Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 52
Filtrar
1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67 Suppl 3: e28378, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614140

RESUMO

Nutrition therapy is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and symptoms via diet, which can be done by oral, enteral or parenteral routes. It is desirable to include nutritional interventions as a standard of care in pediatric cancer units (PCUs) at all levels of care. The interventions are dependent on available resources and personnel across all clinical settings. Enteral nutrition is easy, inexpensive, uses the gastrointestinal tract, maintains gut mucosal integrity, and allows for individualized nutritional strategies. This narrative review describes enteral nutritional interventions for children undergoing cancer treatment and is aimed at PCUs of all levels of care located in a low- and middle-income country.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Desnutrição/terapia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Criança , Nutrição Enteral/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 33: e190194, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101405

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To examine the changes in the nutritional status of adolescents aged 10-19 years after a minimum 12 months interval following oncological treatment for leukemias and lymphomas. Methods Longitudinal design quantitative study conducted at Hospital de Clínicas, Porto Alegre. Adolescents aged 10-19 years after a minimum 12 months interval following oncological treatment for leukemias and lymphomas were included. The measures of weight, height, brachial circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference and abdominal circumference were collected. Results The sample comprised 50 adolescents who had survived leukemias and lymphomas. In the follow up 38% of the patients were classified as overweight according to the body mass index for their age. There was a significant increase in body mass index for age between the beginning and the end of treatment and follow up (p=0.013) in female individuals, compared to males. The results indicate a reduction in the Z-score means of height for age, with significant differences between the beginning of treatment and follow up (p=0.016); and end of treatment and follow up (p=0.006) in patients of both genders Conclusion The anthropometric indicators show an important frequency of excess weight and increased tricipital skinfold, as well as a significant increase of the body mass index for age and also a growth deficit among the survivors.


RESUMO Objetivo Verificar as alterações no estado nutricional em adolescentes de 10-19 anos, observadas após 12 meses, no mínimo, da conclusão de tratamento oncológico de leucemias e linfomas. Métodos Trata-se de estudo quantitativo de delineamento longitudinal realizado no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Foram incluídos adolescentes de 10-19 anos, que haviam concluído tratamento oncológico para leucemias e linfomas há no mínimo doze meses. Foram coletadas as medidas de peso, estatura, circunferência braquial, dobra cutânea tricipital, circunferência muscular do braço e circunferência abdominal. Resultados A amostra foi constituída por cinquenta adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemias e linfomas. No follow up, 38% dos pacientes foram classificados como excesso de peso de acordo com o índice de massa corporal para a idade. Houve um aumento significativo no índice de massa corporal para a idade, ocorrida entre o início do tratamento, seu fim e follow up (p=0,013) nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, quando comparados a indivíduos do sexo masculino. Os resultados apontam uma diminuição nas médias de Escore-Z de estatura para a idade, com diferenças significativas entre o início do tratamento e follow up (p=0,016) e entre término do tratamento e follow up (p=0,006), em pacientes de ambos os sexos. Conclusão Os indicadores antropométricos demonstram uma frequência importante de excesso de peso e aumento da dobra cutânea tricipital, um aumento significativo do índice de massa corporal para a idade, bem como um deficit de crescimento entre os sobreviventes.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e028019, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and validate a new instrument called Questionnaire for the assessment of the knowledge, management and reporting ADR in Paediatrics by Healthcare teams (QUESA-P). DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Teams of healthcare professionals (HCP) that lead with pharmacological therapy in Paediatrician's sector (Paediatric-HCP) in seven public hospitals in Brazil. OUTCOME: An assessment of the knowledge and current management of ADR in Paediatric-HCP. METHODS: We developed and validated QUESA-P, using a standardised procedure which included item development and psychometric prevalidation using Cronbach's Alpha, item-total correlation and test-retest validity for internal consistency and reliability. External criterion was used as criterion validation (the instrument was applied to the focus group expert vs focus group team of Paediatric-HCP in hospitals). The focus group of experts who participated in psychometrics was asked to respond to the QUESA-P twice in order to assess test-retest reliability. The content validity of the initial questionnaire was assessed by the Delphi method and pilot test. Subsequently, we made minor revisions and finalized the QUESA-P RESULTS: Selection of domains and facets were based on literature review made in duplicate by authors. Content validity was done by trial of different examiners (panellists, n=16), conducting analysis through Delphi method (three rounds). The QUESA-P was constructed with three domains. The intraclass correlations (0.80) and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.82), indicated adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency for each domain. The application of the QUESA to 61 Paediatric-HCP in hospital resulted in lower mean score of 42.1 ± 3.4 in all domains when compared with expert teams (n= 46) 48.2 ± 3.7 (p <0.001) indicating that the instrument is valid to discriminate QUESA experts and Paediatric-HCP. CONCLUSION: The selected domains can be used to check weaknesses in the identification, management and reporting of suspected ADR by Paediatric-HCP in Brazil.

