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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4343, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554817

RESUMO

Infant gliomas have paradoxical clinical behavior compared to those in children and adults: low-grade tumors have a higher mortality rate, while high-grade tumors have a better outcome. However, we have little understanding of their biology and therefore cannot explain this behavior nor what constitutes optimal clinical management. Here we report a comprehensive genetic analysis of an international cohort of clinically annotated infant gliomas, revealing 3 clinical subgroups. Group 1 tumors arise in the cerebral hemispheres and harbor alterations in the receptor tyrosine kinases ALK, ROS1, NTRK and MET. These are typically single-events and confer an intermediate outcome. Groups 2 and 3 gliomas harbor RAS/MAPK pathway mutations and arise in the hemispheres and midline, respectively. Group 2 tumors have excellent long-term survival, while group 3 tumors progress rapidly and do not respond well to chemoradiation. We conclude that infant gliomas comprise 3 subgroups, justifying the need for specialized therapeutic strategies.

2.
Commun Biol ; 2: 156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098401

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal childhood brainstem tumour, with a quarter of patients harbouring somatic mutations in ACVR1, encoding the serine/threonine kinase ALK2. Despite being an amenable drug target, little has been done to-date to systematically evaluate the role of ACVR1 in DIPG, nor to screen currently available inhibitors in patient-derived tumour models. Here we show the dependence of DIPG cells on the mutant receptor, and the preclinical efficacy of two distinct chemotypes of ALK2 inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine LDN-193189 and the pyridine LDN-214117 to be orally bioavailable and well-tolerated, with good brain penetration. Treatment of immunodeprived mice bearing orthotopic xenografts of H3.3K27M, ACVR1R206H mutant HSJD-DIPG-007 cells with 25 mg/kg LDN-193189 or LDN-214117 for 28 days extended survival compared with vehicle controls. Development of ALK2 inhibitors with improved potency, selectivity and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties may play an important role in therapy for DIPG patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951020

RESUMO

Osteopoikilosis (OPK) is a rare, benign, asymptomatic bone disease causing dense bone lesions, which could be interpreted as bone metastasis. The symmetric distribution, lack of bone destruction, and location differentiate OPK from metastatic disease. It is essential to be aware of this benign condition to prevent diagnostic errors. We present the case of a 10-year-old female patient with the concurrent diagnosis of secreting mixed germ cell tumor with Yolk Salk Tumor compound and OPK. Physical examination disclosed an abdominal mass, and blood tests showed increased alfa-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin levels. Computed tomography revealed a pelvic tumor associated with multiple radiodense lesions distributed throughout the bone skeleton. Lesions were inactive on scintigraphy and FDG-PET. Pathology of the bone showed normal bone tissue and ruled out metastasis. The patient achieved complete remission after chemotherapy and surgery and remains in continued complete remission 28 months from diagnosis. The genetic analysis confirmed the LEMD3 germline mutation confirming OPK.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 114: 36-46, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035085

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study is to analyse radiotherapy quality assurance (RTQA) processes in the treatment of paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours across Europe. METHODS: The RTQA aspects of major past and current European trials for paediatric CNS tumours were reviewed based on study protocols and publications. A survey among radiation oncologists and paediatric oncologists about the practices of RTQA in paediatric CNS tumours across European countries was also performed. RESULTS: Several (inter)national initiatives to implement RTQA are being developed across Europe, with an apparent paradigm shift from retrospective to prospective RTQA. Experts from 21 of 29 contacted countries responded to the survey. National consensus guidelines for paediatric CNS tumours are available in 10 of 21 countries. Twenty-one of 33 experts believe that the level of involvement of paediatric radiation oncologists in the meetings and activities of the national paediatric oncology societies is adequate. Central storage of radiotherapy data is available in France, Germany and Denmark. RTQA programmes for paediatric brain tumours are available in 7 countries. Twelve of 21 experts believe that there is a well-established national referral network for the radiation treatment of paediatric patients in their respective countries. CONCLUSION: As a result of the review and survey, the following measures are proposed: (1) developing international RT guidelines for paediatric CNS tumours, (2) improving the collaboration between paediatric oncologists and paediatric radiation oncologists, (3) building a central storage system for RT data, (4) implementing international prospective RTQA platforms and (5) promoting European referral networks to reduce inequality.

5.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 161(2): 351-354, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617713

RESUMO

Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) can present in the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lesions compatible with leptomeningeal dissemination. Therapeutic strategy in this condition is controversial. We present a case of an infant with CPP and significant diffuse leptomeningeal contrast enhancement at diagnosis, which spontaneously resolved after removal of the primary tumor. In these challenging cases, several aspects, such as histopathological/molecular diagnosis and close radiological follow-up, should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary treatments.

6.
Commun Biol ; 2(1): 156, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925004

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal childhood brainstem tumour, with a quarter of patients harbouring somatic mutations in ACVR1, encoding the serine/threonine kinase ALK2. Despite being an amenable drug target, little has been done to-date to systematically evaluate the role of ACVR1 in DIPG, nor to screen currently available inhibitors in patient-derived tumour models. Here we show the dependence of DIPG cells on the mutant receptor, and the preclinical efficacy of two distinct chemotypes of ALK2 inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine LDN-193189 and the pyridine LDN-214117 to be orally bioavailable and well-tolerated, with good brain penetration. Treatment of immunodeprived mice bearing orthotopic xenografts of H3.3K27M, ACVR1R206H mutant HSJD-DIPG-007 cells with 25 mg/kg LDN-193189 or LDN-214117 for 28 days extended survival compared with vehicle controls. Development of ALK2 inhibitors with improved potency, selectivity and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties may play an important role in therapy for DIPG patients.

7.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; 22(6): 678-683, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVEDiffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive and lethal brainstem tumor in children. In the 1980s, routine biopsy at presentation was abandoned since it was claimed "unnecessary" for diagnosis. In the last decade, however, several groups have reincorporated this procedure as standard of care or in the context of clinical trials. Expert neurosurgical teams report no mortality and acceptable morbidity, and no relevant complications have been previously described. The aim of this study was to review needle tract dissemination as a potential complication in DIPG.METHODSThe authors retrospectively analyzed the incidence of dissemination through surgical tracts in DIPG patients who underwent biopsy procedures at diagnosis in 3 dedicated centers. Clinical records and images as well as radiation dosimetry from diagnosis to relapse were reviewed.RESULTSFour patients (2 boys and 2 girls, age range 6-12 years) had surgical tract dissemination: in 3 cases in the needle tract and in 1 case in the Ommaya catheter tract. The median time from biopsy to identification of dissemination was 5 months (range 4-6 months). The median overall survival was 11 months (range 7-12 months). Disseminated lesions were in the marginal radiotherapy field (n = 2), out of the field (n = 1), and in the radiotherapy field (n = 1).CONCLUSIONSAlthough surgical tract dissemination in DIPG is a rare complication (associated with 2.4% of procedures in this study), it should be mentioned to patients and family when procedures involving a surgical tract are proposed. The inclusion of the needle tract in the radiotherapy field may have only limited benefit. Future studies are warranted to explore the benefit of larger radiotherapy fields in patients with DIPG.


Assuntos
Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Ponte/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Nat Med ; 24(8): 1204-1215, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967352

RESUMO

The failure to develop effective therapies for pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is in part due to their intrinsic heterogeneity. We aimed to quantitatively assess the extent to which this was present in these tumors through subclonal genomic analyses and to determine whether distinct tumor subpopulations may interact to promote tumorigenesis by generating subclonal patient-derived models in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of 142 sequenced tumors revealed multiple tumor subclones, spatially and temporally coexisting in a stable manner as observed by multiple sampling strategies. We isolated genotypically and phenotypically distinct subpopulations that we propose cooperate to enhance tumorigenicity and resistance to therapy. Inactivating mutations in the H4K20 histone methyltransferase KMT5B (SUV420H1), present in <1% of cells, abrogate DNA repair and confer increased invasion and migration on neighboring cells, in vitro and in vivo, through chemokine signaling and modulation of integrins. These data indicate that even rare tumor subpopulations may exert profound effects on tumorigenesis as a whole and may represent a new avenue for therapeutic development. Unraveling the mechanisms of subclonal diversity and communication in pGBM and DIPG will be an important step toward overcoming barriers to effective treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Separação Celular , Criança , Células Clonais , Genótipo , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
10.
Front Oncol ; 8: 127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755954

RESUMO

Background and objective: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy). Methods: Nine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV) were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3 months during the maintenance phase. Results: Vaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients) and specific (8/9 patients) antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema. Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.

11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(6): 1355-1363, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351917

RESUMO

Purpose: The classification of medulloblastoma into WNT, SHH, group 3, and group 4 subgroups has become of critical importance for patient risk stratification and subgroup-tailored clinical trials. Here, we aimed to develop a simplified, clinically applicable classification approach that can be implemented in the majority of centers treating patients with medulloblastoma.Experimental Design: We analyzed 1,577 samples comprising previously published DNA methylation microarray data (913 medulloblastomas, 457 non-medulloblastoma tumors, 85 normal tissues), and 122 frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded medulloblastoma samples. Biomarkers were identified applying stringent selection filters and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) method, and validated using DNA methylation microarray data, bisulfite pyrosequencing, and direct-bisulfite sequencing.Results: Using a LDA-based approach, we developed and validated a prediction method (EpiWNT-SHH classifier) based on six epigenetic biomarkers that allowed for rapid classification of medulloblastoma into the clinically relevant subgroups WNT, SHH, and non-WNT/non-SHH with excellent concordance (>99%) with current gold-standard methods, DNA methylation microarray, and gene signature profiling analysis. The EpiWNT-SHH classifier showed high prediction capacity using both frozen and formalin-fixed material, as well as diverse DNA methylation detection methods. Similarly, we developed a classifier specific for group 3 and group 4 tumors, based on five biomarkers (EpiG3-G4) with good discriminatory capacity, allowing for correct assignment of more than 92% of tumors. EpiWNT-SHH and EpiG3-G4 methylation profiles remained stable across tumor primary, metastasis, and relapse samples.Conclusions: The EpiWNT-SHH and EpiG3-G4 classifiers represent a new simplified approach for accurate, rapid, and cost-effective molecular classification of single medulloblastoma DNA samples, using clinically applicable DNA methylation detection methods. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1355-63. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Cerebelares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cerebelares/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Meduloblastoma/diagnóstico , Meduloblastoma/genética , Biópsia , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Neurooncol ; 137(1): 205-213, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248974

RESUMO

Non-medulloblastoma CNS embryonal tumors (former PNET/Pineoblastomas) are aggressive malignancies with poor outcome that have been historically treated with medulloblastoma protocols. The purpose of this study is to present a tumor-specific, real-world data cohort of patients with CNS-PNET/PB to analyze quality indicators that can be implemented to improve the outcome of these patients. Patients 0-21 years with CNS-PNET treated in eight large institutions were included. Baseline characteristics, treatment and outcome [progression-free and overall survival (PFS and OS respectively)] were analyzed. From 2005 to 2014, 43 patients fulfilled entry criteria. Median age at diagnosis was 3.6 years (range 0.0-14.7). Histology was pineoblastoma (9%), ependymoblastoma (5%), ETANTR (7%) and PNET (77%). Median duration of the main symptom was 2 weeks (range 0-12). At diagnosis, 28% presented with metastatic disease. Seventeen different protocols were used on frontline treatment; 44% had gross total resection, 42% craniospinal radiotherapy, 86% chemotherapy, and 33% autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). Median follow-up for survivors was 3.5 years (range 1.7-9.3). 3-year PFS was 31.9% (95% CI 17-47%) and OS 35.1% (95% CI 20-50%). Age, extent of resection and radiotherapy were prognostic of PFS and OS in univariate analysis (p < 0.05). Our series shows a dismal outcome for CNS-PNET, especially when compared to patients included in clinical trials. Establishing a common national strategy, implementing referral circuits and collaboration networks, and incorporating new molecular knowledge into routine clinical practice are accessible measures that can improve the outcome of these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Pinealoma/terapia , Padrão de Cuidado , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pinealoma/diagnóstico , Espanha , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 86: 358-363, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in adults; however, little information on the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in younger patients is available. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to <18 years with previously treated or untreated, unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma received ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Primary end-points were 1-year overall survival and safety. RESULTS: Over a period of 3.5 years, 12 patients received ipilimumab at either 3 mg/kg (n = 4) or 10 mg/kg (n = 8). The median number of ipilimumab doses was four for 3 mg/kg and three for 10 mg/kg. At 1 year, three of four patients on 3 mg/kg and five of eight patients on 10 mg/kg were alive. Two patients on 10 mg/kg had partial response, and one on 3 mg/kg had stable disease. One patient had durable partial response at 3 years without further treatment, at time of this report. There was one grade 3/4 immune-mediated adverse reaction with 3 mg/kg and five with 10 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related deaths. The study was stopped due to slow accrual. CONCLUSIONS: At >1 year follow-up, ipilimumab demonstrated activity in melanoma patients aged 12 to <18 years, with a similar safety profile as that seen in adults. Our trial highlights the difficulties of enrolling younger patients with rare diseases in clinical trials for treatments that are approved in adults, suggesting adolescents with cancer types occurring predominantly in adults should be considered for inclusion in adult trials of promising new drugs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01696045.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/farmacocinética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Seleção de Pacientes , Tamanho da Amostra , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer Cell ; 32(4): 520-537.e5, 2017 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966033

RESUMO

We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Exoma , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 87(3): 155-163, sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-166299

RESUMO

Introducción: El cáncer es la primera causa de muerte por enfermedad entre el primer año de vida y la adolescencia. Algunos tipos de enfermedad siguen constituyendo un reto en términos de curación. Existe por tanto una necesidad imperiosa de nuevos fármacos. Algunos descubrimientos recientes en la biología del cáncer abren la puerta al desarrollo de terapias dirigidas contra alteraciones moleculares concretas e inmunoterapia. Esto se ha traducido en resultados prometedores sobre todo en oncología de adultos, y en menor medida todavía en niños. Presentamos la actividad en ensayos clínicos precoces (fase I-II) en oncología pediátrica en España. Material y métodos: A través de la Sociedad Española de Oncología y Hematología Pediátrica (SEHOP) contactamos a sus miembros para identificar los ensayos fase I-II en cáncer pediátrico abiertos entre 2005 y 2015. Resultados: En este periodo se abrieron 30 ensayos: 21 (70%) en tumores sólidos y 9 (30%) en hemopatías malignas y se incluyó a 212 pacientes. La mayoría están promovidos por la industria farmacéutica (53%). Desde 2010, 4 centros se han integrado en el consorcio internacional ITCC cuyo objetivo es desarrollar nuevas terapias en cáncer infantil. Esto ha permitido ampliar el abanico de posibilidades terapéuticas. Los resultados de ensayos clínicos terminados muestran la contribución de los investigadores españoles, la introducción de terapias dirigidas y sus beneficios. Conclusiones: La actividad en ensayos clínicos precoces ha aumentado en estos años. La SEHOP está comprometida a desarrollar y participar en ensayos clínicos académicos colaborativos, que favorezcan el avance en las terapias frente al cáncer infantil (AU)


Introduction: Cancer is the leading cause of death between the first year of life and adolescence, and some types of diseases are still a major challenge in terms of cure. There is, therefore, a major need for new drugs. Recent findings in cancer biology open the door to the development of targeted therapies against individual molecular changes, as well as immunotherapy. Promising results in adult anti-cancer drug development have not yet been translated into paediatric clinical practice. A report is presented on the activity in early paediatric oncology trials (phase I-II) in Spain. Material and methods: All members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology Oncology (SEHOP) were contacted in order to identify early clinical trials in paediatric cancer opened between 2005 and 2015. Results: A total of 30 trials had been opened in this period: 21 (70%) in solid tumours, and 9 (30%) in malignant haemopathies. A total of 212 patients have been enrolled. The majority was industry sponsored (53%). Since 2010, four centres have joined the international consortium of Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC), which has as its aim to develop novel therapies for paediatric tumours. A significant number of new studies have opened since 2010, improving the treatment opportunities for our children. Results of recently closed trials show the contribution of Spanish investigators, the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, and their benefits. Conclusions: The activity in clinical trials has increased in the years analysed. The SEHOP is committed to develop and participate in collaborative academic trials, in order to help in the advancement and optimisation of existing therapies in paediatric cancer (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Drogas em Investigação , Avaliação de Medicamentos/tendências , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(25): 2934-2941, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727518

