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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2104761, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632640

RESUMO

Elastomeric dielectrics are crucial for reliably governing the carrier densities in semiconducting channels during deformation in soft/stretchable field-effect transistors (FETs). Uncontrolled stacking of polymeric chains renders elastomeric dielectrics poorly insulated at nanoscale thicknesses, thereby thick films are usually required, leading to high voltage or power consumption for on/off operations of FETs. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is exploited to build 15-nm-thick elastomeric nanodielectrics through alternative adsorption of oppositely charged polyurethanes (PUs) for soft and hysteresis-free FETs. After mild thermal annealing to heal pinholes, such PU multilayers offer high areal capacitances of 237 nF cm-2 and low leakage current densities of 3.2 × 10-8 A cm-2 at 2 V. Owing to the intrinsic ductility of the elastomeric PUs, the nanofilms possess excellent dielectric properties at a strain of 5% or a bending radius of 1.5 mm, while the wrinkled counterparts show mechanical stability with negligible changes of leakage currents after repeated stretching to a strain of 50%. Besides, these nanodielectrics are immune to high humidity and conserve their properties when immersed into water, despite their assembly occurs aqueously. Furthermore, the PU dielectrics are implemented in carbon nanotube FETs, demonstrating low-voltage operations (< 1.5 V) and negligible hysteresis without any encapsulations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595543

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the genetic and clinical features of children with MAP2K1-mutated Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). METHODS: We compared the clinical features of 37 children with MAP2K1-mutated LCH with those of the BRAFV600E mutation group (n = 133) and no known mutation group (n = 59) in the same period. RESULTS: We found 13 mutations of the MAP2K1 gene, which were mainly concentrated at p.53-62 and p.98-103. The most common mutation site was c.172_186del (12/37). Compared with the BRAFV600E mutation group, the patients with MAP2K1 mutations were mainly characterized by single-system multiple bone involvement (P = 0.022), with later disease onset (P = 0.029) as well as less involvement of risk organs, especially liver (P = 0.024). There was no significant difference in clinical features compared with the no known mutation group. The 2-year progression-free survival rate of first-line treatment (ChiCTR1900025783, 07/09/2019) in MAP2K1-mutated patients was 65.6% ± 9.5%. The prognosis of patients with lung involvement was poor [HR (95% CI) = 6.312 (1.769-22.526), P = 0.005]. More progression or relapses could be found in patients with bony thorax involvement (8/17 vs. 2/20, P = 0.023), yet involvements in other sites of bones, such as craniofacial bone involvement (8/26 vs. 2/11, P = 0.688) and limb bone involvement (5/12 vs. 5/25, P = 0.240), were not correlated to disease progression or relapse. CONCLUSION: The children with MAP2K1-mutated LCH have specific clinical features requiring clinical stratification and precise treatment. MAP2K1-mutated patients with lung involvement (especially with bony thorax involvement) had poor prognosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482587

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions. METHODS: Forty patients who suffered from infertility with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) were enrolled in this prospective trial from October 2018 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into a PRF group and a control group. Both groups underwent transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) during the follicular phase. PRF group: PRF prepared from autologous venous blood was placed in the uterine cavity after TCRA and after the first menstrual re-fluid; control group: no PRF insertion. After the second menstrual re-fluid, both groups underwent hysteroscopy to reevaluate adhesion severity. Pregnancy rate, intrauterine adhesion score, menstrual volume and duration, and endometrial thickness were assessed and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: (1) PRF group pregnancy rate was significantly higher than the control group (55.0% vs. 20.0%). Mean follow-up time was (17.63 ± 2.33) months. All patients fell pregnant naturally. Four (PRF) and one (control) patients delivered live births without placental complications. (2) Intrauterine adhesion scores decreased compared with treatment-before. (3) In the pictorial blood loss assessment chart, score and menstrual duration during the 3rd menstrual cycle showed significant improvements for both groups. (4) Endometrial thickness also showed an increasing trend, and subendometrial bloodflow improved. (5) No treatment-related serious adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION: Placing PRF into the uterine cavity of infertility patients with IUAs following TCRA is a safe and effective therapeutic method.

4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211048193, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507509

RESUMO

We report a boundary paradigm eye movement experiment to investigate whether the predictability of the second character of a two-character compound word affects how it is processed prior to direct fixation during reading. The boundary was positioned immediately prior to the second character of the target word, which itself was either predictable or unpredictable. The preview was either a pseudocharacter (nonsense preview) or an identity preview. We obtained clear preview effects in all conditions, but more importantly, skipping probability for the second character of the target word and the whole target word from pretarget was greater when it was predictable than when it was not predictable from the preceding context. Interactive effects for later measures on the whole target word (gaze duration and go-past time) were also obtained. These results demonstrate that predictability information from preceding sentential context and information regarding the likely identity of upcoming characters are used concurrently to constrain the nature of lexical processing during natural Chinese reading.

5.
Microsurgery ; 41(7): 637-644, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of cranial defects following failed cranioplasty due to titanium mesh exposure and infection is challenging. The purpose of this report is to describe a modified technique using a free myocutaneous flap transfer for primary soft tissue reconstruction, and titanium mesh reinsertion for cranioplasty revision. METHODS: Nineteen patients with titanium mesh exposure and infection following cranioplasty were treated from January 2012 to January 2019. The average patient age was 41.89 years and the average size of the cranial defect was 7.74 × 13.92 cm. The reasons for craniotomy were craniocerebral trauma (n = 17), cerebrovascular disease (n = 1), and brain tumor (n = 1). The mean duration between implant exposure and current procedure was 7.16 months. Implant was removed and a free myocutaneous flap was designed to cover both scalp and cranium defects. After a mean duration of 12.32 months, implants were re-inserted in a vascularized pocket at the second stage by elevating a plane between the previously transferred fascia layer and muscle layer. RESULTS: The average sizes of the muscle flaps and skin paddles were 7.74 × 13.92 cm and 4.97 × 8.97 cm. The average size of the implants was 8.24 × 14.42 cm. All flaps survived completely with no complication. After an average follow-up of 48.16 months there were no cranioplasty failures. Functional coverage of craniectomy defect sites with normalized head contour was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: The use of free myocutaneous flap and implant reinsertion achieved durable cranial and scalp defect reconstruction and aesthetic outcomes. The myocutaneous flap increases blood supply to the scalp, which may reduce the chances of infection and implant re-exposure.


Assuntos
Retalho Miocutâneo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles , Adulto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Crânio/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Titânio
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931834, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND We have undertaken this investigation to explore the perioperative risk factors of new-onset chronic kidney disease (NOCKD) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and to provide an early prediction model for the screening of NOCKD high-risk populations. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective case-control study was performed in adult recipients who received OLT in our center between January 2018 and January 2020. Perioperative data were collected using the center's electronic medical record system. Logistics regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for NOCKD within 1 year following OLT. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to evaluate the 1-year survival of recipients with NOCKD or without NOCKD. RESULTS A total of 174 patients were included in this study, and 29 patients developed NOCKD after OLT. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that preoperative diabetes, high model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), and postoperative renal replacement therapy (RRT) were independent risk factors for NOCKD 1 year after OLT. The 1-year survival rate of NOCKD recipients waas significantly lower than that of patients who did not receive NOCKD. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes mellitus, MELD score, postoperative AKI, and requirement for postoperative RRT are independent risk factors for NOCKD after OLT, which may have great potential for personalized decision making and predicting the 1-year postoperative mortality of the recipient.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 42052-42062, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435780

