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Chem Senses ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010937


Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous peptide recently recognized to be presented in the brainstem, and believed to play an important role in maintaining memory. The deletion of NPS or NPS receptor (NPSR) in mice shows a deficit in memory formation. Our recent studies have demonstrated that central administration of NPS facilitates olfactory function and ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. However, it remains to be determined if endogenous NPS is an indispensable neuromodulator in the control of the olfactory spatial memory. In this study, we examined the effects of NPSR peptidergic antagonist [D-Val5]NPS (10 and 20 nmol, i.c.v.) and nonpeptidergic antagonist SHA 68 (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) on the olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board olfactory spatial memory test in mice. Furthermore, immunofluorescence was employed to identify the distributions of c-Fos and NPSR immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in olfactory system and hippocampal formation known to closely relate to the olfactory spatial memory. [D-Val5]NPS dosing at 20 nmol and SHA 68 dosing at 50 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of visits to the two odorants interchanged spatially, switched odorants, in recall trial, and simultaneously reduced the percentage of Fos-ir in NPSR-ir neurons which were densely distributed in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex (Pir), subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). These findings suggest that endogenous NPS is a key neuromodulator in olfactory spatial memory.

Front Neurol ; 10: 873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456739


Sleep-wake development in postnatal rodent life could reflect the brain maturational stages. As the altricial rodents, rats are born in a very undeveloped state. Continuous sleep recording is necessary to study the sleep-wake cycle profiles. However, it is difficult to realize in infant rats since they rely on periodic feeding before weaning and constant warming and appropriate EEG electrodes. We developed a new approach including two types of EEG electrodes and milk-feeding system and temperature-controlled incubator to make continuously polysomnographic (PSG) recording possible. The results showed that there was no evident difference in weight gaining and behaviors between pups fed through the milk-feeding system and warmed with temperature-controlled incubator and those kept with their dam. Evolutional profiles of EEG and electromyogram (EMG) activities across sleep-wake states were achieved perfectly during dark and light period from postnatal day (P) 11 to P75 rats. The ontogenetic features of sleep-wake states displayed that the proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) was 57.0 ± 2.4% and 59.7 ± 1.7% and non-REM (NREM) sleep was 5.2 ± 0.8% and 4.9 ± 0.5% respectively, in dark and light phase at P11, and then REM sleep progressively decreased and NREM sleep increased with age. At P75, REM sleep in dark and light phase respectively, reduced to 6.3 ± 0.6% and 6.9 ± 0.5%, while NREM correspondingly increased to 37.5 ± 2.1% and 58.4 ± 1.7%. Wakefulness from P11 to P75 in dark phase increased from 37.8 ± 2.2% to 56.2 ± 2.6%, but the change in light phase was not obvious. P20 pups began to sleep more in light phase than in dark phase. The episode number of vigilance states progressively decreased with age, while the mean duration of that significantly increased. EEG power spectra in 0.5-4 Hz increased with age accompanied with prolonged duration of cortical slow wave activity. Results also indicated that the dramatic changes of sleep-wake cycle mainly occurred in the first month after birth. The novel approaches used in our study are reliable and valid for continuous PSG recording for infant rats and unravel the ontogenetic features of sleep-wake cycle.

Front Cell Neurosci ; 12: 64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559896


Disturbed sleep is a common subjective complaint among individuals with anxiety disorders. Sleep deprivation increases general and specific anxiety symptoms among healthy individuals. The amygdala is critical for regulating anxiety and also involved in mediating the effects of emotions on sleep. Neuropeptide S (NPS) and NPS receptors (NPSR) are reported as a novel endogenous arousal and anxiolytic system, but it is unclear yet whether this system is involved in anxiety-like behavior and sleep caused by sleep deprivation, and how it plays anxiolytic effect underlying the comorbid condition. In the present study, we demonstrate that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) induced by modified multiple platform method (MMPM) for 24 h caused anxiety-like behavior, a prolonged sleep latency and subsequent paradoxical sleep (PS) rebound accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram (EEG) theta (4.5-8.5 Hz) activities across light and dark phase in rats. The increase of PS after PSD was due to an increase of episode number during light phase and both episode number and duration during dark phase. Central action of NPS (1 nmol) attenuated PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior, and altered PSD-induced sleep-wake disturbances through increasing wakefulness, and suppressing PS and EEG theta activities. The reduction in PS time following NPS administration during light phase was because of a decreased episode number. Furthermore, sleep amount in 24 h in PSD rats given NPS was lesser than that given saline. PSD significantly enhanced NPSR mRNA expression level in the amygdala. NPS remarkably increased the number of Fos-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the central amygdala (CeA) and medial amygdala (MeA). The majority of Fos-ir neurons induced by NPS also expressed NPSR. These results suggest that NPSR upregulation in the amygdala is presumably related to the PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances, and that NPS counteracts PSD-induced anxiety-like behavior and sleep disturbances possibly through activating the neurons bearing NPSR in the amygdala. In addition, the little sleep increase in PSD rats treated with NPS suggests that NPS can function as an anxiolytic without causing a subsequent sleep rebound.

Neurochem Res ; 42(8): 2314-2325, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365867


A prominent hypothesis, the "flip-flop switch" model, predicts that histaminergic (HAergic) neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), an important component of the ascending arousal system, are inactivated by GABA mainly from the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus to allow the appearance and maintenance of sleep. However, which sleep state and the band of EEG activity induced by GABAergic inactivation of the TMN are unclear. In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively. Muscimol dosed at 0.25 and 0.50 µg/side into the TMN during dark period dose-dependently increased slow wave sleep (SWS) accompanied by an increase in cortical EEG delta (0.5-4 Hz) and spindle (8.2-12 Hz) activities. In the meanwhile, wakefulness and EEG beta (12.2-30 Hz) activity were decreased significantly, while paradoxical sleep and EEG theta (4.2-8 Hz) activity were not changed. The increase of muscimol-induced SWS was because of prolonged SWS bout duration and not to an increased bout number. Muscimol (0.50 µg/side) administration 2 h after HA (0.125 µg/side) treatment during light period reversed the HA-induced wakefulness and EEG beta 2 (20.2-30 Hz) activity into SWS and EEG delta activity. These results demonstrate that the GABAergic inactivation of the TMN in freely moving rats and HA-treated rats promotes SWS and slow activity of cortical EEG, suggesting that the potential function of the GABAA receptor in the TMN is to dampen vigilant arousal.

Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/administração & dosagem , Histamina/administração & dosagem , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília/fisiologia , Animais , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Muscimol/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos
Toxins (Basel) ; 7(11): 4442-54, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26529014


Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA) has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle)-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19) or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject) injection at fixed-sites (n = 41) including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42) including Yintang (EX-HN3), Taiyang (EX-HN5), Baihui (GV20), Shuaigu (GB8), Fengchi (GB20) and Tianzhu (BL10). The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01). The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement) was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement) (p < 0.01). BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U) introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.

Pontos de Acupuntura , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Músculos Faciais , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Fármacos Neuromusculares/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem