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1.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939501

RESUMO

The distribution of harms to health varies spatially determined by the socioeconomic conditions of the environment. This research aimed to assess the spatial distribution of dental caries in 12-year-old children and their correlation with socioeconomic indicators in Brazilian states. The sample of this ecological study comprised all the 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District. Thematic and correlation maps were constructed in order to assess the spatial dependency, as well as the correlation between dental caries and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that the states with the worst DMFT indexes were located in the north and northeast, showing spatial autocorrelation. These regions also had the worst results for the following variables: poverty, illiteracy, education, and income. The bivariate analysis showed that household income and education level had negative spatial correlation with the DMFT index, while illiteracy and poverty rates showed positive correlation. Despite advances in the decline of DMFT index in recent years, there is still an inequity in the distribution of the caries disease.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 3901, 01 Fevereiro 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998044

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the perception of undergraduates' students in a Dentistry School about the impact of basic disciplines on their professional development, as well the integration of this knowledge with the professional sphere. Material and Methods: It is a qualitative research study carried out through focus groups comprised of dentistry students close to finishing their degree. The data were analyzed by the thematic content analysis. Results: Four categories derived from the empirical material: "Disassociation of basic disciplines within the professional cycle", "Autonomy or transference of responsibility", "Campus-DOD distancing" and "Humanization of health care from first moments". The narratives showed the difficulties faced in order to effect, indeed, integration between the basic cycle and the curricular components of the vocational cycle. It was also evident the decontextualization of the basic cycle with the perspective of approach with professional practice. In addition, student's protagonist posture and learning how to humanize health care were identified as important factors to be debated and improved in the curriculum from the beginning of the course. Conclusion: The difficulties faced in order to effect an actual integration between the basic disciplines and the professional disciplines bring undesirable consequences upon undergraduate, being fundamental that the construction of new pedagogical projects means an effective integration of the contents to the curriculum design, avoiding any fragmentation between the basic and vocational cycle.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Percepção Social , Estudantes de Odontologia , Brasil , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Educação em Odontologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Grupos Focais/métodos , Entrevista , Estudos de Avaliação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Rev. ABENO ; 15(1): 2-11, 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-879382

RESUMO

Há um reconhecimento da necessidade de mudança na educação de profissionais de saúde frente à necessidade de formar profissionais capazes de responder às demandas sociais e com isso trazer melhor qualidade de vida à população. Para isto, é fundamental discutir como o professor se insere neste contexto uma vez que é dele a responsabilidade pela condução do processo educativo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a percepção de alunos do curso de graduação em Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) a respeito do papel do professor no processo ensino-aprendizagem. Trata-se de estudo de natureza qualitativa, realizada por meio da técnica de grupos focais compostos por estudantes regulares dos 2º, 3º, 4º, 8º e 9º períodos, no ano 2012. Os estudantes entrevistados enfatizaram o professor como o grande responsável pelo seu aprendizado. Da análise dos dados surgiram quatro categorias: Metodologia adotada pelo professor, Relacionamento professor/aluno como influente no processo de aprendizagem, Falta de autonomia do discente e Formação docente. O estudo revelou que o professor ainda é mantido no centro do processo de ensino em função da passividade dos discentes em não assumir seu papel de corresponsáveis por sua formação, possivelmente pela postura adotada pelo professor, centrada na técnica e com pouca base em metodologias pedagógicas ativas (AU).


There is recognition of the need for change in education of health professionals to face the need to train professionals able to respond to social demands and bring with it higher quality of life for the population. For this, it is essential to discuss how the teacher fits in this context since it is their responsibility for the conduct of the educational process. The aim of this study was to analyze the perception of undergraduate students of dentistry at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) about the role of the teacher in the teaching-learning process. This is a qualitative study, conducted by the technique of focus groups composed of regular students of 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, and 9th periods/semesters, in the year 2012. Respondent students em phasized the teacher as largely responsible for their learning, in so being in the center of the teaching-learning process. In analysis of the data, four categories emerged: methodology adopted by the teacher, teacher / student relationship as influential in the learning process, lack of autonomy for the student, and teacher training. The study showed that the teacher is still kept in the center of the teaching process according to the passivity of students in not taking their role as coresponsible for their learning, possibly because of the stance taken by the teacher, focused more on technique and with little basis in active teaching methodologies. In other words, not enough hands-on learning methodologies/activities are being implemented by the teachers (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação em Odontologia , Docentes de Odontologia/educação , Estudantes de Odontologia , Brasil , Aprendizagem , Análise Qualitativa/métodos
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