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Small ; 18(9): e2105021, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35088527


Atherosclerosis (AS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, thus imposing a growing burden on modern society. Herb-derived bicyclol (BIC) is a versatile bioactive compound that can be used to treat AS. However, its efficacy in AS is not yet described. Here, it is shown that BIC normalizes gut microflora dysbiosis induced by a high fat diet in Apoe(-/-) mice. Metagenome-wide association study analysis verifies that the modulation on carbohydrate-active enzymes and short-chain fatty acid generating genes in gut flora is among the mechanisms. The gut healthiness, especially the gut immunity and integrity, is restored by BIC intervention, leading to improved systemic immune cell dynamic and liver functions. Accordingly, the endothelial activation, macrophage infiltration, and cholesterol ester accumulation in the aortic arch are alleviated by BIC to lessen the plaque onset. Moreover, it is proved that the therapeutic effect of BIC on AS is transmissible by fecal microbiota transplantation. The current study, for the first time, demonstrates the antiatherosclerotic effects of BIC and shows that its therapeutic value can at least partially be attributed to its manipulation of gut microbiota.

Aterosclerose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Disbiose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873151


Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.

Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Azidas/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Timo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Coronavirus Humano OC43/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/virologia
Biomaterials ; 230: 119574, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761487


Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) are regarded as being the most promising alternative to synthetic materials, and autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used as seeding cells. However, few studies have evaluated the feasibility of using MSCs from patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (C-CHD) as seeding cells for EHTs, in comparison with cells from patients of acyanotic congenital heart disease (A-CHD). In the present study, we cultured MSCs from A-CHD and C-CHD patients in normoxia or hypoxia conditions, and compared their pro-angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and inflammation-modulatory potentials. In vivo, we seeded the cells into collagen patches conjugated with, or without, proangiogenic cytokines, which were used to repair the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) of rats. The in vitro results showed that C-CHD MSCs expressed higher levels of VEGFA and VEGFR2, and secreted more pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory cytokines under hypoxic conditions. On the other hand, apoptosis-related genes from C-CHD MSCs were modulated adaptably, converting these cells into an anti-apoptotic phenotype. In vivo studies demonstrated that in 4 weeks after RVOT reconstruction, cytokine-immobilized patches seeded with C-CHD MSCs exhibited preserved morphology, prolonged cell survival and enhanced angiogenesis compared to A-CHD MSCs. C-CHD MSCs that undergo "naturally hypoxic precondition" present a better cell source for EHTs, which would provide a promising individualized biomaterial for C-CHD patients.

Cardiopatias Congênitas , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Coração , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Ratos
Lipids Health Dis ; 16(1): 169, 2017 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893253


BACKGROUND: The mechanism of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in lipid metabolism is still unclear. Furthermore, the relationship of CETP and atherosclerosis (AS) has been controversial. As pigs are a good model for both lipid and AS research, we investigated the lipid metabolism of human CETP (hCETP) transgenic pigs and explored the mechanism of CETP in lipid modulation. METHODS: Plasmids expressing the hCETP gene were designed, successfully constructed, and transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts by liposomes. Using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology and embryonic transfer, hCETP transgenic pigs were generated. After the DNA, RNA, and protein levels were identified, positive hCETP transgenic pigs were selected. Blood samples were collected at different ages to evaluate the phenotypes of biochemical markers, and the metabolomes of plasma samples were analyzed by liquid mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Eight positive hCETP transgenic pigs and five negative cloned pigs were generated by transgenic technology. Finally, five hCETP transgenic and five cloned pigs were grown healthily. After feeding with a normal diet, hCETP transgenic pigs compared with unmodified pigs had no significant differences in body weight, liver function, kidney function, or plasma ions, while total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were higher than in unmodified pigs, and high-density lipoprotein was significantly decreased. Metabolomics analysis showed that there were differences in metabolic components between hCETP transgenic pigs, cloned pigs, and unmodified pigs. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we created hCETP transgenic pigs that could serve as an excellent model for lipid disorders and atherosclerosis.

Aterosclerose/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 21(6): 490-8, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22445924


BACKGROUND: The purpose was to develop a rabbit model of intimal hyperplasia with controllable lesion. METHODS: Following 1 week of a 2% cholesterol diet, 32 New Zealand White male rabbits underwent right femoral arteries surgical perfusion with distilled water for 1, 3, 5, or 7 min (n=8/group). After a further 4 weeks of the same diet, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were measured in all rabbits. Intimal hyperplasia in histological sections of arteries were assessed by intimal proliferation ratio. Macrophage numbers and levels of proteins matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, and alpha smooth muscle actin in lesions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Serum lipids levels showed no statistical difference between experimental groups. Intimal proliferation ratio increased gradually with perfusion time, and a positive linear correlation was calculated between intimal proliferation ratio and duration of distilled water perfusion. Similarly, number of macrophages and levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2, and alpha smooth muscle actin in lesions increased with perfusion time. CONCLUSIONS: A novel model of intimal hyperplasia was established by intravascular distilled water perfusion in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. Importantly, this model exhibits time-dependent neointimal proliferation lesions that can be readily controlled in terms of extent, thus providing an avenue for further studies.

Dieta Aterogênica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Artéria Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pressão Osmótica/fisiologia , Coelhos , Fatores de Tempo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/metabolismo , Túnica Íntima/efeitos dos fármacos