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1.
Lupus Sci Med ; 7(1)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing relevance of the ANA assay to classification of SLE and the uncertainty and variation surrounding different ANA assay performance, we compared the human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) to mouse liver (ML) substrate in our local cohort and provided a review of the evidence for their use in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). METHODS: Electronic health record data (2003-2008) were used to identify patients who had concurrent HEp-2 and ML ANA, and a diagnosis of SLE or other ARDs. We determined the agreement between HEp-2 and ML ANA regarding positivity, titre and pattern, and their predictors. Sensitivity of HEp-2 ANA, ML ANA, repeating HEp-2 ANA, and combining HEp-2 and ML ANA assays was assessed. RESULTS: There were 961 patients with concurrent HEp-2 and ML ANA samples, including 418 SLEs. There was generally fair to moderate agreement in HEp-2 and ML ANA (kappa (κ)=0.35-0.79), titres (κ=0.34-0.79) and patterns (κ=0.35-0.93). In SLE, the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies was predictive of ANA agreement between HEp-2 and ML ANA (adjusted OR 6.27, 95% CI 1.45 to 27.20, p=0.01). The ANA sensitivity for most ARDs was highest when the HEp-2 test was repeated, followed by when the HEp-2 and ML ANA were combined and when only the HEp-2 or ML ANAs were used. CONCLUSION: In keeping with prior studies, we demonstrated that there was fair to moderate agreement between HEp-2 and ML assays in the largest comparison of HEp-2 and ML as substrates for ANA testing in various ARDs. Furthermore, ANA sensitivity was higher when the HEp-2 assay was repeated rather than combining HEp-2 and ML.

2.
Plant Sci ; 300: 110628, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180708

RESUMO

Metabolic effects of potassium (K) deficiency have been described for nearly 70 years but specific effects of low K availability on sugar composition, sugar export rate and its relationship with other leaf metabolites are not very well documented. Having such pieces of information is nevertheless essential to identify metabolic signatures to monitor K fertilization. This is particularly true in oil-producing crop species such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), which is strongly K-demanding and involves high sugar dependence for fruit formation because of low carbon use efficiency in lipid synthesis. Here, we used metabolic analyses, measured sugar export rates with 13C isotopic labeling and examined the effects of K availability on both leaflet and rachis sugar metabolism in oil palm seedlings. We show that low K leads to a modification of sugar composition mostly in rachis and decreased sucrose and hexose export rates from leaflets. As a result, leaflets contained more starch and induced alternative pathways such as raffinose synthesis, although metabolites of the raffinose pathway remained quantitatively minor. The alteration of glycolysis by low K was compensated for by an increase in alternative sugar phosphate utilization by tyrosine metabolism, resulting in considerable amounts of tyramine and dopamine.

3.
Biomed Mater ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065568

RESUMO

The biomechanical characteristics of tendon grafts is essential for tendon reconstructive surgery due to its great role in providing a good mechanical environment for tendon healing and regeneration. In our previous studies, the decellularized tendon slices (DTSs) and decellularized bovine tendon sheets (DBTSs) scaffolds were successfully developed. However, the influence of the integrity of tendinous membrane (endotenon and epitenon) and fascicle on biomechanical characteristics of these two scaffolds were not investigated. In this study, we assessed the integrity of tendinous membrane and fascicle of the tendon derived scaffolds and its effect on the biomechanical characteristics. The results of histological staining indicated that the DBTSs had complete endotenon and epitenon, while DTSs had no epitenon at all, only part of endotenon was remained. Furthermore, the DBTSs, and DTSs with thickness of 900 µm had complete fascicles, while DTSs with thickness less than 600 µm had almost no complete fascicles. The fibrous configuration of epitenon was well-preserved in the surface of the DBTSs but the surface ultrastructure of the DTSs was aligned collagen fibers based on scanning electron microscopy examination. The results of transmission electron microscopy showed that there was no significant difference between the DBTSs and DTSs. Mechanically, the DBTSs and DTSs with thickness of 900 µm showed similar ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and stiffness to native tendon segments (NTSs). The strain at break and suture retention strength (SRS) of the DBTSs showed much higher than that of the DTSs (p < 0.05). Additionally, the DBTSs showed higher ultimate load than the DTSs when these scaffolds were sutured with NTSs (p < 0.05) through the modified Kessler technique based on a uniaxial tensile test. This study demonstrated that DTSs may be used as a patch for reinforcing tendon repair, while DBTSs may be used as a bridge for reconstructing tendon defects.

4.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082302

RESUMO

The elastase, which belongs to the serine protease family, hydrolyses various proteins and may be involved in the parasite invasion. In this study, complete sequence of elastase-1 (TsE) the nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) was cloned into the plasmid pcDNA3.1 as TsE DNA vaccine. After intramuscular vaccination, serum anti-Trichinella antibodies (IgG and subclass IgG1/IgG2a, and IgA), total and specific intestinal mucosal sIgA in mice vaccinated with pcDNA3.1/TsE were measured by ELISA. The results showed that vaccination with pcDNA3.1/TsE induced a systemic humoral immune response (high levels of serum IgG and subclass IgG1/IgG2a and IgA) and local intestinal mucosal immune responses (high levels of TsE-specific sIgA). Vaccination of mice with TsE DNA vaccine also triggered a systemic and local concomitant Th1/Th2 response, as demonstrated by significant elevation of Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2) / Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine levels after the spleen, mesenteric lymph node and Peyer's patch cells from vaccinated mice were stimulated with recombinant TsE (rTsE). The vaccination of mice with pcDNA3.1/TsE displayed a 17% reduction of intestinal adult worms and a 39% reduction of muscle larvae. Our results indicated that TsE DNA vaccine elicited a systemic concomitant Th1/Th2 response and an enteral local sIgA response, and produced a partial protection against infection with T. spiralis. The TsE may be regarded as a potential candidate vaccine target against Trichinella infection. The oral polyvalent vaccines should be developed to improve the protective efficacy of anti-Trichinella vaccines.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052715

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. GLP-1R agonists reduce airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in preclinical models. OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of asthma exacerbations and symptoms between type 2 diabetic adults with asthma prescribed GLP-1R agonists and those prescribed sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sulfonylureas or basal insulin for diabetes treatment intensification. METHODS: Electronic health records-based new-user, active comparator, retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes and asthma newly prescribed GLP-1R agonists or comparator drugs, January 2000-March 2018. Primary outcome was asthma exacerbations; secondary outcome was encounters for asthma symptoms. Propensity scores were calculated for GLP-1R agonist and non-GLP-1R agonist use. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models included adjustment for multiple covariates. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients initiating GLP-1R agonists (n=448), SGLT-2 inhibitors (n=112), DPP-4 inhibitors (n=435), sulfonylureas (n=2,253) or basal insulin (n=2,692), were identified. At six months, asthma exacerbation counts were lower in persons initiating GLP-1R agonists (reference) compared to SGLT-2 inhibitors (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.98 [95% CI, 1.30 to 6.80]), DPP-4 inhibitors (IRR, 2.45 [95% CI, 1.54 to 3.89]), sulfonylureas (IRR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77]) and basal insulin (IRR, 2.58 [95% CI, 1.72 to 3.88]). Encounters for asthma symptoms were also lower among GLP-1R agonist users. CONCLUSIONS: Adult asthmatics prescribed GLP-1R agonists for type 2 diabetes had lower counts of asthma exacerbations compared to other drugs initiated for treatment intensification. GLP-1R agonists may represent a novel treatment for asthma associated with metabolic dysfunction.