4.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(8): 1133-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286291

RESUMO

Micro-costing studies still deserving for methods orientation that contribute to achieve a patient-specific resource use level of analysis. Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) is often employed by health organizations in micro-costing studies with that objective. However, the literature shows many deviations in the implementation of TDABC, which might compromise the accuracy of the results obtained. One reason for that can be attributed to the non-existence of a step-by-step orientation to conduct cost analytics with the TDABC specific for micro-costing studies in healthcare. This article aimed at exploring the literature and practical cases to propose an eight-step framework to apply TDABC in micro-costing studies for health care organizations. The 8-step TDABC framework is presented and detailed exploring online spreadsheets already coded to demonstrate data structure and math formula building. A list of analyses that can be performed is suggested, including an explanation about the information that each analysis can provide to increase the organization capability to orient decision making. The case study developed show that actual micro-costing of health care processes can be achieved with the 8-step TDABC framework and its use in future researches can contribute to increase the number of studies that achieve high-quality level in cost information, and consequently, in health resource evaluation.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Brasil , Economia Hospitalar , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(1): 87-95, Abril/2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1005738

RESUMO

Objetivo: No cenário da avaliação de tecnologias em saúde (ATS), as estimativas de custos são um fator crítico no desenvolvimento das avaliações econômicas completas, especialmente pelo uso de diferentes metodologias de custeio. A fim de contribuir com a acurácia dos dados de custos usados nessas análises, este artigo sugere recomendações para apuração de custos em saúde no Brasil. Métodos: Reuniram-se pesquisadores de ATS de diferentes expertises e centros de pesquisa do Brasil, e ao longo de dois anos foram conduzidas revisões da literatura nacional e internacional e discussões sobre as formas de abordar a temática. Três simpósios foram realizados reunindo os pesquisadores com o propósito de alcançar o consenso entre os autores sobre as melhores recomendações para a realização de estudos de Microcusteio. Resultados: Consolidou-se em forma de uma recomendação este artigo que representa uma versão compacta da diretriz completa a ser publicada pela Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde. A metodologia de Microcusteio é considerada como padrão-ouro para a identificação dos custos em saúde. Os métodos de definição do estudo, coleta e análise de dados apresentados são descritos de modo a permitir uma valoração dos custos validada e homogênea, principalmente para o uso dessa informação em avaliações econômicas de saúde. Conclusão: Essa recomendação tem o propósito de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas dos custos de saúde no nosso meio e homogeneizar a comunicação entre estudos conduzidos por diferentes grupos de pesquisa. Por fim, é esperado que a utilização dessas recomendações contribua para que as decisões baseadas em dados econômicos sejam mais acuradas e equânimes quando da incorporação de tecnologias no país.


Objective: In the context of health technology assessment (HTA), cost estimates are a critical factor in the development of economic evaluations, especially through the use of different costing methodologies. In order to contribute to the accuracy of the cost data used in these analyzes, this article suggests recommendations to develop health cost analysis in Brazil. Methods: HTA researchers with heterogeneous background and from different Brazilian research centers were engaged on the development of this health cost analysis recommendation over two years. Reviews of national and international literature and discussions on how to approach the theme were conducted. Three symposia were held bringing together the researchers with the purpose of reaching consensus among the authors on the best recommendations for micro-accounting studies. Results: This article was consolidated as a recommendation, which represents a compact version of the complete guideline that will be published by the Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Network (REBRATS). The Microcosting methodology is considered as a gold standard for the analysis of health costs. Methods to define the study, to perform data collection and analysis are described in order to allow a validated and homogeneous cost evaluation, mainly for the use of this information in economic health assessments. Conclusion: This recommendation is intended to increase the health cost estimated accuracy in our country and to homogenize the communication between studies conducted by different research groups. Finally, it is expected that the use of these recommendations will contribute to make decisions based on economic data more accurate and equitable when incorporating health technologies in the country.