RESUMO

Purpose BRAF V600E is a potentially highly targetable mutation detected in a subset of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs). Its biologic and clinical effect within this diverse group of tumors remains unknown. Patients and Methods A combined clinical and genetic institutional study of patients with PLGGs with long-term follow-up was performed (N = 510). Clinical and treatment data of patients with BRAF V600E mutated PLGG (n = 99) were compared with a large international independent cohort of patients with BRAF V600E mutated-PLGG (n = 180). Results BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 69 of 405 patients (17%) with PLGG across a broad spectrum of histologies and sites, including midline locations, which are not often routinely biopsied in clinical practice. Patients with BRAF V600E PLGG exhibited poor outcomes after chemotherapy and radiation therapies that resulted in a 10-year progression-free survival of 27% (95% CI, 12.1% to 41.9%) and 60.2% (95% CI, 53.3% to 67.1%) for BRAF V600E and wild-type PLGG, respectively ( P < .001). Additional multivariable clinical and molecular stratification revealed that the extent of resection and CDKN2A deletion contributed independently to poor outcome in BRAF V600E PLGG. A similar independent role for CDKN2A and resection on outcome were observed in the independent cohort. Quantitative imaging analysis revealed progressive disease and a lack of response to conventional chemotherapy in most patients with BRAF V600E PLGG. Conclusion BRAF V600E PLGG constitutes a distinct entity with poor prognosis when treated with current adjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/enzimologia , Glioma/enzimologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Diencéfalo/enzimologia , Diencéfalo/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico
17.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 87(3): 155-163, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer is the leading cause of death between the first year of life and adolescence, and some types of diseases are still a major challenge in terms of cure. There is, therefore, a major need for new drugs. Recent findings in cancer biology open the door to the development of targeted therapies against individual molecular changes, as well as immunotherapy. Promising results in adult anti-cancer drug development have not yet been translated into paediatric clinical practice. A report is presented on the activity in early paediatric oncology trials (phase I-II) in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology Oncology (SEHOP) were contacted in order to identify early clinical trials in paediatric cancer opened between 2005 and 2015. RESULTS: A total of 30 trials had been opened in this period: 21 (70%) in solid tumours, and 9 (30%) in malignant haemopathies. A total of 212 patients have been enrolled. The majority was industry sponsored (53%). Since 2010, four centres have joined the international consortium of Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC), which has as its aim to develop novel therapies for paediatric tumours. A significant number of new studies have opened since 2010, improving the treatment opportunities for our children. Results of recently closed trials show the contribution of Spanish investigators, the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, and their benefits. CONCLUSIONS: The activity in clinical trials has increased in the years analysed. The SEHOP is committed to develop and participate in collaborative academic trials, in order to help in the advancement and optimisation of existing therapies in paediatric cancer.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
18.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 85(5): e1-e8, nov. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-157740

RESUMO

Los tumores pediátricos del sistema nervioso central (SNC) con diseminación leptomeníngea tienen mal pronóstico y es preciso encontrar nuevas alternativas terapéuticas. Una de las principales dificultades en el tratamiento de los tumores del SNC es la penetración de la barrera hematoencefálica, por lo que el tratamiento intratecal ha demostrado su eficacia en múltiples tumores pediátricos. En este artículo se revisa la experiencia disponible sobre la utilización de citarabina liposomal para pacientes pediátricos con tumores del SNC con diseminación leptomeníngea: farmacología, forma de administración, datos de seguridad y estudios de eficacia (AU)


Leptomeningeal dissemination in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours is associated with a poor outcome, and new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. One of the main difficulties in the treatment of CNS tumours is blood brain barrier penetration. Intrathecal therapy has shown to be effective in several paediatric tumours. The aim of this article is to review the data available on the use of liposomal cytarabine for paediatric patients with leptomeningeal dissemination of CNS tumours, including the pharmacology, administration, safety and efficacy data (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Aracnoide-Máter/patologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Injeções Espinhais , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Ependimoma/tratamento farmacológico , Meduloblastoma/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Neurooncol ; 128(3): 387-94, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177627

RESUMO

Children diagnosed with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) face a dismal prognosis, with severe neurologic deterioration and inevitable death at a median of 9 months from diagnosis. Steroids are widely prescribed as supportive or palliative treatment although they are known to cause severe side effects that may reduce the quality of life. This study aims to review the current knowledge on, and use of, steroids in DIPG patients. A global questionnaire-study among health care professionals was performed to ascertain information on the current (multi-)institutional and (multi-)national use of steroids, the availability of clinical guidelines, and the need for improvements in prescribing steroids to DIPG patients. In addition, an extensive literature search was performed to review studies investigating steroids in pediatric brain tumor patients. From 150 responding health care professionals, only 7 % had clinical guidelines. The use of steroids was heterogeneous and over 85 % of respondents reported serious side effects. Fourteen articles, with low level of evidence, described the use of steroids in pediatric brain tumor patients. Clinical trials investigating optimal dose or regimen were lacking. This study is a first inventory of the availability of evidence-based information and clinical guidelines, and the current attitude towards the use of steroids in DIPG patients. To date, the risk-benefit ratio of steroids in this disease is yet to be determined. We emphasize the need for clinical trials resulting in guidelines on steroids, and possibly alternative drugs, to optimize the quality of care and quality of life of DIPG patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 85(5): 274.e1-274.e8, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086069

RESUMO

Leptomeningeal dissemination in paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumours is associated with a poor outcome, and new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. One of the main difficulties in the treatment of CNS tumours is blood brain barrier penetration. Intrathecal therapy has shown to be effective in several paediatric tumours. The aim of this article is to review the data available on the use of liposomal cytarabine for paediatric patients with leptomeningeal dissemination of CNS tumours, including the pharmacology, administration route, safety and efficacy data.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Meníngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Lipossomos , Invasividade Neoplásica
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