6.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620963026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections, particularly influenza, are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, often due to secondary infections. Our aim was to comparatively analyze the incidence, epidemiology, and outcomes of secondary pneumonia in adult patients hospitalized with influenza versus noninfluenza viral infections and determine whether influenza particularly predisposes to secondary infections. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis from a single tertiary medical center of adult patients admitted to the hospital between 2008 and 2010 with respiratory viral infections. Microbiological patterns and clinical outcomes were compared between those with influenza (VI, n = 57) and those with noninfluenza (NI, n = 77) respiratory viral infections. RESULTS: The NI group was older (60.6 ± 14.0 versus 53.3 ± 19.7 years, p = 0.019) with higher rates of lung transplantation (29% versus 9%, p = 0.009) than VI. Overall, 35% developed secondary pneumonia, higher among NI (44%) than VI (23%, p = 0.017). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of pneumonia in VI, whereas Gram-negative rods were most frequently identified in NI. The NI group had longer hospital [median 10 (interquartile range (IQR) 6-19) versus 6 (IQR 4-15) days, p = 0.019] and intensive care unit [median 4 (IQR 0-12) versus 0 (IQR 0-8) days, p = 0.029] stays compared with VI. Further, the NI group was more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit compared with VI (62% versus 39%, p = 0.011). A trend towards increased mortality was observed in viral infections complicated by secondary pneumonia than primary viral infections (28% versus 15%, p = 0.122). CONCLUSION: Secondary pneumonia is common among adults hospitalized with viral respiratory infections. Within our population, NI results in more frequent secondary pneumonia and longer hospital stays than those with VI. Given the high number of infections caused by Gram-negative rods, monitoring local epidemiology is critical for guiding initial antibiotic selection in empirical treatment of secondary infections.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HLA-association fine-mapping studies have shown the effects of missense variants in HLA-DRB1 on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, prognosis, and autoantibody production. However, the phenotypic effects of expression changes in HLA-DRB1 remain poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the allele-specific expression of HLA-DRB1 and its effect on an HLA-DRß1 structure-associated trait in RA. METHODS: We quantified the allele-specific expression of each HLA-DRB1 three-field classical allele in 48 Korean RA patients with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and 319 healthy European subjects by using both RNA sequencing and HLA-DRB1 genotype data to calculate the relative expression strength of multiple HLA-DRB1 alleles (n=14 in Koreans and 25 in Europeans) in each population. The known association between ACPA level and alanine at position 74 (Ala74) of HLA-DRß1 in ACPA-positive RA was revisited to understand the phenotypic effect of allele-specific expression of HLA-DRB1 by modeling multivariate logistic regression with the genomic dosage or relative expression dosage of Ala74 in two independent sets of 1,723 Korean RA patients with ACPA. RESULTS: The relative expression strength was highly allele-specific, causing imbalanced allelic expression in HLA-DRB1 heterozygotes. The association between HLA-DRß1 Ala74 and the ACPA level in RA was better explained by relative expression dosage of Ala74 than the genomic dosage (ΔAIC=-6.98). Moreover, the expressional variance of Ala74 in Ala74 heterozygotes with no genomic variance of Ala74 was significantly associated with the ACPA level (P=2.26×10-3 ). CONCLUSION: Our finding illustrates the advantage of integrating quantitative and qualitative changes in HLA-DRB1 into a single model for understanding HLA-DRB1 associations.

8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113466, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049344

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginsenoside Rg2 is an important ingredient of Panax ginseng which often appears in ancient prescriptions for forgetfulness. Ginsenoside Rg2 exert neuroprotective effects and could be a new potential medicine to treat AD. In our previous study, we reported that ginsenoside Rg2 appears protect PC12 cells against Amyloid ß-fragment (25-35) (Aß25-35)-induced apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. However, there are no in vivo studies on the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 on Aß-induced neurotoxicity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 against Aß25-35-induced memory impairment, and its underlying mechanisms in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Alzheimer's Disease (AD) rat model was established by injecting the rats with Aß25-35 (1 µg/µl). Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris Water Maze test (MWM). The brain sections were processed and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus was evaluated by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (H&E). To explore the anti-neuronal apoptosis mechanism of ginsenoside Rg2, we analyzed the protein expression of Bcl-2/Bax, caspase-3, and phospho-protein kinase B/protein kinase B (p-Akt/Akt) via western blot. RESULTS: A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed in administrated ginsenoside Rg2 AD rats. The histological injury in hippocampus CA1 induced by Aß25-35 was inhibited following administration of the ginsenoside Rg2. Ginsenoside Rg2 increase the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, attenuate the cleavage of caspase-3, and enhance the phosphorylation of Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg2 could ameliorate Aß25-35-induced cognitive dysfunction by activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway.

9.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 111, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891183

RESUMO

In our previous studies, a novel T. spiralis peptidase (TsP) was identified among the excretory/secretory (ES) proteins of T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL) and T. spiralis at the adult worm (AW) stage using immunoproteomics, but the biological function of TsP in the life cycle of T. spiralis is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the biological properties and functions of TsP in larval intrusion and protective immunity induced by immunization with rTsP. The complete TsP cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed. The results of RT-PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) and western blotting revealed that TsP is a surface and secretory protein expressed in T. spiralis at different stages (muscle larvae, IIL, AWs and newborn larvae) that is principally localized at the epicuticle of the nematode. rTsP facilitated the larval intrusion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and intestinal mucosa, whereas anti-rTsP antibodies suppressed larval intrusion; these facilitative and suppressive roles were dose-dependently related to rTsP or anti-rTsP antibodies. Immunization of mice with rTsP triggered an obvious humoral immune response (high levels of IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, and sIgA) and also elicited systemic (spleen) and intestinal local mucosal (mesenteric lymph node) cellular immune responses, as demonstrated by an evident increase in the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4. Immunization of mice with rTsP reduced the numbers of intestinal adult worms by 38.6% and muscle larvae by 41.93%. These results demonstrate that TsP plays a vital role in the intrusion, development and survival of T. spiralis in hosts and is a promising candidate target molecule for anti-Trichinella vaccines.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify interactions between genetic factors and current or recent smoking in relation to risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: For the study, 673 patients with SLE (diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology 1997 updated classification criteria) were matched by age, sex, and race (first 3 genetic principal components) to 3,272 control subjects without a history of connective tissue disease. Smoking status was classified as current smoking/having recently quit smoking within 4 years before diagnosis (or matched index date for controls) versus distant past/never smoking. In total, 86 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 10 classic HLA alleles previously associated with SLE were included in a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS), with scores dichotomized as either low or high based on the median value in control subjects (low wGRS being defined as less than or equal to the control median; high wGRS being defined as greater than the control median). Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate both the risk of SLE and risk of anti-double-stranded DNA autoantibody-positive (dsDNA+) SLE. Additive interactions were assessed using the attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction, and multiplicative interactions were assessed using a chi-square test (with 1 degree of freedom) for the wGRS and for individual risk alleles. Separate repeated analyses were carried out among subjects of European ancestry only. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of the SLE patients at the time of diagnosis was 36.4 ± 15.3 years. Among the 673 SLE patients included, 92.3% were female and 59.3% were dsDNA+. Ethnic distributions were as follows: 75.6% of European ancestry, 4.5% of Asian ancestry, 11.7% of African ancestry, and 8.2% classified as other ancestry. A high wGRS (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, P = 1.0 × 10-51 versus low wGRS) and a status of current/recent smoking (OR 1.5, P = 0.0003 versus distant past/never smoking) were strongly associated with SLE risk, with significant additive interaction (AP 0.33, P = 0.0012), and associations with the risk of anti-dsDNA+ SLE were even stronger. No significant multiplicative interactions with the total wGRS (P = 0.58) or with the HLA-only wGRS (P = 0.06) were found. Findings were similar in analyses restricted to only subjects of European ancestry. CONCLUSION: The strong additive interaction between an updated SLE genetic risk score and current/recent smoking suggests that smoking may influence specific genes in the pathogenesis of SLE.

11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(9): 731-4, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide a new method for investigating the histological characteristics of acupoints by obser-ving the microstructure of the lymphatic vessels in the skin tissue of "Taichong" (LR3) and "Yongquan" (KI1) regions. METHODS: Six male SD rats were used in the present study. The skin tissue of LR3 and KI1 from the hind foot were taken following transcardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde. The skin tissues were cut into sagittal sections with a freezing microtome and stained by fluorescent immunohistochemistry with lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and phalloidin for displaying the lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, and blood vessels, separately. The samples were viewed and recorded using fluorescent microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope. RESULTS: In the skin tissue of LR3 and KI1 regions, the lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, and blood vessels were labeled with LYVE-1, CGRP and phalloidin, respectively. The lymphatic capillaries were found to start from the enlarged blind end and distribute in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues with various forms, crisscrossing. Abundant blood capillaries at various thickness distributed around the lymphatic capillaries in a parallel or crossed pattern, intermingled with free nerve fibers. CONCLUSION: The lymphatic capillaries, blood capillaries and nerve fibers extensively distribute in the skin tissues of LR3 and KI1 regions in rats, suggesting an involvement of the immunomodulation in the effects of acupuncture in pathological conditions, despite being not limited to the acupoint regions in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries.


Assuntos
Vasos Linfáticos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele
12.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 125, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988413

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the biological characteristics and functions of a Trichinella spiralis serine proteinase (TsSerp) during larval invasion and development in the host. The full-length TsSerp cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The results of RT-PCR, IFA and western blotting analyses showed that TsSerp was a secretory protein that was highly expressed at the T. spiralis intestinal infective larva and muscle larva stages and primarily located at the cuticle, stichosome and intrauterine embryos of the parasite. rTsSerp promoted the larval invasion of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the enteric mucosa, whereas an anti-rTsSerp antibody impeded larval invasion; the promotion and obstruction roles were dose-dependently related to rTsSerp and the anti-rTsSerp antibodies, respectively. Vaccination of mice with rTsSerp elicited a remarkable humoral immune response (high levels of serum IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, IgE and IgM), and it also triggered both systemic (spleen) and local intestinal mucosal mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cellular immune responses, as demonstrated by a significant elevation in Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4) after the spleen and MLN cells from vaccinated mice were stimulated with rTsSerp. Anti-TsSerp antibodies participated in the killing and destruction of newborn larvae via ADCC. The mice vaccinated with rTsSerp exhibited a 48.7% reduction in intestinal adult worms and a 52.5% reduction in muscle larvae. These results indicated that TsSerp participates in T. spiralis invasion and development in the host and might be considered a potential candidate target antigen to develop oral polyvalent preventive vaccines against Trichinella infection.

13.
Cancer Cell ; 38(5): 734-747.e9, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888432

RESUMO

We integrate the genomics, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of 480 clinical tissues from 146 patients in a Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort, among which 70 had metastatic CRC (mCRC). Proteomic profiling differentiates three CRC subtypes characterized by distinct clinical prognosis and molecular signatures. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of primary tumors alone successfully distinguishes cases with metastasis. Metastatic tissues exhibit high similarities with primary tumors at the genetic but not the proteomic level, and kinase network analysis reveals significant heterogeneity between primary colorectal tumors and their liver metastases. In vivo xenograft-based drug tests using 31 primary and metastatic tumors show personalized responses, which could also be predicted by kinase-substrate network analysis no matter whether tumors carry mutations in the drug-targeted genes. Our study provides a valuable resource for better understanding of mCRC and has potential for clinical application.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3177-3188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821085

RESUMO

Background: Melatonin (MT) has potential protective effect on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI), but its underlying regulatory mechanism has not been identified. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the role of miR-26a-5p-neuron-restrictive silencing factor (NRSF/REST), Janus kinase-2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) pathway in the protection mechanism of MT against CIRI in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were induced with ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in vivo model; PC12 cells were induced with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) in vitro model; and MT intervention was conducted before the model was established. The effect of MT on autophagy factors (LC3II/LC3I, P62), inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10) and oxidative stress indexes (MDA, GSHPx, SOD) was explored, and then the above three indexes were determined by real-time quantitative PCR, ELISA, and detection kit corresponding to oxidative stress indexes. The neuroprotective effect of MT pretreatment on brain IR injury was evaluated by neurological deficit scores and TUNEL method. The levels of miR-26a-5p and NRSF were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, and the interaction between them was evaluated by dual luciferase report. The role of JAK2-STAT3 pathway in MT protection mechanism was verified by pathway blocker (AG490) and Western blot. Results: MT pretreatment can significantly reduce neurological deficit score and neuronal apoptosis, inhibit CIRI autophagy, inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro, reduce LC3II/LC3I, TNF-α, IL-6, MDA and increase P62, IL-10, GSHPx, SOD. Further analysis identifies that downregulating miR-26a-5p or upregulating NRSF can eliminate the protective effect of MT, and NRSF is the direct target of miR-26a-5p. The protective effect of MT can also be eliminated under AG490 intervention. Conclusion: MT plays a protective role by regulating miR-26a-5p-NRSF and JAK2-STAT3 pathway to improve CIRI autophagy, inflammation and oxidative stress.