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação em Saúde , Custos e Análise de Custo , Uso da Informação Científica na Tomada de Decisões em Saúde
6.
Value Health ; 22(3): 267-275, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832964

RESUMO

Cost-effectiveness models that present results in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life-year for health technologies are used to inform policy decisions in many parts of the world. Health state utilities (HSUs) are required to calculate the quality-adjusted life-years. Even when clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of health technologies collect data on HSUs to populate a cost-effectiveness model, which rarely happens, analysts typically need to identify at least some additional HSUs from alternative sources. When possible, HSUs are identified by a systematic review of the literature, but, again, this rarely happens. In 2014, ISPOR established a Good Practices for Outcome Research Task Force to address the use of HSUs in cost-effectiveness models. This task force report provides recommendations for researchers who identify, review, and synthesize HSUs for use in cost-effectiveness models; analysts who use the results in models; and reviewers who critically appraise the suitability and validity of the HSUs selected for use in models. The associated Minimum Reporting Standards of Systematic Review of Utilities for Cost-Effectiveness checklist created by the task force provides criteria to judge the appropriateness of the HSUs selected for use in cost-effectiveness models and is suitable for use in different international settings.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Relatório de Pesquisa , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Comitês Consultivos/tendências , Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências
7.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS: We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS: The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS: The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/economia , Portador Sadio/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180347, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-976240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis mansoni is a poverty-related parasitic infection that has a variety of clinical manifestations. We consider the disability and deaths caused by schistosomiasis unacceptable for a tool-ready disease. Its condition in Brazil warrants an analysis that will enable better understanding of the local health losses and contribute to the complex decision-making process. OBJECTIVE This study estimates the cost of schistosomiasis in Brazil in 2015. METHODS We conducted a cost of illness study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015 based on a prevalence approach and from a societal perspective. The study included 26,499 schistosomiasis carriers, 397 hepatosplenic cases, 48 cases with the neurological form, 284 hospitalisations, and 11,368.26 years of life lost (YLL) of which 5,187 years are attributable to economically active age groups. RESULTS The total cost of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was estimated to be US$ 41,7million in 2015 with 94.61% of this being indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS The economic burden of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil is high and results in the loss of productivity. Its persistence in Brazil is a challenge to public health and requires inter-sectorial interventions in areas such as indoor water supply, basic sanitation, and education.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose mansoni/reabilitação , Esquistossomose mansoni/terapia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Tempo , Brasil , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia
11.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 158-163, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm for the treatment of mixed episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) using the medications available under the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) in Brazil. METHODS: The study included 107 individuals with BD in a current mixed episode, assessed biweekly for the outcomes of response and remission. The subjects were randomly assigned to start treatment with lithium, valproic acid, or carbamazepine, following a clinical protocol at a public outpatient clinic. Eligibility screening instruments, semistructured interview, and clinical psychiatric evaluation were used for diagnosis. To measure response and remission, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Young Mania Rating Scale were used. A parameter of 50% or less in the symptom scales was used to define responses, as assessed by Kaplan-Meier time-event analysis. RESULTS: For the main outcome, response to treatment, all interventions proposed were proven to be effective, with no difference in response time for any of them. There was a lack of placebo control and blinding for intervention or outcomes. Individuals with mixed episodes in BD often face contradictory symptoms, and these inherent difficulties are the main obstacles to stabilize such a condition. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in this study show that the treatments available under the Unified Health System are able to reduce the overall burden of disease in terms of symptom reduction.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Saúde Pública , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(9): e0006836, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease. About 6 to 8 million people are chronically infected and 10% to 15% develop irreversible gastrointestinal disorders, including megaesophagus. Treatment focuses on improving symptoms, and isosorbide and nifedipine may be used for this purpose. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for Chagas' megaesophagus. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS databases up to January 2018. We included both observational studies and RCTs evaluating the effects of isosorbide or nifedipine in adult patients with Chagas' megaesophagus. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, selected eligible studies and extracted data. We assessed the risk of bias using NIH 'Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies with No Control Group' and RoB 2.0 tool. Overall quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included eight studies (four crossover RCTs, four before-after studies). Three studies evaluated the effect of isosorbide on lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), showing a significant reduction (mean difference -10.52mmHg, 95%CI -13.57 to-7.47, very low quality of evidence). Three studies reported the effect of isosorbide on esophageal emptying, showing a decrease in esophageal retention rates (mean difference -22.16%, 95%CI -29.94 to -14.38, low quality of evidence). In one study, patients on isosorbide reported improvement in the frequency and severity of dysphagia (moderate quality of evidence). Studies evaluating nifedipine observed a decrease in LESP but no effect on esophageal emptying (very low and low quality of evidence, respectively). Isosorbide had a higher incidence of headache as a side effect than nifedipine. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited, available evidence shows that both isosorbide and nifedipine are effective in reducing esophageal symptoms. Isosorbide appears to be more effective, and its use is supported by a larger number of studies; nifedipine, however, appears to have a better tolerability profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017055143. ClinicalTrials.gov CRD42017055143.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/complicações , Acalasia Esofágica/tratamento farmacológico , Isossorbida/administração & dosagem , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006742, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with high prevalence and burden in Latin America. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, and amiodarone has been widely used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of amiodarone in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODOLOGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to January 2018. Data from randomized and observational studies evaluating amiodarone use in Chagas cardiomyopathy were included. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Overall quality of evidence was accessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 9 studies (3 before-after studies, 5 case series and 1 randomized controlled trial). Two studies with a total of 38 patients had the full dataset, allowing individual patient data (IPD) analysis. In 24-hour Holter, amiodarone reduced the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes in 99.9% (95%CI 99.8%-100%), ventricular premature beats in 93.1% (95%CI 82%-97.4%) and the incidence of ventricular couplets in 79% (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11-0.39). Studies not included in the IPD analysis showed a reduction of ventricular premature beats (5 studies), ventricular tachycardia (6 studies) and ventricular couplets (1 study). We pooled the incidence of adverse side effects with random effects meta-analysis; amiodarone was associated with corneal microdeposits (61.1%, 95%CI 19.0-91.3, 5 studies), gastrointestinal events (16.1%, 95%CI 6.61-34.2, 3 studies), sinus bradycardia (12.7%, 95%CI 3.71-35.5, 6 studies), dermatological events (10.6%, 95%CI 4.77-21.9, 3 studies) and drug discontinuation (7.68%, 95%CI 4.17-13.7, 5 studies). Quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/complicações
14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 112(5): 238-244, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945168

RESUMO

Background: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been used to express the impact of neglected diseases and to generate indicators for health economic assessments. Schistosomiasis mansoni is a neglected disease with various clinical manifestations, including severe repercussions, caused by parasitic worms. Here we describe the quality of life of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients and estimate the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil in 2015. Methods: A HRQoL study was carried out using the three-level European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire in 147 chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients at an outpatient monitoring facility of an endemic state for schistosomiasis. Results: Losses in HRQoL were observed in all five dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L. Patients >60 y and 40-49 y of age reported the highest frequencies of problems. The average utility index was 0.71, and the median index was significantly lower among female patients and patients with comorbidities (0.68; p<0.05) compared with the entire sample. Approximately 26.7 QALYs were estimated for the study population and 31.2 QALYs for the chronic schistosomiasis mansoni patients in Brazil. Conclusions: The advanced forms of schistosomiasis mansoni, even during treatment, contribute to important health losses in the population dealing with the disease.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Esquistossomose mansoni/economia , Esquistossomose mansoni/fisiopatologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 88-93, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the measurement equivalence of the original paper version of an adapted tablet version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D). METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 509 individuals aged 18 to 64 years from the general population responded to the EQ-5D at two time points separated by a minimum interval of 24 hours and were allocated to one of the following groups: test-retest group (tablet-tablet) or crossover group (paper-tablet and tablet-paper). Agreement between methods was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the κ coefficient. RESULTS: In the crossover group, the following ICC values were obtained: 0.76 (confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.84) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the tablet version; 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.75 (CI 0.67-0.85) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the paper version. In the test-retest group, the ICC was 0.85 (CI 0.73-0.91) for EQ-5D scores and 0.79 (CI 0.66-0.87) for visual analogue scale. The κ values were higher than 0.69 in this group. The internal consistencies of the paper and tablet methods were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The paper and tablet versions of the EQ-5D are equivalent. Test-retest and crossover agreement was high and the acceptability of the methods was similar among individuals.