RESUMO

Ideal conductive hydrogels for flexible, wearable strain sensors should be tough, highly resilient, adhesive, and anti-freezing. However, such hydrogels are difficult to design. Herein, a multifunctional macromolecular cross-linker (MC) based on poly(hydroxyethyl-l-glutamine) was designed and used to synthesize the hydrogels. Cross-linking with the MC leads to a reduced inhomogeneity of the gel network. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the gels are significantly improved compared with the ordinary hydrogels cross-linked with the conventional cross-linker N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS). The MC-cross-linked gels also exhibit high resilience. At the same time, replacing BIS with MC significantly improves the adhesive properties of the gel, which is attributed to the introduction of a large amount of adhesive groups with the MC. The gels can stick to various substrates including skin. The good tissue adhesiveness of the gel allows it to stick to skin by itself without using any straps or adhesive tapes when used as a flexible wearable strain sensor. Both large and subtle human movements were successfully monitored using the sensor. The signals are highly stable and reliable, thanks to the high resilience of the gel. The introduction of the polar groups also improved dramatically the anti-freezing properties of the gels. Even at -20 °C, the gels still remained highly flexible and stretchable, therefore allowing the gel-based sensor to work at sub-zero temperatures. The excellent toughness, resilience, tissue-adhesiveness, and anti-freezing properties of the gel make it a good choice for a flexible wearable sensor.

8.
J Immunol Methods ; 497: 113100, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270976

RESUMO

In recent years, adoptive cell therapy of immune effector cells, such as chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) cells have been employed in clinical trials. In addition, CD19 CAR-T cells have been approved by the FDA for treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In this context, it is vital to detect cellular cytotoxicity and monitor the quality of ex vivo expanded immune cells before product release and patient infusion. Target cells could proliferate in parallel with effector cells during the cytotoxicity assay, making it difficult to estimate the death ratio using conventional approaches. Meanwhile, non-specific dyes or non-homogeneous biomarkers for target cells may interfere with the final readout post addition of effector cells. Here, we modified a component of the coincubation medium to suppress the spontaneous release of bis(acetoxymethyl)2,2':6',2″-terpyridine-6,6″-dicarboxylate and sustained the window at a stable range (~70%). Further, the optimized Eu-TDA method presented reliable outcomes compared with lactate dehydrogenase detection and was compatible with cytotoxicity tests for NK cells and specific CTLs. Finally, the reported assay can accurately detect death of target cells depending on the amount of hydrophilic complex and can be reliably applied in quality control and cell activity evaluation tests on co-suspended effector and target cells. SUMMARY: A medium component for cellular coincubations (and associated protocols) have been optimized and validated for cytotoxicity assays, which can reliably evaluate the potency of engineered CD19 CAR-T cells, NK cells, and specific CTLs. In particular, the reported method can be applied widely in routine assays for bi-suspended effector and target cells with a stable window.

9.
Pituitary ; 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can affect any organ. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare, and its management is poorly understood. This study aimed to analyze the clinical response and prognosis of pediatric LCH with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) treated with second-line therapy with cytarabine (Ara-c), cladribine (2-cdA), dexamethasone, and vindesine. METHODS: This retrospective case series study included pediatric LCH with CDI treated at Beijing Children's Hospital affiliated with Capital Medical University (11/2012-01/2018). After the first-line 2009-LCH regimen, patients with active disease/worse response, relapse, or no significant improvement in risk organs, pituitary, or lung were given the second-line therapy. Baseline characteristics, clinical response and adverse reactions were observed. RESULTS: Twenty-six children with CDI and disappearance of hyperintensity in the posterior pituitary were included. They received "Regimen A" Ara-c + dexamethasone + vindesine (n = 7) or "Regimen B" Ara-c + dexamethasone + vindesine + 2-cdA (n = 19) as second-line therapy. There were 14 patients with CDI but without pituitary stalk thickening (PST) and 12 with CDI and PST. In patients with CDI alone, 4/4 patients receiving Regimen A and 3/10 receiving Regimen B improved. All patients with CDI and PST showed improvement for PST. The reappearance of hyperintensity at the posterior pituitary was observed in 10 patients with CDI. All 26 children were alive after a median follow-up of 40.5 months. There were no chemotherapy-related deaths. CONCLUSION: A combined therapy with Ara-c, 2-cdA, dexamethasone, and vindesine could partially alleviate pituitary disease conditions in pediatric LCH with CNS involvement, with good tolerance.

10.
ISA Trans ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303528

RESUMO

This paper studies a novel fixed-time extended state observer based fixed-time integral terminal sliding mode controller for partial integrated guidance and control design. Firstly, a class of arbitrary-order systems with fixed-time stability is proposed by utilizing homogeneous approach, whose upper bound of convergence time is given. Then, an arbitrary-order fixed-time integral terminal sliding mode control is designed based on the proposed arbitrary-order fixed-time stable system, which avoids the singular problem. Subsequently, this paper constructs a new fixed-time extended state observer to further actively compensate for the disturbance caused by unknown target acceleration. Finally, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309376

RESUMO

Based on a coordination polymer, FeCl2(4,4'-bpy) (4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine) and the carbon nanotube (CNT)/NaCl dual template, Fe3N nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via chemical thermolysis in the absence of an extra nitrogen source. The decomposition of 4,4'-bpy under high temperature produces thin carbon coating for Fe3N NPs. Also, the CNT template anchors the Fe3N NPs to avoid aggregation. The sample (denoted as Fe3N-C N) exhibits excellent electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) behavior even with a small molar ratio of Fe3N (Fe: 4.9 at. %), which can deliver a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 218 mV with a Tafel slope of 84 mV dec-1 and long-term OER activity during 60 h electrolysis at 20 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the sample after 20 h electrolysis, denoted as Post-Fe3N-C N (20 h), displays enhanced OER activity with a smaller Tafel slope of 41 mV dec-1 and overpotentials of 195 and 327 mV at 10 and 100 mA cm-2, respectively, which is mainly due to the partial transformation of Fe3N into FeOOH. The OER mechanism is investigated by density functional theory calculations, and it is found that the surface partial oxidation of Fe3N leads to the effective OER electrolysis, which changes the electron density of the superficial atoms and induces the moderate adsorption for the intermediates.

13.
Cancer Res ; 81(17): 4514-4528, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266895

RESUMO

Hyperactive mevalonate (MVA) metabolic activity is often observed in cancer cells, and blockade of this pathway inhibits tumor cell lipid synthesis and cell growth and enhances tumor immunogenicity. How tumor cell MVA metabolic blockade promotes antitumor immune responses, however, remains unclear. Here we show that inhibition of the MVA metabolic pathway in tumor cells elicits type 1 classical dendritic cells (cDC1)-mediated tumor recognition and antigen cross-presentation for antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, MVA blockade disrupted prenylation of the small GTPase Rac1 and induced cancer cell actin filament exposure, which was recognized by CLEC9A, a C-lectin receptor specifically expressed on cDC1s, in turn activating antitumor T cells. MVA pathway blockade or Rac1 knockdown in tumor cells induced CD8+ T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity in immunocompetent mice but not in Batf3 -/- mice lacking CLEC9A+ dendritic cells. These findings demonstrate tumor MVA metabolic blockade stimulates a cDC1 response through CLEC9A-mediated immune recognition of tumor cell cytoskeleton, illustrating a new immune surveillance mechanism by which dendritic cells monitor tumor metabolic dysregulation and providing insight into how MVA pathway inhibition may potentiate anticancer immunity. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that mevalonate blockade in cancer cells disrupts Rac1 prenylation to increase recognition and cross-presentation by conventional dendritic cells, suggesting this axis as a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.

14.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236975

RESUMO

This article proposes an integrated approach of model-based and data-driven gap metric fault detection and isolation in a stochastic framework. For actuator and sensor faults, an adaptive Kalman filter combining with the generalized likelihood ratio method is suggested. For component faults, especially incipient faults, the model-based scheme maybe not a good choice due to the existence of disturbances or noises. Hence, a novel data-driven gap metric strategy is presented. The design of the appropriate fault cluster center model and radius via the gap metric technique is put forward to enhance the isolability of the incipient faults. Numerical simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection and isolation algorithm.

