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1.
Ophthalmic Res ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235125

RESUMO

Background: Excessive scarring of filtering blebs is the main cause of surgical failure in glaucoma. Previous studies have highlighted the role of chloride channels in scar formation , whereas the role of chloride channels in scarring of filtering blebs has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel on scar formation of filtering blebs after glaucoma filtering surgery. METHODS: ClC-2 siRNA-transfected Human conjunctival fibroblasts (HconFs) were cultured in type I collagen gels in the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1. Collagen gel contraction was evaluated based on the gel area. 3D-cultured HConFs were treated with the chloride channel blocker NPPB in the presence of TGF-ß1, and cell proliferation collagen synthesis and contractility were measured. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in HConFs were assessed by western blotting and q-PCR. RESULTS: TGF-ß1induced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, collagen synthesis, and collagen gel contraction in HConFs. TGF-ß1 increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels but inhibited the expression of TIMPs. NPPB and ClC-2 siRNA transfection inhibited TGF-ß2-induced cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, collagen synthesis, and collagen gel contraction, mediated by HConFs. TGF-ß2-induced increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 were also inhibited by NPPB and ClC-2 siRNA transfection, but TIMP expression was increased by NPPB and ClC-2 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that ClC-2 chloride channels modulate TGF-ß1-induced cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and collagen gel contraction of HConFs by attenuating MMP-2 and MMP-9 production and by stimulating TIMP-1 production. NPPB may therefore prove to be of clinical value for the inhibition of scar formation of filtering blebs.

2.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161250

RESUMO

AIM: The association between urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker, and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been confirmed because no previous studies evaluated 24-hour 8-OHdG excretion levels in the general population. We aimed to confirm the association between 24-hour urinary 8-OHdG levels and CVD risk among Japanese men and women. METHODS: A nested case-control study was performed based on a 24-hour urine collection in a community-based cohort study performed from 1996 to 2005. Seventy-six cases (55 men and 21 women) who experienced their first CVD incidence during the follow-up period (median: 5.9 years) were recruited. The controls were frequency-matched 1:2, with each case for sex, age, area of residence, and baseline year. The 8-OHdG level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for body mass index, ethanol intake, smoking status, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: The geometric mean and geometric standard deviation (SD) of 8-OHdG levels (nmol/day) for cases and controls were 35.5 (1.55) and 35.5 (1.54) for men and 32.1 (1.35) and 25.0 (1.39) for women, respectively. The multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD incidence according to the 1-SD increment of the log-transformed 8-OHdG level was 2.08 (0.99-4.37) for women. The multivariable ORs (95% CIs) for the 1st (lowest) and 4th versus 2nd quartile according to 8-OHdG for men were 3.29 (1.02-10.61) and 2.77 (0.96-7.96), respectively. CONCLUSION: A high 8-OHdG level tended to be associated with CVD incidence among women.

3.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932552

RESUMO

AIM: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), frequently used as a biochemical marker for detecting and monitoring heart failure, is also a risk marker for development of coronary heart disease and total stroke. However, studies that explore subtypes of ischemic stroke with regard to NT-proBNP are scarce. Here, we examined NT-proBNP and its impact upon subtypes of ischemic stroke (lacunar stroke, large-artery occlusive stroke and embolic stroke) among Japanese. METHODS: We measured NT-proBNP and categorized 4,393 participants of the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study into four groups (<55, 55-124, 125-399, and ≥ 400 pg/ml). We used a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to examine association with risks of stroke and subtypes. RESULTS: During 4.7 years of follow-up, we identified 50 strokes, including 35 ischemic (15 lacunar, 6 largeartery occlusive, 10 embolic strokes) and 14 hemorrhagic strokes. NT-proBNP was associated with stroke risk: the multivariable hazard ratio of total strokes was 7.29 (2.82-18.9) for the highest and 2.78 (1.25-6.16) for the second highest NT-proBNP groups compared with the lowest group. The respective hazard ratios for the highest NT-proBNP group were 9.37 (3.14-28.0) for ischemic stroke and 6.81 (1.11-41.7) for lacunar stroke. Further adjustment for atrial fibrillation did not attenuate these associations. The associations were similarly observed for large-artery occlusive and embolic strokes. CONCLUSION: We found that even moderate serum levels of NT-proBNP were associated with the risk of total and ischemic strokes among Japanese whose NT-proBNP levels were relatively low compared with Westerners.

