtain utilities, the 36-Item Short-Form questionnaire was converted to a 6-Dimensional Health State Classification System. RESULTS: Of the 611 initial patients, 579 completed the questionnaire. In all, 188 patients received the surgical treatment-194 the percutaneous, and the remaining 197 the medical. The median utility scores for the 5 years analyzed were 0.809 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.794-0.842) for patients assigned to percutaneous coronary intervention, 0.755 (95% CI 0.723-0.774) for medical treatment, and 0.780 (95% CI 0.761-0.809) for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The difference between percutaneous coronary intervention and medical treatment was statistically significant (P < .05, Dunn test). The median cumulative quality-of-life years across the 5 years were 3.802 (95% CI 3.668-3.936) for percutaneous, 3.540 (95% CI 3.399-3.681) for medical, and 3.764 (95% CI 3.638-3.890) for surgery. Additionally, the median quality-of-life years between percutaneous and medical treatment was 0.262 (95% CI 0.068-0.456), between surgery and medical treatment it was 0.224 (95% CI 0.036-0.413), and between surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention it was -0.038 (95% CI -0.221 to -0.146). CONCLUSION: Coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention were similar regarding cumulative quality-of-life years; however, they were both superior to that of medical treatment. The results presented are valuable data for further cost-utility studies.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 30-38, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-776499

RESUMO

Objective: To perform a cost-utility analysis on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with methylphenidate immediate-release (MPH-IR) in children and adolescents from Brazil. Method: A Markov model was constructed to compare MPH-IR vs. no treatment. A 24-week naturalistic study was conducted to collect transition probabilities and utility data. Effectiveness was expressed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), and costs reported in 2014 international dollars (I$). The perspective was the Brazilian Unified Health System as payer, and the time horizon was 6 years. Results: Of 171 patients, 73 provided information at baseline, and 56 at week 24. Considering the MPH-IR monthly cost of I$ 38, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of treatment was I$ 9,103/QALY for children and I$ 11,883/QALY for adolescents. In two-way sensitivity analysis, considering one Gross National Product per capita (I$ 11,530) as willingness-to-pay, a cost of no-treatment lower than I$ 45/month would render MPH-IR a cost-saving strategy. Discussion: MPH-IR treatment of children and adolescents is cost-effective for ADHD patients from the Brazilian public health system perspective. Both patients and the healthcare system might benefit from such a strategy. Trial registration number: NCT01705613.

20.
Med Decis Making ; 36(2): 253-63, 2016 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most EQ-5D-3L valuation studies include the same sample of health states that was used in the protocol of the original UK Measurement and Valuation of Health (MVH) study. Thus far, no studies using a time tradeoff utility elicitation method have been carried out using all 243 EQ-5D health states. Because the values and preferences regarding health outcomes differ among countries, it is essential to have country-specific data to enable local high-level decisions regarding resource allocation. This study developed a country-specific set of values for EQ-5D-3L health states. METHODS: A multicentric study was conducted in 4 Brazilian areas. A probabilistic sample of the general population, aged 18 to 64 y, stratified by age and gender, was surveyed. The interview followed a revised version of the MVH protocol, in which all 243 health states were valued. Each respondent ranked and valued 7 health states using the TTO in a home interview. RESULTS: Data were collected from 9148 subjects. The best-fitting regression model was an individual-level mixed-effects model without any interaction terms. The dimensions "Mobility" and "Usual Activities" were associated with higher losses in health state utility value. The "Anxiety/Depression" dimension was the domain that contributed to lower losses in health state utility value. CONCLUSIONS: This study generated significant insight into the Brazilian population's health preferences that can be applied to health technology assessment and economic analyses in Brazil. This information represents an important new tool that can be used in Brazilian health policy creation and evaluation.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Dor/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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