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1.
Analyst ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510524

RESUMO

In recent years, with the rapid development of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensors, more luminophores have been designed to achieve high-throughput and reliable analysis. Impressively, after the proposed fantastic concept of "aggregation-induced electrochemiluminescence (AIECL)" by Cola, the application of AIECL emitters provides more abundant choices for the further improvement of ECL sensors. In this review, we briefly report the phenomenon, principle and representative applications of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and AIECL emitters. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the cases of AIECL sensors for bioanalytical detection are summarized in detail, from 2017 to now. Finally, inspired by the applications of AIECL emitters, relevant prospects and challenges for AIECL sensors are proposed, which is of great significance for exploring more advanced bioanalytical detection technology.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 209(Pt B): 2213-2225, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504411

RESUMO

To explore an effective and economic method to prepare higher contents of resistant starch (RS), different enzyme treatments including single pullulanase (PUL), commercial α-amylase (AA) or/and ß-amylase (BA) with PUL, and malt endogenous amylase (MA) with PUL were used and the structural, physicochemical properties and digestibility of all modified starches (MS) were compared. All the enzyme-treated starches displayed a mixture of B and V-type diffraction patterns. The MA/PUL-MS showed higher V-type diffraction peak intensity as compared to other modified starches. Compared to the combination of commercial enzyme treatment, the combination of malt enzyme treatment led to higher apparent amylose contents (45.56%), RS content (53.93%) and thermal stability (302 °C), whereas it possessed lower solubility indices and predicted glycaemic index. The apparent viscosity and shear resistance of MA/PUL-MS were lower than that of AA/PUL-MS, whereas that of MA/PUL-MS was higher than that of BA/PUL-MS and BA/AA/PUL-MS. These findings would provide a theoretical and applicative basis to produce foods with lower GI in industrial production.

3.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 109037, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533900

RESUMO

Modern lifestyle, genetics, nutritional overload through high-fat diet attributed prevalence and diabetes outcomes with various complications primarily due to obesity in which energy-dense diets frequently affect metabolic health. One possible issue usually associated with elevated chronic fat intake is insulin resistance, and hyperglycaemia constitutes an important function in altering the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. Similarly, in assessing human susceptibility to weight gain and obesity, genetic variations play a central role, contributing to keen interest in identifying the possible role of epigenetics as a mediator of gene-environmental interactions influencing the production of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its related concerns. Epigenetic modifications associated with the acceptance of a sedentary lifestyle and environmental stress factors in response to energy intake and expenditure imbalances complement genetic alterations and lead to the production and advancement of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Methylation of DNA, histone modifications and increases in the expression of non-coding RNAs can result in reduced transcriptional activity of key ß-cell genes thus creating insulin resistance. Epigenetics contribute to changes in the expression of the underlying insulin resistance and insufficiency gene networks, along with low-grade obesity-related inflammation, increased ROS generation and DNA damage in multi organs. This review focused on epigenetic mechanisms and metabolic regulations associated with high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes mellitus.

4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513458

RESUMO

Herein, we fabricated a label-free ECL immunosensor for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection. In this system, a small organic aggregation-induced electrochemiluminescence luminophore, 2,5-di-tetraphenylethylene-ylthiazolo [5,4-d] thiazole, was designed, named TPETTZ. Polyaniline-wrapped TiO2 nanoparticles (PANI/TiO2 NPs) complex was synthesized through one-step in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline, and performed excellent electrical conductivity and abundant amino groups. As an ECL accelerator, TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) promoted the oxidation of tri-n-propylamine (TPA) to generate more TPA•; in addition, it also acted as a donor to improve the ECL intensity of TPETTZ (acceptor) through electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET). Encouraged by the above, under the existence of TPA, TPETTZ displayed a strong and continuously stable ECLanode signal due to the introduction of PANI/TiO2 NPs. Therefore, the immunosensor was constructed for AFB1 detection based on the quenching effect of target on the ECL signal, and a linearly decreasing ECL signal was obtained as the increasement of AFB1 in the range of 75 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL, with a lower detection limit of 27.5 fg/mL. Moreover, the as-prepared sensing platform performed a satisfactory anti-interference, stability, and reproducibility, and appeared a good accuracy in walnut sample analysis, presenting a promising application in the future.

5.
Front Nutr ; 9: 882682, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548578

RESUMO

The demand for biodegradable products has increased; hence, a suitable method for producing green composites is essential. This study prepared corn starch-based films using the solution casting method, and the physicochemical properties of the prepared films were investigated using a mixture of glycerol (GLY) and erythritol (ERY) at different ratios (4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, and 0:4) as plasticizing agents. The crystallinity, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, oxygen and water vapor, surface roughness, and thermal stability of corn starch-based films were analyzed using small-angle X-ray diffraction, water contact angle, automatic tensile testing machine, oxygen permeability tester and water vapor permeability analyzer, atomic force microscope, and thermogravimetric analyzer. With the increase in GLY ratio, the thickness, water-solubility, water content, water vapor permeability, elongation at break, oxygen permeability and V-shaped crystallization of the corn starch-based films increased. The tensile strength and the thermal stability decreased with increasing the GLY ratio. We developed a new plasticizer using glycerol and erythritol to improve the properties of starch films and provided the basis for the industrial production of corn starch-based films.

6.
Food Chem ; 389: 133005, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490528

RESUMO

Emulsion gels prepared with carrageenan and emulsion stabilized by zein/carboxymethyl dextrin were served as fat substitute in sausages. Color, pH, texture, rheology, microstructure, cooking loss and antioxidant activity of sausages were assessed. The replacement of emulsion gels increased L* and decreased a* of sausages. The incorporation of curcumin increased b* of sausages. The pH of sausages had no obviously change when the emulsion gels and curcumin were used as fat substitute. The hardness and viscoelasticity of sausages improved with the addition of emulsion gels. The SEM suggested that network structure was enhanced with the increase of emulsion gels. After adding emulsion gels and curcumin, the cooking loss of sausages was significantly decreased and antioxidant activity was significantly increased. This study indicated that emulsion gels, which was fabricated by carrageenan and emulsion stabilized by zein/carboxymethyl dextrin, could be an excellent substitute to replace fat in sausages.

8.
Food Funct ; 13(9): 5416-5429, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475434

RESUMO

Herein, we assessed the effects of Lycium barbarum oligosaccharides (LBO) on the intestinal microenvironment of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) mouse model through gut microbiome and metabolomics analysis. We set high (300 mg kg-1), medium (200 mg kg-1), and low (100 mg kg-1) doses of LBO for intervention once a day for 4 weeks. The results showed that the intervention effect of the medium-dose group was the most significant. It reduced the symptoms of hyperglycemia, inflammation, insulin resistance, and lipid accumulation in the T2D mouse model. It restored the structure of damaged tissues and cells, such as the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. LBO increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Akkermansia, and maintained intestinal barrier integrity. The faecal metabolic map showed that the contents of glycogen amino acids, such as proline, serine, and leucine, increased. The contents of cholic, capric, and dodecanoic acid decreased. In summary, we may suggest that LBO can be used as a prebiotic for treating T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lycium , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 388: 133054, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483292

RESUMO

The starch-lipid complex between the pea starch (PSt) and glycerol monolaurate (GM) was prepared using ultrasound with different amplitudes, durations and application sequences. Fourier-transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra showed the formation of amylose-lipid complex between PSt and GM in the ultrasonic field. Stronger diffraction intensities were observed in samples treated by ultrasonication, whereas the thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of starch was improved by the formation of the V-type inclusion complexes. An ultrasound pre-treatment prior to the addition of a guest molecule (UC) was more favorable to induce the formation of an amylose-lipid complexes than ultrasound treatment after PSt was incorporated with GM (CU). The UC-treated samples showed stronger diffraction intensities, higher melting enthalpy values and enzyme-resistant than that of CU-treated PSt-GM complexes.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329437

RESUMO

The microstructure and mechanical properties of pure W, sintered and swaged W-1.5ZrO2 composites after 1.5 × 1015 Au+/cm2 radiation at room temperature were characterized to investigate the impact of the ZrO2 phase on the irradiation resistance mechanism of tungsten materials. It can be concluded that the ZrO2 phase near the surface consists of two irradiation damage layers, including an amorphous layer and polycrystallization regions after radiation. With the addition of the ZrO2 phase, the total density and average size of dislocation loops, obviously, decrease, attributed to the reason that many more glissile 1/2<111> loops migrate to annihilate preferentially at precipitate interfaces with a higher sink strength of 7.8 × 1014 m-2. The swaged W-1.5ZrO2 alloys have a high enough density of precipitate interfaces and grain boundaries to absorb large numbers of irradiated dislocations. This leads to the smallest irradiation hardening change in hardness of 4.52 Gpa, which is far superior to pure W materials. This work has a collection of experiments and conclusions that are of crucial importance to the materials and nuclear communities.

11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 206: 633-641, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247422

RESUMO

Pesticide compounding technology for disease and pest control emerges as an effective way to increase the effectiveness of pesticides while reducing pesticides resistance. Nanomaterials and encapsulation technology have offered a new insight into preparing efficient pesticide formulations, especially constructing a co-delivery nanoparticle for synergistic pesticides. In this study, a dinotefuran/avermectin co-delivery nanoparticles (DACNPs) against pear tree pests with polylactic acid (PLA) as the wall material were constructed by double-emulsion method combined with high-pressure homogenization technique. The drug content of the DACNPs was 39.1% with an average size of 245.7 ± 4.2 nm and the mean polymer dispersity index (PDI) value was 0.123. The DACNPs showed high foliar retention and good spread performance on target leaves due to the nanoscale effect. The obtained DACNPs showed a better control effect on Grapholitha molesta Busck and Psylla chinensis Yang et Li compared with the commercial formulations, which could significantly prolong the effective duration and enhance the bioactivity with lower amounts and application frequency of pesticides. This study may provide new insights into developing novel pesticide formulations to improve the utilization rate of pesticides, reduce environmental pollution and minimize the cost of farming.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Praguicidas , Pyrus , Guanidinas , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Poliésteres , Árvores
12.
Food Chem ; 382: 132319, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134725

RESUMO

This study investigated the impact of microwave treatment on the formation of starch-lipid complexes, and physicochemical properties of wheat starch (WS) fortified with lipids, such as lauric acid (LA), glycerol monolaurate (GML), and stearic acid (SA). Specimens were prepared using a conventional water bath and microwave heating and evaluated using macrostructural and microstructural analyses. Iodine staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed interplay between WS and LA. Diffraction peaks around 7.5°, 13°, and 20° and the absence of the absorption band in the 2850 cm-1 were observed in microwave treated WS-lipid samples than conventional water bath samples. Further, more type I complexes were formed in WS-LA microwave-assisted samples, as demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry. Additionally, more resistant starch was formed in specimens treated by microwave than water bath treated counterparts, the finding that was proved by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis. In short, the current study may suggest the applications of microwave treatment in foods for hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Calefação , Amido , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Micro-Ondas , Amido/química , Triticum/química
13.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159893

RESUMO

In this study, pyraclostrobin nanocapsules were prepared by in situ polymerization with urea-formaldehyde resin as a wall material. The effects of different emulsifiers, emulsifier concentrations, and solvents on the physicochemical properties of pyraclostrobin nanocapsules were investigated. Solvesso™ 100 was selected as the solvent, and Emulsifier 600# was used as the emulsifier, which accounted for 5% of the aqueous phase system, to prepare pyraclostrobin nanocapsules with excellent physical and chemical properties. The particle size, ζ potential, and morphology of the nanocapsules were characterized by a particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscope. The nanocapsules were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and the loading content and sustained release properties of the nanocapsules were measured. The results show that the size of the prepared nanocapsules was 261.87 nm, and the polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.12, presenting a uniform spherical appearance. The loading content of the pyraclostrobin nanocapsules was 14.3%, and their cumulative release rate was 70.99% at 250 h, providing better efficacy and sustainability compared with the pyraclostrobin commercial formulation.

14.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221075499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chinese government has promoted the 'tiered medical services' policy in which diseases are classified by severity, mode of onset and difficulty of treatment since 2015 to optimize medical resources. We evaluated the diagnosis and treatment of acute exacerbation (AE) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) under the tiered system. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. COPD characteristics and treatments were compared among hospitals in different tiers. Associations were examined by univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis. In addition, multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the possible influencing factors of antibiotics, glucocorticoids and anticoagulant usages. RESULTS: Eligible COPD patients (n = 432) were consecutively recruited from eight hospitals in different tiers in China. Patients in the countryside preferred the community hospitals, whereas patients in cities preferred second-tier and teaching hospitals when they suffer from AECOPD. It indicates most COPD patients are likely to treat their disease locally. The severity of COPD AE increased with tiers of hospitals (p < 0.001). However, our results clearly show that most community hospitals can only deal with mild exacerbation of COPD. Approximately 90% of AE patients received antibiotics. We speculated that antibiotics abuse might exist in the three tiers of hospitals. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that long-term antibiotics usage (⩾14 days) was associated with moderate exacerbation [odds ratio (OR): 5.295, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.248-12.473, p < 0.001], radiographic progression (OR: 2.176, 95% CI: 1.047-4.522, p = 0.037), positive sputum etiology (OR: 3.073, 95% CI: 1.477-6.394, p = 0.003) and increased white blood cells (OR: 2.470, 95% CI: 1.190-5.126, p = 0.015). The proportion of glucocorticoids increased with the hospital hierarchy (18.6% versus 45.6% versus 69.2%, p < 0.001). The proportions of severe cases in the second-tier hospitals were 26.9%; however, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) rate was only 14.7%. Anticoagulant is not commonly used in AECOPD, and the community hospitals had the lowest proportion of anticoagulation regimen (1.7% versus 14.3% versus 20.5%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The 'tiered medical services' policy in AECOPD management has been unsatisfactory in the past years. Irrational treatment strategies in different hospitals were still found when comparing with international guideline. Further reform of the policy is still needed to optimize the management of AECOPD in China.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , China , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Escarro
15.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2022: 4464056, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132312

RESUMO

Bioactive compound (5E,7E)-4,5,6 trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-ylheptadeca-5,7-dienoate (compound 2) was isolated from Euclea crispa (E. crispa) by the chromatographic methods. Further, the compound was confirmed by spectroscopic techniques such as ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Compound 2 exhibited a significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values. It restrained the auxesis of HO-8910 cells in a shot-dependent mode. CXCR4, HER2, and Akt proteins involved in cell proliferation and metastasis were found to be significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The protein that is responsible for the death of cells (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) was reduced (p < 0.05), while the protein expression of p53 and caspase-9 was increased (p < 0.05) in compound 2-treated HO-8910 cells. The results of molecular docking analysis showed the binding affinity with CXCR4 and HER2. Thus, compound 2 can serve as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the intervention of ovarian cancer. The findings of this study conclude that compound 2 from E. crispa might work as a potential antioxidative and chemotherapeutic agent. The in vivo studies and attempts will pave way for this compound to be an effective drug hereafter.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 829686, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35222044

RESUMO

Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that antibiotic exposure is related to metabolic malfunctions, such as obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver impairment and hypertrophy of adipose cells are related to high salt consumption. This research aims to investigated the physiological mechanism of a high salt diet (HSD) enhanced antibiotic-induced hepatic injury and mitochondrial abnormalities in mice. The mice were fed a HSD with or without penicillin G (PEN) for 8 weeks and the gut metabolome, untargeted faecal metabolomics, and intestinal function were evaluated. The results revealed that HSD, PEN and their combination (HSPEN) significantly changed the gut microbial community. HSPEN mice exhibited more opportunistic pathogens (such as Klebsiella and Morganella) and reduced probiotic species (including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus). The main variations in the faecal metabolites of the HSPEN group were identified, including those connected with entero-hepatic circulation (including bile acids), tryptophan metabolism (i.e., indole derivatives) and lipid metabolism (e.g., erucic acid). Furthermore, increased intestinal permeability and immunologic response caused greater hepatic damage in the HSPEN group compared to the other groups. These findings may have important implications for public health.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35058691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and proper management of a large number of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are great challenges for the Chinese health care system. Although tiered medical services have been promoted by the Chinese government since 2015, they have not been ideally implemented for COPD diagnosis and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional study. Eligible COPD patients (n = 648) and physicians (n = 161) were consecutively recruited from 8 hospitals in different tiers in China. COPD characteristics and treatments were compared among hospitals in different tiers. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors associated with airflow limitation, symptoms and acute exacerbation. RESULTS: The PFT rate at first diagnosis was 99%, 69.4% and 29.9% in teaching, second-tier and community hospitals (P < 0.001). Only approximately 10.9%, 1.7% and 9.6% and 21.8%, 6.9% and 32% of COPD patients received influenza or pneumococcal vaccines (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients who did not use inhaled drugs or had irregular inhalation was 2%, 24.6% and 78.8% (P < 0.001). Education level (RR-1 = -41.26%, P = 0.007), FEV1%pred (RR-1 = -2.76%, P < 0.001), and influenza vaccination in the last year (RR-1 = -64.53%, P = 0.006) were all negatively correlated with COPD acute exacerbation (AE). COPD duration (RR-1 = 131.73%, P = 0.009), AE (RR-1 = 151.39%, P < 0.001), and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores (RR-1 = 3.82%, P = 0.019) were all positively correlated with COPD airflow limitation severity. CONCLUSION: Differences exist in the diagnosis, treatment and management of COPD among different tiers of hospitals in China. Teaching hospitals can manage COPD patients relatively well. There are still some gaps compared with developed countries.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Food Chem ; 377: 131995, 2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990944

RESUMO

Here, a cinnamaldehyde essential oil (CEO)/ß-Cyclodextrin (ß-CD) composite with a high embedding rate (91.74 ± 0.82%) was prepared. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Pickering emulsions prepared by ß-CD and CEO/ß-CD at different concentrations (1-5%) were comparatively investigated. The CEO/ß-CD emulsions had better storage stability. Rheological results confirmed the emulsions were all gel-like elastic emulsions and had shear thinning phenomenon. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that the most of excessive ß-CD was adsorbed on the surface of emulsion droplets as crystals, formed thick protective shell in ß-CD emulsions, while the most of excessive composites were distributed in the aqueous phase forming a stable network structure in CEO/ß-CD emulsions. It caused these two emulsions had different rheological properties, and different changing trends in droplet size.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Emulsões , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 200: 370-377, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999042

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effect of induced electric field (IEF) treatment on acid hydrolysis of corn starch by altering the connection modes of sample coils of a 4-reactor IEF system. Results suggested that IEF treatment could enhance the hydrolysis of corn starch and series connection (1. RRRR, η=16ESi2Pin4ZSi+Zload) exhibited higher energy efficiency than parallel (9. (RRRR), η=4ESi2PinZSi+4Zload), thus contributing to more extensive hydrolysis. Although no new functional group was formed, the starch granules were partially cracked into pieces and the crystallinity was slightly increased after IEF-assisted hydrolysis. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that IEF-assisted hydrolysis increased the gelatinization temperatures but decreased the enthalpy of starch, with a greatest variation was observed by series connection. Rapid visco-analysis showed that IEF-assisted hydrolysis greatly decreased the pasting viscosity of corn starch and also series connection showed the strongest reduction. The obtained results could provide a theoretical guide for the applications of IEF technology in biomaterial processing.


Assuntos
Amido
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 203: 10-18, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032494

RESUMO

The study intended to explore the influence of corn resistant starches type III (RS3s) prepared by autoclave, debranching, and microwave heat on the rheology, structure, and viable counts of set yogurt. The rheological analysis suggested that RS3s enhanced the elastic and viscous modulus of yogurt, and that microwave-heated RS was the most effective for improving viscoelasticity. Fitting the creep data using the Burger model showed that yogurt with microwave-heated RS increased the structural strength of yogurt, which displayed the highest instantaneous and viscoelastic deformations. The confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy micrographs demonstrated that autoclaved and debranched RS3s formed large fragments and disrupted the continuity of the milk protein structure; however, microwave-heated RS evenly filled the gel network and formed an interpenetrating network with proteins. The bacterial count and acidity of yogurt indicated that microwave-heated and debranched RS3s promoted the growth of lactic acid bacteria and accelerated the fermentation process of yogurt. The results of this study demonstrated that microwave-heated RS is a favorable supplement to the microstructure and rheological properties of yogurt compared with autoclaved and debranched RS3s.


Assuntos
Iogurte , Zea mays , Fermentação , Proteínas do Leite , Reologia , Amido/química
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