4.
Hypertens Res ; 43(4): 313-321, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988479

RESUMO

The role of serum uric acid as a predictor of stroke among the general Japanese population remains controversial. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 5235 men and 8185 women aged 40-79 years at baseline between 1985 and 1994 in four Japanese communities, who were initially free from stroke, coronary heart disease, and medication for hyperuricemia or gout. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate sex-specific hazard ratios of stroke and its types in relation to serum uric acid level. During a median follow-up of 23.1 years, we recorded 1018 (488 men and 530 women) incident strokes, including 222 (99 and 123) intraparenchymal hemorrhages, 113 (33 and 80) subarachnoid hemorrhages and 667 (347 and 320) ischemic strokes. After adjustment for age, community and known cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in the highest vs. lowest quintile of serum uric acid were 1.45 (1.07-1.96) for total stroke, 1.20 (0.65-2.20) for intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 1.46 (0.69-3.09) for subarachnoid hemorrhage and 1.61 (1.07-2.41) for ischemic stroke in women. The corresponding multivariable hazard ratios (95% CIs) in men were 1.02 (0.74-1.35), 0.83 (0.40-1.72), 1.19 (0.38-3.75) and 1.00 (0.70-1.41). Furthermore, those positive associations with risks of total and ischemic strokes in women were more evident in nonusers of antihypertensive medication than the users. In conclusion, elevated serum uric acid level is an independent predictor of total stroke in women but not in men. The positive association in women was mostly attributable to ischemic stroke and was more pronounced among nonusers of antihypertensive medication.

5.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 28(1): 133-141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395736

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate whether there is an association between circulating S100A8/A9 levels and uveitis activity.Methods: A total of 549 plasma samples were collected from uveitis patients and non-uveitic controls.Results: S100A8/A9 plasma levels were elevated in uveitis patients compared to non-uveitic controls (P < 0.001). S100A8/A9 plasma levels in patients with active acute anterior uveitis (AAU) were significantly elevated and remarkably decreased in parallel with the severity of intraocular inflammation after corticosteroid treatment (P < 0.001). S100A8/A9 plasma levels were also higher in AAU patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) than in patients without AS (P = 0.02). S100A8/A9 plasma levels were significantly increased in uveitis patients with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, P = 0.004) or erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR, P = 0.049) levels compared to uveitis patients with normal CRP or ESR values.Conclusion: Circulating S100A8/A9 might be a useful biomarker for the measurement of intraocular inflammation.

6.
Ophthalmic Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865348

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxidative damage plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Exendin-4 (EX4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, possesses several pharmacological functions, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, the effects and mechanism of EX4 on oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of EX4 on human RPE cells subjected to oxidative stress. METHODS: Human RPE ARPE-19 cells were treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative damage. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 and lactate dehydrogenase assay. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH) were measured using commercial kits. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) was measured using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay and western blot, respectively. RESULTS: H2O2 significantly induced oxidative stress to reduce viability of RPE cells and increased intracellular ROS generation. EX4 significantly ameliorated H2O2-induced oxidative damage by reducing intracellular ROS generation, decreasing MDA concentration, and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD and GSH). In addition, EX4 markedly increased expression of NRF2, HO-1, and NQO-1 and significantly improved protein expression of NRF2 and HO-1 in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, caused by increased nuclear NRF2 protein expression. NRF2 knockdown by targeted siRNA alleviated EX4-mediated HO-1 expression and significantly nullified EX4-mediated RPE cell protection against H2O2. CONCLUSIONS: EX4 attenuated oxidative damage induced by H2O2 in ARPE-19 cells through the activation of the NRF2 signaling pathway. The findings suggested that EX4 may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AMD.

