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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216407, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048891

RESUMO

Genotype-to-phenotype correlation studies in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have been confounded by the age-dependent, tissue-specific and expansion-biased features of somatic mosaicism of the expanded CTG repeat. Previously, we showed that by controlling for the confounding effects of somatic instability to estimate the progenitor allele CTG length in blood DNA, age at onset correlations could be significantly improved. To determine the suitability of saliva DNA as a source for genotyping, we used small pool-PCR to perform a detailed quantitative study of the somatic mutational dynamics of the CTG repeat in saliva and blood DNA from 40 DM1 patients. Notably, the modal allele length in saliva was only moderately higher in saliva and not as large as previously observed in most other tissues. The lower boundary of the allele distribution was also slightly higher in saliva than it was in blood DNA. However, the progenitor allele length estimated in blood explained more of the variation in age at onset than that estimated from saliva. Interestingly, although the modal allele length was slightly higher in saliva, the overall degree of somatic variation was typically lower than in blood DNA, revealing new insights into the tissue-specific dynamics of somatic mosaicism. These data indicate that saliva constitutes an accessible, non-invasive and suitable DNA sample source for performing genetic studies in DM1.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos , Distrofia Miotônica , Saliva , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Idade de Início , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Miotônica/diagnóstico , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 244: 71-7, 2016 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472173

RESUMO

Alterations in the monoaminergic neurotransmission systems are suspected to be involved in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The role of these pathways in the risk of developing depressive symptoms during childhood or adolescence is still not completely clear. This study sought to identify putative genetic factors in genes of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems modulating the level of manifestation of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. We analyzed 170 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 candidate dopaminergic and serotonergic genes in a non-clinical sample of 410 Costa Rican participants of ages between 7 and 18 years, assessing the severity of depressive symptoms through the Child Depression Inventory (CDI). Genotypic and haplotypic associations, as well as epistatic effects, were examined. A significant interaction effect was detected between rs1039089 in conjunction with rs877138 located upstream of the dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes respectively, although no evidence was found for any single variant or haplotype related to a differential liability. This newly described genetic interaction among putative regulatory regions of dopamine receptors could affect the level of manifestation of depressive symptoms through an imbalance of D1-D2 heteromers and modulation of cognitive processes.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 40: 57-66, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26994442

RESUMO

Somatic mosaicism of the expanded CTG repeat in myotonic dystrophy type 1 is age-dependent, tissue-specific and expansion-biased, contributing toward the tissue-specificity and progressive nature of the symptoms. Previously, using regression modelling of repeat instability we showed that variation in the rate of somatic expansion in blood DNA contributes toward variation in age of onset, directly implicating somatic expansion in the disease pathway. Here, we confirm these results using a larger more genetically homogenous Costa Rican DM1 cohort (p<0.001). Interestingly, we also provide evidence that supports subtle sex-dependent differences in repeat length-dependent age at onset and somatic mutational dynamics. Previously, we demonstrated that variation in the rate of somatic expansion was a heritable quantitative trait. Given the important role that DNA mismatch repair genes play in mediating expansions in mouse models, we tested for modifier gene effects with 13 DNA mismatch gene polymorphisms (one each in MSH2, PMS2, MSH6 and MLH1; and nine in MSH3). After correcting for allele length and age effects, we identified three polymorphisms in MSH3 that were associated with variation in somatic instability: Rs26279 (p=0.003); Rs1677658 (p=0.009); and Rs10168 (p=0.031). However, only the association with Rs26279 remained significant after multiple testing correction. Although we revealed a statistically significant association between Rs26279 and somatic instability, we did not detect an association with the age at onset. Individuals with the A/A genotype for Rs26279 tended to show a greater propensity to expand the CTG repeat than other genotypes. Interestingly, this SNP results in an amino acid change in the critical ATPase domain of MSH3 and is potentially functionally dimorphic. These data suggest that MSH3 is a key player in generating somatic variation in DM1 patients and further highlight MSH3 as a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mosaicismo , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA/sangue , DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 3 Homóloga a MutS , Distrofia Miotônica/sangue
4.
Hum Mutat ; 37(1): 74-83, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26510092

RESUMO

Mutations in the gene coding for the skeletal muscle Cl(-) channel (CLCN1) lead to dominant or recessive myotonia. Here, we identified and characterized CLCN1 mutations in Costa Rican patients, who had been clinically diagnosed with myotonic dystrophy type 1 but who were negative for DM1 mutations. CLCN1 mutations c.501C>G, p.F167L and c.1235A>C, p.Q412P appeared to have recessive inheritance but patients had atypical clinical phenotypes; c.313C>T, p.R105C was found in combination with c.501C>G, p.F167L in an apparently recessive family and the c.461A>G, p.Q154R variant was associated with a less clear clinical picture. In Xenopus oocytes, none of the mutations exhibited alterations of fast or slow gating parameters or single channel conductance, and mutations p.R105C, p.Q154R, and p.F167L were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT). p.Q412P displayed a dramatically reduced current density, surface expression and exerted no dominant negative effect in the context of the homodimeric channel. Fluorescently tagged constructs revealed that p.Q412P is expressed inefficiently. Our study confirms p.F167L and p.R105C as myotonia mutations in the Costa Rican population, whereas p.Q154R may be a benign variant. p.Q412P most likely induces a severe folding defect, explaining the lack of dominance in patients and expression systems, but has WT properties once expressed in the plasma membrane.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Miotonia/diagnóstico , Miotonia/genética , Potenciais de Ação , Alelos , Animais , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Miotonia/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(5): 646-53, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052313

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat (g.17294_17296(45_1000)) with more repeats associated with increased disease severity and reduced age at onset. Expanded disease-associated alleles are highly unstable in both the germline and soma. Germline instability is expansion biased, providing a molecular explanation for anticipation. Somatic instability is expansion biased, size- and age-dependent, features that have compromised genotype-phenotype correlations and intergenerational studies. We corrected these confounding factors by estimating the progenitor allele length in 54 father-offspring and 52 mother-offspring pairs in Costa Rican DM1 families. Not surprisingly, we found major parental allele length effects on the size of the allele transmitted, the magnitude of the intergenerational length change, the age at onset in the next generation and the degree of anticipation in both male and female transmissions. We also detected, for the first time, an age-of-parent effect for both male and female transmission. Interestingly, we found no evidence for an intrauterine effect in the transmission of congenital DM1, suggesting previous reports may have been an artefact of age-dependent somatic instability and sampling bias. These data provide new insights into the germline dynamics of the CTG repeat and opportunities for providing additional advice and more accurate risk assessments to prospective parents in DM1 families.


Assuntos
Distrofia Miotônica/epidemiologia , Distrofia Miotônica/etiologia , Pais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Alelos , Antecipação Genética , Costa Rica , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 21(16): 3558-67, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22595968

RESUMO

Deciphering the contribution of genetic instability in somatic cells is critical to our understanding of many human disorders. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is one such disorder that is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat that shows extremely high levels of somatic instability. This somatic instability has compromised attempts to measure intergenerational repeat dynamics and infer genotype-phenotype relationships. Using single-molecule PCR, we have characterized more than 17 000 de novo somatic mutations from a large cohort of DM1 patients. These data reveal that the estimated progenitor allele length is the major modifier of age of onset. We find no evidence for a threshold above which repeat length does not contribute toward age at onset, suggesting pathogenesis is not constrained to a simple molecular switch such as nuclear retention of the DMPK transcript or haploinsufficiency for DMPK and/or SIX5. Importantly, we also show that age at onset is further modified by the level of somatic instability; patients in whom the repeat expands more rapidly, develop the symptoms earlier. These data establish a primary role for somatic instability in DM1 severity, further highlighting it as a therapeutic target. In addition, we show that the level of instability is highly heritable, implying a role for individual-specific trans-acting genetic modifiers. Identifying these trans-acting genetic modifiers will facilitate the formulation of novel therapies that curtail the accumulation of somatic expansions and may provide clues to the role these factors play in the development of cancer, aging and inherited disease in the general population.


Assuntos
Distrofia Miotônica/etiologia , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distrofia Miotônica/epidemiologia , Miotonina Proteína Quinase , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 14(42): 6481-7, 2008 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19030199

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA(+) infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA(+) was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA(+) status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P < 0.000] and fruit consumption (OR = 0.3; P < 0.00). Atrophic body gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcohol consumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcer was associated with CagA(+) (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) and smoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 microg/L as well as PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA(+). CONCLUSION: In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, H pylori CagA(+) is not associated with ABG, but it is a risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Gastrite/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Atrofia , Biópsia , Costa Rica , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dispepsia/genética , Dispepsia/imunologia , Dispepsia/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/imunologia , Gastrite/microbiologia , Gastrite/patologia , Gastroscopia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/imunologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pepsinogênio A/sangue , Pepsinogênio C/sangue , Úlcera Péptica/genética , Úlcera Péptica/imunologia , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Biol Trop ; 56(1): 1-11, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18624224

RESUMO

Myotonia congenita is a muscular disease characterized by myotonia, hypertrophy, and stiffness. It is inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive known as Thomsen and Becker diseases, respectively. Here we confirm the clinical diagnosis of a family diagnosed with a myotonic condition many years ago and report a new mutation in the CLCN1 gene. The clinical diagnosis was established using ocular, cardiac, neurological and electrophysiological tests and the molecular diagnosis was done by PCR, SSCP and sequencing of the CLCN1 gene. The proband and the other affected individuals exhibited proximal and distal muscle weakness but no hypertrophy or muscular pain was found. The myotatic reflexes were lessened and sensibility was normal. Electrical and clinical myotonia was found only in the sufferers. Slit lamp and electrocardiogram tests were normal. Two affected probands presented diminution of the sensitive conduction velocities and prolonged sensory distal latencies. The clinical spectrum for this family is in agreement with a clinical diagnosis of Becker myotonia. This was confirmed by molecular diagnosis where a new disease-causing mutation (Q412P) was found in the family and absent in 200 unaffected chromosomes. No latent myotonia was found in this family; therefore the ability to cause this subclinical sign might be intrinsic to each mutation. Implications of the structure-function-genotype relationship for this and other mutations are discussed. Adequate clinical diagnosis of a neuromuscular disorder would allow focusing the molecular studies toward the confirmation of the initial diagnosis, leading to a proper clinical management, genetic counseling and improving in the quality of life of the patients and relatives.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/genética , Mutação/genética , Miotonia Congênita/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Costa Rica , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Miotonia Congênita/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 56(1): 1-11, mar. 2008. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-496393

RESUMO

Myotonia congenita is a muscular disease characterized by myotonia, hypertrophy, and stiffness. It is inherited as either autosomal dominant or recessive known as Thomsen and Becker diseases, respectively. Here we confirm the clinical diagnosis of a family diagnosed with a myotonic condition many years ago and report a new mutation in the CLCN1 gene. The clinical diagnosis was established using ocular, cardiac, neurological and electrophysiological tests and the molecular diagnosis was done by PCR, SSCP and sequencing of the CLCN1 gene. The proband and the other affected individuals exhibited proximal and distal muscle weakness but no hypertrophy or muscular pain was found. The myotatic reflexes were lessened and sensibility was normal. Electrical and clinical myotonia was found only in the sufferers. Slit lamp and electrocardiogram tests were normal. Two affected probands presented diminution of the sensitive conduction velocities and prolonged sensory distal latencies. The clinical spectrum for this family is in agreement with a clinical diagnosis of Becker myotonia. This was confirmed by molecular diagnosis where a new disease-causing mutation (Q412P) was found in the family and absent in 200 unaffected chromosomes. No latent myotonia was found in this family; therefore the ability to cause this subclinical sign might be intrinsic to each mutation. Implications of the structure-function-genotype relationship for this and other mutations are discussed. Adequate clinical diagnosis of a neuromuscular disorder would allow focusing the molecular studies toward the confirmation of the initial diagnosis, leading to a proper clinical management, genetic counseling and improving in the quality of life of the patients and relatives.


La miotonía congénita es una enfermedad muscular caracterizada por miotonía, hipertrofia y rigidez. Se presenta con dos patrones de herencia, autosómica dominante en cuyo caso recibe el nombre de miotonía de Thomsen, o autosómica recesiva conocida como miotonía de Becker. En este trabajo se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico presuntivo hecho hace algunos años en una familia con una condición miotónica y se reporta una nueva mutación en el gen CLCN1. El diagnóstico clínico se estableció después de estudios oculares, cardíacos, neurológicos y electrofisiológicos. El diagnóstico molecular fue hecho mediante la PCR, SSCP y secuenciación del gen CLCN1. El caso índice y los otros individuos afectados exhibieron debilidad muscular proximal y distal, pero no se encontró hipertrofia ni dolor muscular. Los reflejos miotáticos estuvieron disminuidos y la sensibilidad fue normal. Se encontró miotonía clínica y eléctrica solo en los individuos afectados. Las pruebas de lámpara de hendidura y electrocardiograma resultaron normales. Dos individuos afectados presentaron disminución de las velocidades de conducción sensitiva y latencias distales sensoriales prolongadas. El cuadro clínico concuerda con la miotonía de Becker, lo cual se confirmó con el hallazgo de una mutación responsable de la enfermedad en el gen CLCN1 (Q412P), la cual se encontró en la familia y estuvo ausente en 200 cromosomas provenientes de la población general. No se encontró miotonía latente, por lo que probablemente la habilidad de causar este signo subclínico es intrínsica de cada mutación. Afinar el diagnóstico clínico diferencial de las enfermedades neuromusculares permitiría enfocar los estudios moleculares hacia la confirmación del diagnóstico inicial en forma eficiente, lo cual permitiría un manejo clínico y asesoramiento genético más adecuados y una mejora en la calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus familias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Miotonia Congênita/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Costa Rica , Enzimas de Restrição do DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Miotonia Congênita/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 53(3/4): 317-324, sept.-dic. 2005. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-451261

RESUMO

El cáncer gástrico es la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo. Varios factores han sido asociados con el riesgo de llegar a desarrollarlo, entre ellos la predisposición genética. El gen p53 presenta un polimorfismo en el codón 72, el cual ha sido asociado con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar varios tipos de cáncer entre ellos el gástrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación del polimorfismo localizado en el codón 72 del gen p53 con el riesgo de cáncer gástrico y lesiones gástricas leves en una población de alto riesgo de Costa Rica. El análisis del polimorfismo se llevó a cabo mediante PCR-RFLP, en una muestra de 58 pacientes de cáncer gástrico, 99 personas controles y 41 individuos clasificados como grupos I y II de acuerdo con la clasificación histológica japonesa. No se determinó asociación del polimorfismo del codón 72 de p53 con el riesgo de cáncer gástrico, ni de lesiones gástricas leves en la muestra estudiada. Con base en este estudio y otros que han investigado el polimorfismo del codón 72 del gen p53, no está claro el papel que podría estar jugando dicho polimorfismo en el desarrollo de cáncer gástrico. Mutaciones de novo en el gen p53 producidas durante el desarrollo neoplásico de la enfermedad podrían tener un mayor efecto que polimorfismos de línea germinal de este mismo gen. Existen otros genes polimórficos que también se han asociado con el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer gástrico


Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72, which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism, with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 controls and 41 individuals classified as group I or II, according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53, codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied population. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism, the role of this polymorphism in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplasic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of the gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Códon/genética , /genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica , Genótipo , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Rev Biol Trop ; 53(3-4): 317-24, 2005.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17354442

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72. which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism. with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 controls and 41 individuals classified as group I or II. according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53. codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied population. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism. the role of this polymorphismn in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplasic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of the gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Códon/genética , Genes p53/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 623-628, sept. 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501718

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to determine if the occupational exposure to those pesticides used at banana plantations' packaging plants produces genetic damage to somatic cells of female workers. Chromosomal aberrations were scored in lymphocytes of 20 women, 10 female exposed workers and 10 female controls. Workers were recruited from independent farms from two locations in Costa Rica, during January through June in 1996 and 1997. These females had a minimum of three months of work, had never received chemotherapy or radiotherapy and did some of these labors: sealing, spraying or weighting of bananas. Control unexposed females lived in the same area, were of similar age and neither them nor their husbands/mates had ever worked in pesticide related labors. For each female, 100 mitotic figures were scored. The kind of aberrations detected were acentric fragments, dicentric chromosomes, rings, gaps and breaks. Among workers, 16% of cells (n=1000) had one or more abnormalities, whereas control unexposed females had 6% of cells (n=1000) with comparable anomalies (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the pesticide exposure is a risk factor for chromosome aberrations in female somatic cells.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Musa , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica , Testes para Micronúcleos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 611-621, sept. 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501719

RESUMO

In order to study if banana fields labour exposure to pesticides produces some kind of DNA damage, we determine the presence of micronuclei in epithelial oral cells in working women in Guapiles and Siquirres, Costa Rica, as an effect biomarker. We also analyzed other abnormalities in the nucleus of those cells such as broken-egg, karyolysis or kariorrhexis, to see if there was some kind of genotoxicity or citotoxicity. The women group exposed to pesticides worked in packing bananas plant from different independent farms. The control group of women had never done any farming tasks; they did not live in the banana fields, neither their husband. We got information about the life style, medical and familial history of the participants through an interview. We did not found any significant increment in the frequency of micronuclei form the exposed group compared with the controls. The other nuclei abnormalities showed signs of citotoxicity or genotoxicity in the controls, associated with the intake of coffee and dental x-rays. These results do not rule out at that pesticides used in packing bananas are agents capable of producing damage to the DNA, but it seems that micronuclei from the oral epithelium is not the most adequate marker to measure it.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agricultura , Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Musa , Mucosa Bucal , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica , Células Epiteliais , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Núcleo Celular , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 601-609, sept. 2004. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501720

RESUMO

The in vitro genotoxicity of imazalil and thiabendazole fungicides and the insecticide chlorpyrifos, compounds used in Costa Rican banana plantations, was evaluated with the single-cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay). The comet assay is a simple, rapid and low cost technique for quantification of DNA damage. This assay detects DNA single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites in individual cells. The effects were analyzed by using human lymphocytes exposed to doses of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 microg/ml of each pesticide for 30 min at 37 degrees C. The cells were embedded in agarose, lysed, subjected to alkaline electrophoresis (pH >13) for 20 min at 25V, neutralized and dehydrated to be stained with a fluorescent dye and later comets visualization with the epifluorescence microscope. Chlorpyrifos and imazalil induced significant DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Chlorpyrifos was the major inductor of DNA breaks. These results indicate that both are genotoxic compounds in vitro. Thiabendazole fungicide did not induced DNA damage using the comet assay for all concentrations tested.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Imidazóis/toxicidade , Linfócitos , Musa , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Tiabendazol/toxicidade , Ensaio Cometa , Costa Rica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Testes de Mutagenicidade
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 591-600, sept. 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501721

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes are involved in activation and detoxification of many potential carcinogens. Genetic polymorphisms in those enzymes have been found to influence the interindividual susceptibility to cancer. Some polymorphisms of those enzymes have been associated specifically with susceptibility to gastric cancer. We conducted a study in a Costa Rican population, where gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates are among the highest in the world. We investigated whether such variations affected the risk of developing gastric cancer. Subjects included 31 with gastric cancer, 58 controls with gastric injures others than cancer and 51 normal controls confirmed by X-rays (double-contrast) or endoscopic diagnostic. DNA from peripheral white blood cell was obtained from all subjects. Deletion of GSTT1 and GSTM1 was assessed by multiplex PCR and genotyping of CYP2E1 was performed using a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay with the restriction enzyme PstI and the gene CYP1A1 using the restriction enzyme MspI The prevalence of CYP1A1 Msp1 polymorphism, GSTT1 and GSTM1 null genotype was similar in the three groups of individuals (p = 0.73, p = 0.88 y p = 0.89 respectively). Our findings suggest that the polymorphism CYP2E1 PstI could be associated with a reduced risk of having gastric cancer (OR = 0.09, IC95%:0.01 - 0.83).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , /genética , /genética , Genótipo , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 585-590, sept. 2004.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501722

RESUMO

The field of environmental mutagenesis or toxicology genetics aims to study the genetic damage that leads to mutations produced by physical, chemical and biological agents, to identify these agents and analyze their interactions and ways of action. There are enough experimental and epidemiological evidences implicating mutations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and DNA repair genes as determinants in the onset and progression of the neoplastic process. A valuable tool in public and occupational health is the monitoring of populations exposed to potentially hazardous agents. The objective is to protect the health and quality of life of high risk groups on account of the nature of the agents of exposure. Monitoring of genotoxic effects in exposed populations as well as the analysis of susceptibility polymorphism are visualized as key tools in the realm of future public and occupational health in order to prevent the occurrence of environmental and specially occupational origin of tumors. This paper reviews the main concepts concerning this issue and refers to studies on the subject in Costa Rica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Costa Rica , Concentração Máxima Permitida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 501-505, sept. 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-501731

RESUMO

Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with molecular techniques (Southern blot and PCR) and to perform cascade screening of the rest of the family to offer them adequate genetic counseling. We were able to corroborate the initial diagnosis in most clinical cases of myotonic dystrophy, but in the cases of mental retardation more than half studies were negative for fragile X syndrome, stressing the difficulties encountered by medical practitioners to diagnose this syndrome. The reasons for this are several; probable the main culprit is the subtle and unspecific clinical picture affected individuals exhibit, particularly children before puberty. Cascade screening, genetic counseling and selective abortion are the only tools available to prevent these disabling diseases for the moment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Distrofia Miotônica/diagnóstico , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Southern Blotting , Costa Rica , Distrofia Miotônica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 52(3): 491-499, sept. 2004. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-501732

RESUMO

Unstable mutations or amplification of DNA tandem repeats sequences constitute a new kind of genetic alteration discovered in the 90's that cause hereditary diseases. This mutation has been found inside or near important genes involved in the normal neurological function in human beings. In some cases, the presence of the amplification causes altered expression of the genes, their inactivation or the synthesis of a protein with new functions. Some common characteristics of these diseases are that they affect the central nervous system and are degenerative in nature. Most of them show genetic anticipation meaning that the severity of the manifestations increases in each generation and appear at an earlier age. In most cases, the severity of the symptoms is positively correlated with the size of the amplification. Twenty illnesses caused by this kind of mutations have been identified so far. Briefly, this work reviews the current knowledge about this topic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aconselhamento Genético , Mutação/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico
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