15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 117, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) causes different morbidity risks to individuals in different age groups. This study attempts to quantify the age-specific transmissibility using a mathematical model. METHODS: An epidemiological model with five compartments (susceptible-exposed-symptomatic-asymptomatic-recovered/removed [SEIAR]) was developed based on observed transmission features. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were divided into four age groups: group 1, those ≤ 14 years old; group 2, those 15 to 44 years old; group 3, those 45 to 64 years old; and group 4, those ≥ 65 years old. The model was initially based on cases (including imported cases and secondary cases) collected in Hunan Province from January 5 to February 19, 2020. Another dataset, from Jilin Province, was used to test the model. RESULTS: The age-specific SEIAR model fitted the data well in each age group (P < 0.001). In Hunan Province, the highest transmissibility was from age group 4 to 3 (median: ß43 = 7.71 × 10- 9; SAR43 = 3.86 × 10- 8), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 3.07 × 10- 9; SAR34 = 1.53 × 10- 8), group 2 to 2 (median: ß22 = 1.24 × 10- 9; SAR22 = 6.21 × 10- 9), and group 3 to 1 (median: ß31 = 4.10 × 10- 10; SAR31 = 2.08 × 10- 9). The lowest transmissibility was from age group 3 to 3 (median: ß33 = 1.64 × 10- 19; SAR33 = 8.19 × 10- 19), followed by group 4 to 4 (median: ß44 = 3.66 × 10- 17; SAR44 = 1.83 × 10- 16), group 3 to 2 (median: ß32 = 1.21 × 10- 16; SAR32 = 6.06 × 10- 16), and group 1 to 4 (median: ß14 = 7.20 × 10- 14; SAR14 = 3.60 × 10- 13). In Jilin Province, the highest transmissibility occurred from age group 4 to 4 (median: ß43 = 4.27 × 10- 8; SAR43 = 2.13 × 10- 7), followed by group 3 to 4 (median: ß34 = 1.81 × 10- 8; SAR34 = 9.03 × 10- 8). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 exhibits high transmissibility between middle-aged (45 to 64 years old) and elderly (≥ 65 years old) people. Children (≤ 14 years old) have very low susceptibility to COVID-19. This study will improve our understanding of the transmission feature of SARS-CoV-2 in different age groups and suggest the most prevention measures should be applied to middle-aged and elderly people.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764274

RESUMO

Trichinella spiralis is a major foodborne parasite and has a serious threat to meat safety. Development of anti-Trichinella vaccines is prospective to eliminate Trichinella infection in food animal. The aim of this study was to assess the biological properties of a novel T. spiralis trypsin (TsT) and its elicited immune protection against larval challenge. The cDNA sequence of TsT gene was cloned and expressed. Western blotting showed rTsT was identified by infection serum and anti-TsT serum. RT-PCR results revealed that TsT gene was transcribed at diverse T. spiralis lifecycle stages. The IIFT results showed that natural TsT was principally expressed at epicuticle of 5-6 day adult worms, indicating that TsT is a worm somatic antigen and adult-stage specific surface antigen. Vaccination of mice with rTsT triggered an evident humoral immune response (high levels of serum IgG, IgG1/IgG2a, and enteral sIgA), and it also induced the systemic and enteral local cellular immune response, demonstrated by an significantly elevation of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4. The mice vaccinated with rTsT exhibited a 33.17% reduction of enteral adult worms and a 37.80% reduction of muscle larvae after larval challenge. The results showed that TsT might be considered as a candidate target antigen for anti-T. spiralis vaccines.

17.
Small ; : e2002701, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776467

RESUMO

Nanomeshes with highly regular, permeable pores in plane, combining the exceptional porous architectures with intrinsic properties of 2D materials, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Herein, a series of 2D ultrathin metal-organic nanomeshes with ordered mesopores is obtained by a self-assembly method, including metal phosphate and metal phosphonate. The resultant mesoporous ferric phytate nanomeshes feature unique 2D ultrathin monolayer morphologies (≈9 nm thickness), hexagonally ordered, permeable mesopores of ≈16 nm, as well as improved surface area and pore volume. Notably, the obtained ferric phytate nanomeshes can directly in situ convert into mesoporous sulfur-doped metal phosphonate nanomeshes by serving as an unprecedented reactive self-template. Furthermore, as advanced anode materials for Li-ion batteries, they deliver excellent capacity, good rate capability, and cycling performance, greatly exceeding the similar metal phosphate-based materials reported previously, resulting from their unique 2D ultrathin mesoporous structure. Therefore, the work will pave an avenue for constructing the other 2D ordered mesoporous materials, and thus offer new opportunities for them in diverse areas.

18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1471, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare congenital developmental disorder with variable multisystem involvement and genetic heterogeneity. We aimed to analyze the clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese individuals with CdLS. METHODS: We collected data regarding the neonatal period, maternal status, clinical manifestation, including facial dimorphisms and development, and follow-up treatment for individuals diagnosed with CdLS. In individuals with suspected CdLS, high-throughput sequencing, Sanger sequencing, and real-time qualitative PCR were used to verify the diagnosis. RESULTS: Variants, including six that were novel, were concentrated in the NIPBL (70%), HDAC8 (20%), and SMC3 (10%) genes. We found two nonsense, three splicing, and two deletion variants in NIPBL; a missense variant and an absence variant in HDAC8; and a missense variant in SMC3. Eleven cardinal features of CdLS were present in more than 80% of Chinese individuals. Compared with non-Chinese individuals of diverse ancestry, there were significant differences in the clinical characteristics of eight of these features. CONCLUSION: Six novel pathological variants were identified; thus, the study expanded the gene variant spectrum. Furthermore, most cardinal features of CdLS found in Chinese individuals were also found in individuals from other countries. However, there were significant differences in eight clinical features.

19.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 116, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease (later named as COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China and, later on, detected in other parts of China. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the evolution of interventions and self-protection measures, estimate the risk of partial lifting control measures and predict the epidemic trend of the virus in the mainland of China excluding Hubei province based on the published data and a novel mathematical model. METHODS: A novel COVID-19 transmission dynamic model incorporating the intervention measures implemented in China is proposed. COVID-19 daily data of the mainland of China excluding Hubei province, including the cumulative confirmed cases, the cumulative deaths, newly confirmed cases and the cumulative recovered cases between 20 January and 3 March 2020, were archived from the National Health Commission of China (NHCC). We parameterize the model by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and estimate the control reproduction number (Rc), as well as the effective daily reproduction ratio- Re(t), of the disease transmission in the mainland of China excluding Hubei province. RESULTS: The estimation outcomes indicate that Rc is 3.36 (95% CI: 3.20-3.64) and Re(t) has dropped below 1 since 31 January 2020, which implies that the containment strategies implemented by the Chinese government in the mainland of China are indeed effective and magnificently suppressed COVID-19 transmission. Moreover, our results show that relieving personal protection too early may lead to a prolonged disease transmission period and more people would be infected, and may even cause a second wave of epidemic or outbreaks. By calculating the effective reproduction ratio, we prove that the contact rate should be kept at least less than 30% of the normal level by April, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure the pandemic ending rapidly, it is necessary to maintain the current integrated restrict interventions and self-protection measures, including travel restriction, quarantine of entry, contact tracing followed by quarantine and isolation and reduction of contact, like wearing masks, keeping social distance, etc. People should be fully aware of the real-time epidemic situation and keep sufficient personal protection until April. If all the above conditions are met, the outbreak is expected to be ended by April in the mainland of China apart from Hubei province.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Viagem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3340, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620845

RESUMO

GWAS cannot identify functional SNPs (fSNP) from disease-associated SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD). Here, we report developing three sequential methodologies including Reel-seq (Regulatory element-sequencing) to identify fSNPs in a high-throughput fashion, SDCP-MS (SNP-specific DNA competition pulldown-mass spectrometry) to identify fSNP-bound proteins and AIDP-Wb (allele-imbalanced DNA pulldown-Western blot) to detect allele-specific protein:fSNP binding. We first apply Reel-seq to screen a library containing 4316 breast cancer-associated SNPs and identify 521 candidate fSNPs. As proof of principle, we verify candidate fSNPs on three well-characterized loci: FGFR2, MAP3K1 and BABAM1. Next, using SDCP-MS and AIDP-Wb, we rapidly identify multiple regulatory factors that specifically bind in an allele-imbalanced manner to the fSNPs on the FGFR2 locus. We finally demonstrate that the factors identified by SDCP-MS can regulate risk gene expression. These data suggest that the sequential application of Reel-seq, SDCP-MS, and AIDP-Wb can greatly help to translate large sets of GWAS data into biologically relevant information.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Western Blotting , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Células MCF-7 , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética
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