15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6883-6891, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and its influencing factors of medication among residents in Haikou, the capital city of Hainan Province, and inform the development of interventions to reduce residents' medication errors. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the KAP of medication among Haikou residents and its influencing factors from March to September 2019. RESULTS: A total of 471 valid questionnaires were collected (245 online and 226 offline), with an effective recovery rate of 94.2%. The average score of KAP of medication were 52.2±13.08, 27.34±8.14, and 51.54±9.22, respectively. The knowledge score reached "good" in the evaluation criteria of the questionnaire, and the attitude and practice scores were "fair". Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the medication knowledge increased with age; a lower education degree was associated with less knowledge and more medication errors, and a higher education level was associated with more access to medication knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Education on rational drug use should be performed via multiple ways to promote rational drug use and reduce risky medication behaviors, particularly among residents with low education degrees, e.g., drug counseling and guidance, regularly push medication science popularization, public welfare lecture on rational drug use, organize and compile popular science books.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264533

RESUMO

It has been established that gut microbiota influences chicken growth performance and fat metabolism. However, whether gut microbiota affects chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, seven-week-old chickens with high or low body weight were used in the present study. There were significant differences in body weight, breast and leg muscle indices, and cross-sectional area of muscle cells, suggesting different growth performance. The relative abundance of gut microbiota in the caecal contents at the genus level was compared by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results of LEfSe indicated that high body weight chickens contained Microbacterium and Sphingomonas more abundantly (P < 0.05). In contrast, low body weight chickens contained Slackia more abundantly (P < 0.05). The results of H & E, qPCR, IHC, WB and blood analysis suggested significantly different fat metabolism level in serum, liver, abdominal adipose, breast and leg muscles between high and low body weight chickens. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that fat metabolism positively correlated with the relative abundance of Microbacterium and Sphingomonas while negatively correlated with the abundance of Slackia. Furthermore, faecal microbiota transplantation was performed, which verified that transferring faecal microbiota from adult chickens with high body weight into one-day-old chickens improved growth performance and fat metabolism in liver by remodelling the gut microbiota. Overall, these results suggested that gut microbiota could affect chicken growth performance by regulating fat metabolism.

17.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(8): 3474-3485, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291920

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids are a new generation in vitro cell model, however, their applications are severely limited by difficulties in their generation. Here patterned poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel films were synthesized for their generation. Instead of polymerization of HEMA monomers in the presence of a cross-linker, here the PHEMA films were synthesized by cross-linking furan-functionalized linear PHEMA, PHEMA-furan, and maleimide-functionalized linear PHEMA, PHEMA-mal, via Diels-Alder (DA) reaction between furan and maleimide groups. A thermal treatment temperature of 75 °C was chosen for the cross-linking reaction. The occurrence of DA reaction was confirmed by IR spectra. Using this method, cross-linked PHEMA films with smooth surface were successfully synthesized in situ in the well of cell culture plates. The films were then patterned by simply adding water to swell them. Highly ordered, honeycomb-like wrinkling patterns were successfully obtained by adjusting the furan and maleimide contents in the precursor linear polymers. The patterned hydrogel films were used to generate multicellular spheroids. Guided by the patterns, 3D spheroids with narrow size distribution, tunable size, and high cell viability were successfully obtained. The patterned PHEMA films reported here exhibited a lot of advantages. The patterning method was quite simple and required no template or special equipment. They were synthesized in situ in commercial cell culture plates. Particularly, thanks to the clean nature of the DA reaction, no low molecular weight monomer, cross-linker, initiator, or catalyst, which were potentially cytotoxic, was involved in the film synthesis, and no byproduct was produced and left in the film. The resulting films presented a high biocompatibility, allowing the avoidance of the tedious washing step. The films synthesized here were expected to have high potential for massive production of well-defined multicellular spheroids.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxietil Metacrilato , Esferoides Celulares , Hidrogéis , Metilgalactosídeos
18.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 54(5): 1529-1540, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T1 mapping can potentially quantitatively assess the intrinsic properties of tumors. B1 correction can reduce the magnetic field inhomogeneity. PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of B1 -corrected T1 mapping for lung cancer and the ability to identify pathological types. STUDY TYPE: Prospective reproducibility study. POPULATION: Sixty lung cancer patients (22 with emphysema) with a total of 60 lesions (adenocarcinoma [n = 23], squamous cell carcinoma [n = 19], and small-cell lung cancer [SCLC] [n = 18]). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3 T/B1 -corrected 3D variable flip angle T1 mapping and free-breathing diffusion-weighted imaging. ASSESSMENT: Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum, maximum, mean, and SD of lung tumor T1 values were assessed. The correlation between mean T1 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and differences between different histological types of lung cancer were evaluated. STATISTICAL TESTS: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), within-subject coefficients of variation (WCVs), Bland-Altman plots, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in minimum, maximum, mean, and SD T1 values for repeated measurements (intraobserver and interobserver) and repeated examinations (P = 0.103-0.979). All parameters showed good intraobserver, interobserver and test-retest reproducibility (ICC, 0.780-0.978), except the maximum T1 value (ICC, 0.645-0.922). The mean T1 exhibited the best reproducibility and repeatability, with an average difference <6% for repeated measurements, <8% for repeated scans in lung cancer patients, and<10% for repeated scans in those with emphysema. The mean T1 correlated moderately with ADC (r = -0.580, -0.516, and -0.511 for observers A, B, and C). Both mean T1 and mean ADC were significantly different in SCLC patients compared with those in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients. DATA CONCLUSION: The mean T1 from B1 -corrected T1 mapping is a repeatable parameter with the potential to identify histological types of lung cancer and thus may be a promising imaging biomarker for characterizing lung cancer. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

19.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 249, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression is a promising biomarker for identifying treatment related to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Automated image analysis served as an aided PD-L1 scoring tool for pathologists to reduce inter- and intrareader variability. We developed a novel automated tumor proportion scoring (TPS) algorithm, and evaluated the concordance of this image analysis algorithm with pathologist scores. METHODS: We included 230 NSCLC samples prepared and stained using the PD-L1(SP263) and PD-L1(22C3) antibodies separately. The scoring algorithm was based on regional segmentation and cellular detection. We used 30 PD-L1(SP263) slides for algorithm training and validation. RESULTS: Overall, 192 SP263 samples and 117 22C3 samples were amenable to image analysis scoring. Automated image analysis and pathologist scores were highly concordant [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.873 and 0.737]. Concordances at moderate and high cutoff values were better than at low cutoff values significantly. For SP263 and 22C3, the concordances in squamous cell carcinomas were better than adenocarcinomas (SP263 ICC = 0.884 vs 0.783; 22C3 ICC = 0.782 vs 0.500). In addition, our automated immune cell proportion scoring (IPS) scores achieved high positive correlation with the pathologists TPS scores. CONCLUSIONS: The novel automated image analysis scoring algorithm permitted quantitative comparison with existing PD-L1 diagnostic assays and demonstrated effectiveness by combining cellular and regional information for image algorithm training. Meanwhile, the fact that concordances vary in different subtypes of NSCLC samples, which should be considered in algorithm development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Antígeno B7-H1 , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Patologistas
20.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117594, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175518

RESUMO

In order to better understand the environmental risks of the rare earth elements (REEs), it is necessary to determine their fate and biological effects under environmentally relevant conditions (e.g. at low concentrations, REE mixtures). Here, the unicellular freshwater microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was exposed for 2 h to one of three soluble REEs (Ce, Tm, Y) salts at 0.5 µM or to an equimolar mixture of these REEs. RNA sequencing revealed common biological effects among the REEs. Known functions of the differentially expressed genes support effects of REEs on protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, phosphate transport and the homeostasis of Fe and Ca. The only stress response detected was related to protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum. When the REEs were applied as a mixture, antagonistic effects were overwhelmingly observed with transcriptomic results suggesting that the REEs were initially competing with each other for bio-uptake. Metal biouptake results were consistent with this interpretation. These results suggest that the approach of government agencies to regulate the REEs using biological effects data from single metal exposures may be a largely conservative approach.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , Metais Terras Raras , Transporte Biológico , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Água Doce , Metais
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