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1.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 3(1): 55-64, ene.-jun. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868825

RESUMO

La corteza de Rhizophora mangle L., mangle rojo, ha sido utilizado tradicionalmente por sus propiedades como antiséptico, astringente y hemostático, se ha descrito la presencia de polifenoles como flavonoides y taninos, a los cuales se les ha relacionado con su acción antioxidante y cicatrizante demostrada en diferentes estudios; por su parte las hojas han presentado taninos y actividad antioxidante muy similar, y en ocasiones superior, a la reportada para la corteza. En este estudio se determinó la cantidad de taninos, flavonoides, actividad antioxidante y antibacteriana de cinco extractos etanólicos de hoja y corteza de mangle rojo, colectado en cinco transectos de la Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiples Monterrico Santa Rosa, Guatemala; se analizaron los datos con base en los promedios y desviaciones estándar de cada uno de los parámetros evaluados. En los extractos de hojas se determinó un 15.91±8.56% de taninos, 315.19±90.83ppm de flavonoides, actividad antioxidante a una concentración inhibitoria media (CI50) de 0.435±0.315mg/mL, 125.44±65.05μg de ácido gálico/g de extracto y actividad antibacterianacontra Staphylococcus aereus ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis ATCC 14990 y S. epidermidis aislada de herida con unaconcentración mínima inhibitoria (CIM) de 1 mg/mL; siendo estos datos similares a los de corteza. Se obtuvo uncoeficiente de correlación de -.79, entre la cantidad de taninos y actividad antioxidante (p < .001); lo cual relaciona su composición química con su posible efecto cicatrizante, por lo que los extractos de hoja pueden constituir unaalternativa viable para el desarrollo de productos naturales.


The Rhizophora mangle L. cortex, red mangrove, has a traditional use due to its antiseptic, astringent and hemostaticproperties; it has been described the content of polyphenols mainly as flavonoids and tannins, withantioxidant and wound healing properties, demonstrated in various studies, meanwhile the leafs presents tannins and similar antioxidant activity, sometimes, superior to the cortex activity. In this study, the amount of tannins, flavonoids, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five ethanol extracts of leaf and cortex of red mangrove were determined; the samples were collected in the nature reserve multipurpose Monterric o, Santa Rosa, Guatemala; the data was analyzed based on the averages and standard deviations of each of the parameters evaluated. Inleaf extracts were quantified 15.91±8.56% of tannins, flavonoids 315.19±90.83 ppm, antioxidant activity of IC50 0.435±0.315mg/mL, total phenols of 125.44±65.05 μg gallic acid/ g of extract and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis ATCC 14990 and S. salvaje with a MIC of 1 mg/mL, beingcomparables as those of the cortex. A correlation of -.79 was obtained, between the amount of tannins and antioxidant activity (p <.001); relating the results to a possible biological wound healing effects, consequently the leafextracts can become a viable option to the development of medicinal natural products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Áreas Alagadas , Folhas de Planta
2.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 3(1): 81-90, ene.-jun. 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-868827

RESUMO

El empleo de las plantas medicinales con fines curativos es una práctica que se ha utilizado ancestralmente. Durantemucho tiempo los remedios naturales fueron el principal recurso disponible, esto hizo que se profundizaraen el conocimiento de las especies vegetales, surgiendo así como una disciplina la fitoterapia. En todo el mundo, la medicina tradicional, complementaria o no convencional ha constituido un pilar importante en la prestación deservicios de salud. Muchos países reconocen actualmente la necesidad de elaborar un enfoque coherente e integralde la atención de salud que facilite el acceso de la medicina tradicional de manera segura, respetuosa, asequible yefectiva, por lo que surge la estrategia de la Organización Mundial de Salud 2002-2005, que por su importancia fueactualizada para 2014-2023. En Guatemala existe una práctica tradicional de uso de plantas medicinales, además secuenta con un Programa Nacional de Medicina Tradicional y con el Vademécum Nacional de Plantas Medicinales,el cual contiene la información sobre plantas medicinales validadas y con suficiente evidencia científica. Derivadodel análisis de la situación del sistema de salud, se plantea como una de las estrategias para mejorar el acceso, lacalidad de la atención y la promoción de la salud, un abordaje intercultural, dándole un nuevo enfoque al sistemade salud de una forma integrada, incluyente y pluricultural, que promueva la calidad en el servicio y que respondaa las necesidades de la comunidad con los recursos que le brinda su ambiente.


Traditional use of herbal medicines refers to the long historical use of these medicines, for a long time naturalremedies were the main resource available, making the knowledge of plant species an emerging discipline,phytotherapy. Worldwide, traditional, complementary or unconventional medicine has constituted an importantpillar in the provision of health services, many countries recognize the need to develop a coherent and comprehensiveapproach in health care, facilitating access of traditional medicine in a safe, friendly, affordable, and effectiveway. From this reason arise the strategy of the World Health Organization 2002-2005, because of its importanceit was updated for 2014-2023. In Guatemala there is a traditional practical use of medicinal plants, also there isa National Program on Traditional Medicine and the National Vade mecum on Medicinal Plants, which containvalidated information about medicinal plants and with sufficient scientific evidence. Derived from the analysis ofthe national health system, medicinal plants are proposed as one of the strategies to improve access to health carequality, and health promotion of intercultural approach, giving a new proposal to health care systems as integrated,inclusive, accessible and multicultural that promotes quality in service and to answer the needs of the communitywith the resources provided by the environment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde de Populações Indígenas , Plantas Medicinais , Terapêutica
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 2(2): 141-147, jul.-dic. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-834326

RESUMO

La elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares, en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. sabdariffa, para reducir los lípidos séricos en dos grupos de individuos, con valores de triglicéridos mayores de 150 mg/dL, al recibir una dosis de 15 mg de antocianinas totales al día, dividida entres veces, por un periodo de dos meses para establecer su influencia, dependiendo del momento de su administración, un grupo recibiéndola antes de la comida y otro durante la misma. El extracto de H. sabdariffa mostró un efecto hipotrigliceridémico significativo (p = 0.034), al finalizar el tratamiento, únicamente al administrar el extracto antes de las comidas. Al mismo tiempo, no se observó alteración en los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol contenido en las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y colesterol contenido en las proteínas de alta densidad en ninguno de los dos grupos evaluados. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos acuosos de H. sabdariffa podrían ser utilizados para ejercer una acción en los triglicéridos plasmáticos, dependiente del consumo de alimentos, y del momento de administración.


Elevated blood lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, has become a common health risk worldwide, not only for cardiovascular diseases, especially in the case of cholesterol and triglycerides, but also in pancreatic, corneal, spleen and liver problems. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., is a medicinal plant of the Malvaceae family, its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of an aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa at a dose of 15 mg of anthocyanins daily, divided in three times a day, either before or during meals, over a period of 2 months, to decrease plasma triglycerides in subjects with values above 150 mg/dL, in order to establish the influence of the time of administration in this effect. The extract showed a hypotriglyceridemic effect (p = 0.034) in the first and second month of treatment, only when administered before meals. At the same time, no significant changes were observed in levels of total cholesterol, cLDL, cHDL in any of the evaluated groups. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa could be used to reduce action in plasma triglycerides levels only when administered prior to meals.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antocianinas , Dislipidemias/sangue , Extratos Vegetais , Triglicerídeos
4.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 22(2): 239-248, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-624661

RESUMO

Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, known as zarzaparrilla, is a climbing shrub from Tropical America. The rhizome is popularly used in medicine as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and tonic. Since 1983 studies are being conducted in Guatemala for validation of the ethnobotanical uses, particularly in vitro demonstration of antimicrobial activity, using wild material, with high variability and some taxonomic problems. This article reports the taxonomic determination, cultivation of drug material, evaluation of use by in vitro and in vivo pharmacological assays, and phytochemical characterization. Extracts from cultivated material was evaluated by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunomodulatory models, confirming the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Phytochemistry was done in the crude drug and extracts. Quality control parameters are described (micrographic drawings and phytochemical characteristics). Evidence is presented that cultivated rhizome has antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities, validating the popular use and helping the industrial development of phytopharmaceutical products.

5.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 21(4): 587-593, jul.-ago. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-596229

RESUMO

The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4 percent), while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4 percent), camphene (16.6 percent) and limonene (13.9 percent) being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL). Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL), was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL), and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL). The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL), and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL) and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL). None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21754942

RESUMO

There are few studies on the pharmacological properties of Valeriana prionophylla Standl. (VP), known as "Valeriana del monte", and used in Mesoamerican folk medicine to treat sleep disorders. This study examines the pharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the dry rhizome using the open field, rota rod, elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FST), strychnine- and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, PTZ-induced seizures, and the inhibitory avoidance tests. VP did not show any protective effect against PTZ-induced convulsions. In the EPM, exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect through the effective enhancement of the entries (38.5%) and time spent (44.7%) in the open arms, when compared with control group. Time spent and the numbers of entrances into the enclosed arms were decreased, similar to those effects observed with diazepam. In the FST, acute treatment with VP, produced a dose-dependent decrease in immobility time, similarly to imipramine. VP also produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the latency of sleeping time, while producing an increase in total duration of sleep; influenced memory consolidation of the animals only at lower doses, unlike those that produced anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects. In summary, the results suggest that VP presents several psychopharmacological activities, including anxiolytic, antidepressant, and hypno-sedative effects.

7.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 20(6): 897-903, dez. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-572601

RESUMO

Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L.) Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50) levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.


Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M) e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F), foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti-Artemia: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L.) Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae e Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. As outras cinco espécies, Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae e Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, não. Todas as plantas sem atividade anti-Artemia não tiveram nenhum efeito letal em ambos os ensaios com A. salina. Para as plantas com atividade anti-Artemia o M Artoxkit não foi sensível a G. sepium e teste convencional de Artemia não foi sensível a S. americanum, G. sepium e N. lobata. Todos os extratos vegetais, exceto o de C. americana, apresentaram um efeito letal sobre T. platyurus e a concentração letal média (CL50) para este organismo em todos os casos foram substancialmente inferiores aos da espécie de teste de água salgada. Este estudo revelou que T. platyurus é teste promissor para uma investigação aprofundada na seleção de extratos de plantas com potenciais propriedades medicinais.

8.
Phytomedicine ; 15(6-7): 520-4, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18068962

RESUMO

Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo.


Assuntos
Antivirais/análise , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Acanthaceae/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Linhagem Celular , Guatemala , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sapotaceae/química
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