Assuntos
Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Cross-Over , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Papel , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escala Visual Analógica
16.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(1): 26-34, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-899409

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. Methods: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Results: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. Conclusions: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. Clinical trial registration: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Algoritmos , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
17.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 40(1): 26-34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of three mood disorder treatment algorithms in a sample of patients seeking care in the Brazilian public healthcare system. METHODS: A randomized pragmatic trial was conducted with an algorithm developed for treating episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar depressive episodes and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). RESULTS: The sample consisted of 259 subjects diagnosed with BD or MDD (DSM-IV-TR). After the onset of symptoms, the first treatment occurred ∼6 years and the use of mood stabilizers began ∼12 years. All proposed algorithms were effective, with response rates around 80%. The majority of the subjects took 20 weeks to obtain a therapeutic response. CONCLUSIONS: The algorithms were effective with the medications available through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Because therapeutic response was achieved in most subjects by 20 weeks, a follow-up period longer than 12 weeks may be required to confirm adequate response to treatment. Remission of symptoms is still the main desired outcome. Subjects who achieved remission recovered more rapidly and remained more stable over time. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02901249, NCT02870283, NCT02918097.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(3)2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28960796

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that a neutropenic diet has lower microbe content. Here, the microbiological and nutritional contents of regular and neutropenic diets offered to pediatric patients were analyzed. Microbiological contamination was detected in five of 36 of the food samples analyzed, yet there was no statistical differences between the diets (P = 1.00) or in their odds ratio (0.62) (95% CI = 0.05-6.35; P = 0.63). The strict neutropenic diet did have less fiber (P = 0.05) and vitamin C (P = 0.01). Thus, the regular diet appears safe, and possibly provides greater benefits, for pediatric patients with neutropenia.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
20.
Clin. biomed. res ; 38(1): 74-80, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022440

RESUMO

Introdução: Verificar o perfil nutricional e a qualidade de vida dos cuidadores de crianças e/ou adolescentes com câncer durante os primeiros 6 meses de tratamento oncológico. Métodos: Estudo de coorte realizado no período de julho/2015 a novembro/2016 em três momentos: até 2 semanas (T0) e em 3 (T1) e 6 (T2) meses após o diagnóstico. Foram aplicados um questionário sociodemográfico, um recordatório alimentar de 24 horas e o instrumento 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), e foi realizada a antropometria. Foram excluídos do estudo cuidadores gestantes, menores de 19 anos, responsáveis por pacientes em cuidados paliativos e em recidivas. A análise estatística utilizou o teste de dupla análise de variância de Friedman, e foram considerados significativos valores de p < 0,05. Resultados: Foram avaliados 42 cuidadores Os cuidadores mais frequentes foram mães (81%), e a média de idade foi de 34,17 anos (DP = 8,94). Observou-se aumento no peso corporal, no índice de massa corporal, na circunferência abdominal e na dobra cutânea tricipital (p < 0,05). Foi constatada uma redução no consumo de calorias totais e de macronutrientes (p < 0,05), e o consumo de fibras ficou abaixo das recomendações. No aspecto qualidade de vida, o domínio vitalidade teve redução significativa (p = 0,042). Conclusões: Os cuidadores de crianças e/ou adolescentes com câncer apresentam tendência a um consumo inadequado de alimentos. Os estados nutricionais predominantes foram o sobrepeso e a obesidade, com depósito de gordura visceral. Assim, o diagnóstico de câncer infantil interfere no estado nutricional e na qualidade de vida do cuidador durante os primeiros 6 meses do tratamento oncológico. (AU)


Introduction: To assess the nutritional profile and quality of life of caregivers of children and adolescents with cancer during the first 6 months of cancer treatment. Methods: A cohort study was conducted from July, 2015 to November, 2016 at three time points: up to 2 weeks (T0) and at 3 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after diagnosis. A sociodemographic questionnaire, a 24-hour recall, and a 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire were applied, and anthropometry was performed. Pregnant caregivers, caregivers under 19 years old, and caregivers of patients in palliative care and of patients with recurrence were excluded from the study. The statistical analysis was performed using Friedman's two-way analysis of variance. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We evaluated 42 caregivers. Mothers played the role of caregivers more frequently (81%), and mean age was 34.17 years (SD = 8.94). There was an increase in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness (p < 0.05). There was also a reduction in the consumption of total calories and macronutrients (p < 0.05), and fiber consumption was below recommendations. In terms of quality of life, vitality reduced significantly (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Caregivers of children and/or adolescents with cancer tended to show inadequate food consumption. The prevailing nutritional states were overweight and obesity, with visceral fat deposit. Thus, the diagnosis of childhood cancer interferes in the nutritional status and quality of life of a caregiver during the first 6 months of cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Cuidadores , Saúde da Criança , Saúde do Adolescente , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA