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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129303, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647689

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated the impact of moist (steaming and boiling) and dry (baking and microwaving)-heat treatment processes on the structure and physicochemical properties of wheat starch (WS) supplemented with lauric acid (LA). Elemental composition analysis revealed the interplay between WS and LA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and iodine staining revealed that lamellar crystalline structure of WS-LA complexes was improved after moist-heat treatment (relative to samples without any heat treatments); the finding which is at variance to dry-heat treatment process. Additionally, high resistance to thermal decomposition and a lower 1022/995 cm-1 absorbance ratio were observed in moist-heat treated WS-LA compared with dry-heat samples. Moreover, the V-type diffraction peak intensity and resistance to in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of samples treated with moist-heat were increased to a greater extent than the dry-heat treated counterparts. In sum, this study would facilitate the application of functional starch-lipid complexes in food necessitated heat treatments.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3779, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580165

RESUMO

In less than 6 months, COVID-19 spread rapidly around the world and became a global health concern. Hypertension is the most common chronic disease in COVID-19 patients, but its impact on these patients has not been well described. In this retrospective study, 82 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were enrolled, and epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological and therapy-related data were analyzed and compared between COVID-19 patients with (29 cases) or without (53 cases) hypertension. The median age of the included patients was 60.5 years, and the cohort included 49 women (59.8%) and 33 (40.2%) men. Hypertension (31 [28.2%]) was the most common chronic illness, followed by diabetes (16 [19.5%]) and cardiovascular disease (15 [18.3%]). The most common symptoms were fatigue (55 [67.1%]), dry cough (46 [56.1%]) and fever ≥ 37.3 °C (46 [56.1%]). The median time from illness onset to positive RT-PCR test was 13.0 days (range 3-25 days). There were 6 deaths (20.7%) in the hypertension group and 5 deaths (9.4%) in the nonhypertension group, and more hypertensive patients with COVID-19 (8 [27.6%]) than nonhypertensive patients (2 [3.8%]) (P = 0.002) had at least one comorbid disease. Compared with nonhypertensive patients, hypertensive patients exhibited higher neutrophil counts, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, and NT-proBNP and lower lymphocyte counts and eGFR. Dynamic observations indicated more severe disease and poorer outcomes after hospital admission in the hypertension group. COVID-19 patients with hypertension have increased risks of severe inflammatory reactions, serious internal organ injury, and disease progression and deterioration.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 176: 177-185, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581211

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal treatments (heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN)) on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of yam starch and yam flour. Hydrothermal treatments decreased the pasting properties of yam starch and yam flour. Compared with yam starch, HMT significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the pasting viscosities of yam flour. Both HMT and ANN caused an increase of the gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) and a decrease of enthalpy (△H). The increasement in ratio of 1047/1022 cm-1 and 995/1022 cm-1 suggested that HMT and ANN resulted in an increase in short-range order. The crystalline pattern of all samples was still A-type, and HMT yam starch exhibited higher crystallinity (26.20%). The most significant inhibition of in vitro digestibility was found in HMT yam flour, with slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents increasing by 3.73% and 4.40%, respectively. Hydrothermal treatments made the no-starch ingredients in yam flour agglomerate and adhere to starch granules. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the starch being coated or embedded by protein was a possible reason for the differences in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility between yam starch and yam flour.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(8): 2493-2500, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594885

RESUMO

Glycerol-plasticized high-amylose corn starch/konjac glucomannan (HCS/KGM) composite films incorporated with various concentrations of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) were prepared and investigated for structural, mechanical, and physical properties. The results of X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that ß-CD excluded from the polymer chains and aggregated to form crystals during film formation, which drove HCS to interact with KGM more compactly. The thickness and transparency of the films increased after ß-CD was incorporated. More associations of HCS/KGM enhanced the mechanical properties and reduced the moisture content of the films. The water vapor permeability of the HCS/KGM composite film was also improved significantly with the incorporation of ß-CD. The enhanced association between biopolymers in the presence of ß-CD will advance the development of a degradable active composite packaging film.

5.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401939

RESUMO

With increasing awareness of environmental protection, petroleum-based raw materials are continuously decreasing, which in turn necessitated the development of eco-friendly sustainable biomaterials, as alternative strategy. Starch could be an ideal substitute. Corn starch has been used as a renewable material for development of biodegradable packaging, owing to great varieties, low cost, large-scale industrial production, and good films forming properties. Unfortunately, its poor mechanical and barrier properties have limited the application of starch-based films. Thence, plasticizers were added to overcome the aforementioned pitfalls and improve the films elongation, distribution, flexibility, elasticity, and rigidity. Addition of plasticizers can change the continuity and therefore would enhance the properties of corn starch-based films. While plasticization can improve the tensile strength and percent elongation, it can reduce the water resistance in prepared films. Herein, we focused on changes of starch granules during gelatinization process, types of biodegradable films, as well as the types of modified starch with plasticizers. Furthermore, the influence of plasticizers on corn starch-based films and the physicochemical properties of various types of corn starch-based films were also addressed.

6.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 9, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both genetic factors and environmental hazards, including environmental noise stress, have been associated with gut microbiome that exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the role and mechanism of environmental risk factors in early-onset AD (EOAD) pathogenesis remain unclear. METHODS: The molecular pathways underlying EOAD pathophysiology following environmental noise exposure were evaluated using C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and APP/PS1 Tg mouse models. The composition differences in intestinal microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and Tax4Fun to predict the metagenome content from sequencing results. An assessment of the flora dysbiosis-triggered dyshomeostasis of oxi-inflamm-barrier and the effects of the CNS end of the gut-brain axis was conducted to explore the underlying pathological mechanisms. RESULTS: Both WT and APP/PS1 mice showed a statistically significant relationship between environmental noise and the taxonomic composition of the corresponding gut microbiome. Bacterial-encoded functional categories in noise-exposed WT and APP/PS1 mice included phospholipid and galactose metabolism, oxidative stress, and cell senescence. These alterations corresponded with imbalanced intestinal oxidation and anti-oxidation systems and low-grade systemic inflammation following noise exposure. Mechanistically, axis-series experiments demonstrated that following noise exposure, intestinal and hippocampal tight junction protein levels reduced, whereas serum levels of inflammatory mediator were elevated. Regarding APP/PS1 overexpression, noise-induced abnormalities in the gut-brain axis may contribute to aggravation of neuropathology in the presymptomatic stage of EOAD mice model. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that noise exposure has deleterious effects on the homeostasis of oxi-inflamm-barrier in the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Therefore, at least in a genetic context, chronic noise may aggravate the progression of EOAD.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 483-489, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460654

RESUMO

Herein, the synthetic mechanism of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified corn starch (OSCS) and granule shells (OSCs) based on shells separation pretreatment (SSP) was investigated. High intensity peaks around 1720 and 1570 cm-1 were observed for OSCs in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra after SSP. OSCs showed higher degree of substitution (DS) values (ranging from 0.128 to 0.170) than OSCS (0.121) determined by 1H NMR. The average molecular weight (Mw) of OSA modified CS decreased, due to the introduction of OS groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that esterification mainly took place in the amorphous regions of starch granules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a new peak corresponding to 1s orbital electrons of Na was obtained due to the introduction of OSA molecules. Meanwhile, lower surface DS and higher fluorescence intensity were noticed for OSCs. Conclusively, SSP would significantly increase the reaction efficiency of OSA modification process of CS.

8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 174: 110-119, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515569

RESUMO

To obtain porous starch granules with higher absorption capacities, three types of enzyme combinations were adopted to modify wheat and maize starches: (1) sequential α-amylase (AA) â†’ glucoamylase (GA); (2) sequential branching enzyme (BE) â†’ GA; and (3) sequential AA→BE→GA. The results indicated that AA→BE→GA treatment had a most optimal influence on porous starches. Compared to AA→GA and BE→GA, the mesopores in wheat starch granules treated with AA→BE→GA decreased by 52.82 and 48.70%, respectively. Conversely, the macropores increased by 216.68 and 138.18%, respectively. While for maize starch, the percentages of mesopores and macropores hardly changed after three enzyme combinations. Comparing the three enzyme treatments showed that pore volume (0.005 and 0.007 cm3/g) and pore size (36.35 and 26.54 nm) were largest in the AA→BE→GA treated wheat and maize starches, respectively. Compared to the AA→GA and BE→GA, the adsorption capacities for oil, dye and heavy metal ions, wheat starch treated with AA→BE→GA increased by 46.61 and 242.33%, and 44.52 and 134.41%, and 28.83 and 271.72%, respectively. Correspondingly, that of maize starch increased by 29.71 and 133.29%, and 42.92 and 79.93%, and 28.16 and 161.43%, respectively. These results may provide a new and valuable enzyme combination for optimising porous starch granules with higher absorption capacities.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 593-601, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385448

RESUMO

A novel antimicrobial gel composed of κ-carrageenan (KC) and a cinnamon essential oil (CEO)/hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPCD) composite was developed. The CEO/HPCD composite was characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the changes in the principal components of CEO upon encapsulation by HPCD were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The physicochemical properties, release kinetics and antimicrobial activity of the fabricated gels were investigated. The hardness of the KC gels increased with composite concentration in the range of 1.0-3.0% (w/v) and thereafter decreased. A similar trend was observed for the gumminess and chewiness, whereas the gel springiness remained essentially constant. The CEO/HPCD composite also enhanced the fluidity of the system, and the syneresis was positively correlated with the composite concentration. The controlled release of CEO from the gels was affected by the relative humidity (RH) and CEO content. The Ritger-Peppas model indicated that the CEO release kinetics from the gels proceeded through a combination of diffusion and framework erosion. The KC gel containing 5% CEO/HPCD composite displayed effective antimicrobial activity, prolonging the shelf life of sliced bread by at least two days. The reported gels may have potential applications as a promising material for food preservation.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 169: 67-74, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338525

RESUMO

The large agglomeration of starch paste in hot water, and fast retrogradation tendency and low transparency of starch gel restrict widespread application of kudzu starch. To improve the above defects, kudzu starch was modified with sequentially α-amylase (AA) and transglucosidase (TG), the latter for varying times. The results indicated that, compared to kudzu starch, amylose content and molecular weight of AA/TG-treated starches reduced by 20.07% and 69.50%, respectively. The proportion of A chain increased by 68.68%, whereas B1, B2 and B3 chains decreased by 14.28%, 48.29% and 23.44%, respectively. The degree of branching dramatically increased by 128.3%. After AA→TG treatment, the changes of starch structure enhanced the functional properties of kudzu starch. The solubility, paste clarity and gelatinization temperature increased, whereas the relative crystallinity, viscosity, storage and loss moduli decreased. Overall, the AA→TG modification would be desirable to improve the functional properties of kudzu starch to expand more large-scale application.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117314, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357877

RESUMO

Herein, corn starch-based films were prepared by casting method and different concentrations of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZYO) were added to evaluate the morphological, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the resultant films. Additionally, structural analysis was carried out via atomic force microscopy and the antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes were assessed. We found that the elongation at break was significantly increased (P < 0.05), whereas tensile strength, moisture content, solubility in water, and water vapor permeability rate were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in films incorporated with ZYO compared with oil-free films. Furthermore, incorporation of ZYO increased the opacity and decreased the gloss of films. Incorporation of ZYO appears to increase the surface roughness and the antibacterial activity of the films. In sum, ZYO can potentially be used in food packaging, particularly food intended to be protected from light and susceptible to spoilage by microorganisms.

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117039, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142597

RESUMO

Recently, starch-based packaging materials have become one of research hot points. In the present study, glycerol-plasticized composite films based on high amylose corn starch (HCS) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) were developed. The influence of KGM on the film-forming properties of HCS and the physicochemical properties of the resulting films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and water vapor permeability (WVP). The crystallinity and the proportion of short-range order structure of the films increased first and then declined with the addition of KGM. The micromorphology of the films exhibited the more even texture after KGM was incorporated in. The tensile strength, elongation at break and water resistance of HCS film were also improved significantly. The synergistic effect between HCS and KGM improved the film-forming ability of HCS. The optimal addition amount of KGM was 0.3 %.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(3): 783-792, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333547

RESUMO

Pesticides play a very important role in pest control and plant protection. However, they can be limited by a tendency to cause ecological system damage due to significant losses into the environment. To increase pesticide utilization efficiency, we developed highly leaf-adhesive avermectin nanocapsules (Av-pH-cat@CS) with pH-responsive controlled release properties. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules displayed good thermal stability and photostability in response to UV light irradiation. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules could be disrupted at low pH and they exhibited excellent controlled release in response to pH, which improved the release of avermectins. In addition, the Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules were highly adhesive to crop leaves as a result of strong hydrogen bonding, which prolonged the retention time on crop leaves. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules with pH-responsive release and strong leaf adhesion improved the control efficacy and enhanced the utilization efficiency. Our findings offer a promising approach to prolonging pesticide duration on crop leaves and improving the utilization efficiency.

15.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23608, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may induce cardiovascular death. The correlation of mast cells related microRNAs (miRs) with risk of ACS has been investigated. We explored regulatory mechanism of miR-335-5p on macrophage innate immune response, atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation, and revascularization in ACS in relation to Notch signaling. METHODS: ACS-related gene microarray was collected from Gene Expression Omnibus database. After different agomir or antagomir, or inhibitor of Notch signaling treatment, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 levels were tested in ACS mice. Additionally, Notch signaling-related genes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured after miR-335-5p interference. Finally, mouse atherosclerosis, lipid accumulation, and the collagen/vessel area ratio of plaque were determined. RESULTS: miR-335-5p targeted JAG1 and mediated Notch signaling in ACS. miR-335-5p up-regulation and Notch signaling inhibition reduced expression of JAG1, Notch pathway-related genes, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and MMPs, but promote TIMP1 and TIMP2 expression. Additionally, vulnerable plaques were decreased and collagen fiber contents were observed to increase after miR-335-5p overexpression and Notch signaling inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of miR-335-5p inhibited innate immune response of macrophage, reduced atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation, and promoted revascularization in ACS mice targeting JAG1 through Notch signaling.

16.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt B): 109778, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288164

RESUMO

High-fat diets (HFDs) can induce health problems including gut microbiota dysbiosis and cardiac dysfunction. In this study, we modulated the gut microbiota in mice to investigate whether Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), a potential prebiotic fiber, could alleviate HFD-induced myocardial injury. Mice fed a HFD were given LBP (HFPD group) by gavage once/day for 2 months. Left ventricular function and serum trimethylamine N-oxide were significantly improved in HFPD mice compared with HFD mice. HFD increased the abundances of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Romboutsia, while LBP increased the abundances of Gordonibacter, Parabacteroides, and Anaerostipes. Fecal metabolic profiling revealed significant increases in metabolites involved in nicotinate, nicotinamide and purine metabolism pathways, as well as indole derivatives of tryptophan metabolites in the HFPD group. LBP reduced intestinal permeability and inflammatory cytokine levels, maintained a healthy intestinal microenvironment, and alleviated myocardial injury. Modulating the gut microbiota is a potential treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

17.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109666, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292956

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of κ-carrageenan (KC) can be improved by incorporation with small-molecule cosolvents. The texture and rheological properties, micromorphology, and crystallinity of KC incorporating indigestible dextrin (IDD) and beta-limit dextrin (BLD) were investigated. The rheological properties and sol-gel transition temperatures of the gels were slightly improved and the hardness of KC gels was significantly increased after the two dextrins were mixed in. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated hydrogen-bonding interactions were strengthened in the presence of the dextrins. Confocal laser scanning microscope images revealed that a more homogenous structure was formed of the KC gel after the addition of dextrins. Moreover, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the crystallinity of KC gel decreased upon dextrin addition. At the same dextrin content, IDD exerted a greater influence than BLD. IDD contents exceeding 3% (w/w) led to undesirable effects, whereas up to 5% (w/w) of BLD could be added. The two dextrins affected the rearrangement of the KC random coils in the sol state, and facilitated aggregation of the KC chains during cooling to form gel network structures after gelation. Therefore, the appropriate addition of these two dextrins can improve the texture and stability of KC gels and expand their application in functional foods.

18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and efficient nanopesticides for pest control have attracted attention because of their ability to enhance target efficiency and reduce undesirable side effects. Nanoformulations have a significant role in solving the problem of water solubility for insoluble drugs. However, there are few studies on the physicochemical properties and biological activities of pesticides of different particle sizes and remains unclear how these key physicochemical properties are affected by particle size. In this study, a series of glucose-loaded lambda-cyhalothrin nanoparticles (LCNs) with a tunable size were developed via shearing emulsification and carrier loading in order to evaluate insecticidal action. RESULTS: The mean particle sizes of the LCNs were 50.6, 115.2 and 221 nm. The wettability, dispersibility and stability of nanoparticles were particle size-dependent, and were mainly determined by particle size and the uniformity of distribution. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity of LCNs was inversely proportional to the particle size. CONCLUSION: This study not only provides a facile technology for the preparation of nanopesticides with a tunable particle size, but also clarifies the effect of particle size on the performance of pesticides.

19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 81: 105-110, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is an economical strategy to design a screening method to decide which patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/ motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) should enter into the stage for further comprehensive neuropsychological investigation. METHODS: 59 patients (including 8 with frank dementia) were recruited. They underwent the extensive neuropsychological evaluation and short screening batteries, namely the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Peking Union Medical College Hospital version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-P) and the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB). Results of the extensive neuropsychological evaluation were set as the gold standard to diagnose cognitive impairment, and the effectiveness of screening tests were measured against them. RESULTS: By comparing the sensitivity and specificity, we found that the combination of FAB plus both or either of the other 2 short batteries provided a satisfactorily high sensitivity, but none of these screening batteries was significantly associated with quantitative behavioral measurements among non-demented subjects, the Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version (FBI-ALS). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the FBI-ALS, the FAB, and the MMSE or the MoCA-P or both could effectively screen comorbid dementia, cognitive and behavioral impairment in ALS but this implicates a limited specificity. And the FAB needed to be validated in large Chinese sample.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157138

RESUMO

Herein, the formation of starch-lipid complexes in steamed bread (SBr) free from and supplemented with fatty acids of varying chain lengths, including lauric acid (LA), glycerol monolaurate (GML), stearic acid (SA), and glycerol monostearate (GMS) and their effects on in vitro enzymatic digestibility were investigated. The enthalpy value of SBr samples (1.86-3.46 J/g) was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to wheat starch samples (5.64-7.17 J/g) fortified with fatty acids. The relative crystallinity (16.5%-32.8%) of SBr corresponds to the content of starch-lipid complexes. SBr supplemented with fatty acids exhibited softer texture than lipid-free SBr stored at 4 °C for 0, 1, 4, and 7 days. Higher enzyme resistance was observed in SBr samples supplemented with fatty acids and the content of resistant starch (RS) was increased from 7.54% to 23.13% in SBr supplemented with LA. As demonstrated by microscopic computed tomography (mCT), the crystalline structure of SBr samples supplemented with LA and GML have a higher density than SBr fortified with SA and GMS; the findings which are in line with thermal properties and X-ray diffraction analysis. In sum, the formation of starch-lipid complexes could be considered as a new way to improve the SBr textural features during storage.

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