7.
J Clin Biochem Nutr ; 64(3): 243-249, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138959

RESUMO

There is limited evidence examining the association between B vitamin supplementation and improved endothelial function via lowering plasma homocysteine levels. This study investigated whether low-dose B vitamin supplementation improves endothelial dysfunction in Japanese adults with one or more components of metabolic syndrome. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial, without a washout period or blinding of subjects, was conducted from May-September, 2010. The subjects were 127 Japanese men and women aged 40-65 years who had at least one component of metabolic syndrome without medication. Participants took a supplement drink for two months but were divided into early intervention or later intervention groups. The flow-mediated dilatation, plasma homocysteine level, serum B-vitamins, and vitamin C levels were measured. A significant increase in serum B vitamins and vitamin C levels, and a reduction in plasma homocysteine levels were observed. The mean serum homocysteine level pre- and post-intervention was 9.8 and 8.2 µmol/L in the early intervention group and 10.8 and 7.4 µmol/L in the later intervention group (p<0.01). However, no significant changes in flow-mediated dilatation was found. Low-dose multivitamin supplementation including B vitamins is associated with a significant reduction in plasma homocysteine levels among patients with one or more components of metabolic syndrome. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) centre, and has the identifier UMIN000004436.

8.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001081

RESUMO

Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Aberrations in several cytoskeletal proteins, such as tau have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, could be initiating factors in glaucoma progression and occurring prior to axon degeneration. Developmentally regulated brain protein (Drebrin or DBN1) is an evolutionarily conserved actin-binding protein playing a prominent role in neurons and is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship between circulating DBN1 levels and RGC degeneration in glaucoma patients remains unclear. In our preliminary study, we detected drebrin protein in the plasma of glaucoma patients using proteomic analysis. Subsequently, we recruited a total of 232 patients including primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PS) and measured its DBN1 plasma levels. We observed elevated DBN1 plasma levels in patients with primary glaucoma but not in patients with PS compared to nonaxonopathic controls. Interestingly, in contrast to tau plasma levels increased in all groups of patients, elevated drebrin plasma levels correlated with retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) in glaucoma patients. To further explore the expression of DBN1 in neurodegeneration, we conducted experiment of optic nerve crush (ONC) models, and observed increased expression of DBN1 in the serum as well as in the retina and then decreased after ONC. This result reinforces the potentiality of circulating DBN1 levels are increased in glaucoma patients with neurodegeneration. Taken together, our findings suggest that circulating DBN1 levels correlated with RNFLD and may reflect the severity of RGCs injury in glaucoma patients. Combining measurement of circulating drebrin and tau levels may be a useful indicator for monitoring progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Cancer Res Treat ; 51(4): 1509-1517, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evidence on effects of TV viewing time among premenopausal and postmenopausal women for breast cancer risk remains controversial and limited. Materials and Methods: A prospective study encompassing 33,276 (17,568 premenopausal, and 15,708 postmenopausal) women aged 40-79 years in whom TV viewing time, menstrual, and reproductive histories were determined by a self-administered questionnaire. The follow-up was from 1988 to 2009 and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer incidence were calculated for longer TV viewing time in reference to shorter TV viewing time by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: During 16.8-year median follow-up, we found positive associations between TV viewing time and breast cancer incidence with a borderline significant trend among total women and a significant trend among postmenopausal women. Among total women, the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for risk of breast cancer in reference to < 1.5 hr/day of TV viewing time were 0.89 (0.59-1.34) for 1.5 to < 3.0 hr/day, 1.19 (0.82-1.74) for 3.0 to < 4.5 hr/day, and 1.45 (0.91-2.32) for ≥ 4.5 hr/day (p for trend=0.053) and among postmenopausal women, the corresponding risk estimates were 1.10 (0.42-2.88), 2.54 (1.11-5.80), and 2.37 (0.92-6.10) (p for trend=0.009), respectively. CONCLUSION: Prolonged TV viewing time was associated with increased risk of breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Televisão , Fatores de Tempo , Saúde da Mulher
10.
Pain Pract ; 19(5): 476-483, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There have been no community-based studies investigating the association between sleep duration and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) development. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of sleep with herpes zoster (HZ) incidence and PHN. METHODS: In total, 12,329 residents (ages 50 to 103 years) of Shozu County, Japan, participated in our study from December 2009 to November 2010 and were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, the participants completed self-administered health questionnaires, including those on usual sleep duration. Three dermatologists diagnosed HZ on the basis of clinical symptoms and virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction and serological tests, and evaluated pain using a modified Zoster Brief Pain Inventory survey form via telephone. We used a Cox proportional hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident HZ and PHN. We also performed mediation analysis to examine whether hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity mediated the association between sleep shortage and chronic pain intensity. RESULTS: During follow-up, 400 cases of HZ were identified. Of these, 55 participants developed PHN. Sleep duration was not associated with HZ incidence. Sleep shortage increased the risk for PHN (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 1.06 to 3.85]). Hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity mediated the association between sleep shortage and chronic pain intensity (indirect/total effect ratio = 50% mediation). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep shortage was associated with increased risk for PHN, and hyperesthesia and acute pain intensity appeared to mediate this association. Sleep shortage may be a novel risk factor for PHN.


Assuntos
Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/epidemiologia , Sono , Dor Aguda/epidemiologia , Dor Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/complicações , Humanos , Hiperestesia/epidemiologia , Hiperestesia/etiologia , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuralgia Pós-Herpética/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(1): 219-225, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evidence on beneficial or adverse effects of sleep duration on risk of breast cancer remains controversial and limited, especially in Asia. METHODS: A prospective study of 34,350 women aged 40-79 years in whom sleep duration, and menstrual and reproductive histories were determined by a self-administered questionnaire. The follow-up period was from 1988 to 2009, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer incidence were calculated for shorter sleep duration in reference to sleep duration of ≥ 8 h/day by Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: During 19.2-year median follow-up (236 cases), we found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and risk of breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and women with low parity (nulliparous and women with < 3 children); the multivariable HRs (95% CIs) among postmenopausal women who reported 7 h/day and ≤ 6 h/day of sleep in reference to ≥ 8 h/day were 1.49 (0.81-2.76) and 1.98 (1.08-3.70) (P for trend = 0.028), respectively, and the corresponding values among women with low parity were 1.50 (0.96-2.35) and 1.76 (1.01-2.79) (P for trend = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of incident breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and women with low parity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 26(2): 145-153, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899172

RESUMO

AIMS: The frequency of breakfast intake has been reported to be inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular events; however, it is uncertain what the impact of the energy and nutrient intakes from breakfast are. We assessed the association between these intakes from breakfast and the risk of stroke prospectively. METHODS: In a baseline survey of four Japanese communities between 1981 and 1990, we enrolled 3 248 residents (1 662 men and 1 586 women) aged 40-59 years who were free from stroke and heart disease and who responded to the 24-hour dietary recall survey. We assessed the dietary intake at breakfast, lunch, dinner, and other times separately. RESULTS: During the median 25-year follow-up, 230 individuals (147 men and 83 women) developed stroke. After adjustment for age, community, other dietary intakes, and lifestyle and physiological factors, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of intracerebral hemorrhage for the highest versus lowest quartiles of energy intake from breakfast were 0.38 (0.15-0.99) in men and 1.36 (0.36-5.10) in women. For the major nutrients, a higher saturated or monounsaturated fat intake at breakfast was associated with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in men, and remained statistically significant after further adjustment for intake of other major nutrients from breakfast. CONCLUSIONS: A higher intake of energy from breakfast, primarily saturated or monounsaturated fat, was associated with a reduced risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in Japanese men.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
13.
J Epidemiol ; 29(3): 83-91, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584233

RESUMO

The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS) is an ongoing community-based epidemiological study of lifestyle-related disease involving dynamic prospective cohorts of approximately 12,000 adults from five communities of Japan: Ikawa, Ishizawa and Kita-Utetsu (Akita Prefecture), Minami-Takayasu (Osaka Prefecture), Noichi (Kochi Prefecture), and Kyowa (Ibaraki Prefecture). One of the most notable features of CIRCS is that it is not only an observational cohort study to identify risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as stroke, coronary heart disease, and sudden cardiac death, but it also involves prevention programs for CVD. Using basic, clinical, epidemiological, and statistical techniques, CIRCS has clarified characteristics of CVD and the related risk factors to develop specific methodologies towards CVD prevention in Japanese middle-aged or older adults for more than half a century.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Epidemiol ; 29(3): 97-103, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence of dyslipidemia in Pacific Island countries is limited despite the knowledge that non-communicable diseases have a high burden in the region. We aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of dyslipidemia among residents of Palau. METHODS: The Palau STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS), which was conducted from 2011 through 2013, comprised three parts: behavioral risk factors; physical measurements; and biochemical tests, covering areas such as blood lipids. We used STEPS-generated data to perform a cross-sectional study of 2,184 randomly selected Palau residents, comprising Palauans and non-Palauans aged 25-64 years. RESULTS: The age-adjusted mean BMI was 29.3 kg/m2 in men and 29.9 kg/m2 in women; age-adjusted mean triglycerides value was 182 mg/dL in men and 166 mg/dL in women; and age-adjusted mean cholesterol was 178 mg/dL in men and 183 mg/dL in women. The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) was 75% in men and 76% in women, and those of hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL) and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL) were 48% in men and 41% in women and 18% in men and 23% in women, respectively. Mean values of total cholesterol were 177 mg/dL in Palauan men and 182 mg/dL in non-Palauan men. Mean values of triglycerides were 171 mg/dL in Palauan women and 150 mg/dL in non-Palauan women. Women living in rural areas showed a higher mean value of total cholesterol than those in urban areas. CONCLUSION: We found a high mean BMI and high prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, but low mean total cholesterol and a low prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Palau. Lipid profiles varied by age, ethnicity, and living area.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Palau/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Circ J ; 82(12): 3013-3020, 2018 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have explored the association between fatty acids (FA) and risk of CAD. Understanding of the role of each individual serum FA as a coronary risk or protective factor is still limited. The aim was to investigate which serum FA are associated with the incidence of CAD in Japanese subjects. Methods and Results: A prospective nested case-control study of 40-85-year-old Japanese subjects was undertaken using frozen serum samples collected from 12,840 participants who participated in cardiovascular risk surveys from 1984 to 1998 for 1 community and 1989-1997 for 2 other communities. Three control subjects per case were matched by sex, age, community, year of serum storage and fasting status. By 2005 we had identified 152 incident cases of CAD. Mean n-3-polyunsaturated and saturated FA did not differ between cases and controls, while mean n-6-polyunsaturated FA was higher in controls compared with cases. The multivariable OR of CAD for the highest vs. lowest quartiles of miristic acid (14:0), palmitic acid (16:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1), and linoleic acid (18:2) were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.5-5.2), 2.7 (95% CI: 1.4-5.5), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.7-6.1) and 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: High serum miristic acid, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid have an adverse effect, and high serum linoleic acid had a protective effect, on the risk of CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
16.
Hypertens Res ; 41(12): 1054-1062, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333520

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association of cigarette smoking with radial augmentation index among the Asian general population. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study including 1593 men and 2671 women aged 40-79 years. Smoking status was ascertained through interviews, and the number of pack-years was calculated. The radial augmentation index was defined as the ratio of central pulse pressure to brachial pulse pressure, as measured using an automated tonometer: the HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare co., Kyoto, Japan). There was a higher prevalence of an increased radial augmentation index among current male smokers who smoked ≥ 30 cigarettes/day and all female smokers than among never smokers. After adjusting for known risk factors of atherosclerosis, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for a high radial augmentation index for current male smokers who smoked ≥30 cigarettes/day compared with never smokers was 1.9 (1.1-3.4). The multivariable OR (95% CI) for a high radial augmentation index for former female smokers and current female smokers compared with never smokers was 1.8 (1.2-2.7) and 2.5 (1.6-3.9), respectively. Moreover, smoking pack-years was positively associated with a high radial augmentation index in both sexes. There were no relationship between smoking status and high central or brachial pulse pressures among subjects of either sex. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and cumulative smoking exposure were positively associated with an increased radial augmentation index in men who smoked heavily and in women.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(16): 3011-3017, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of water intake with risk of mortality from CVD. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.Setting/SubjectsA total of 22 939 men and 35 362 women aged 40-79 years enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study with available data regarding water intake from foods and beverages. The underlying causes of death were determined based on the International Classification of Diseases. RESULTS: During the median 19·1 years of follow-up, 1637 men and 1707 women died from CVD. There was an inverse trend between high water intake and risk of CVD in both sexes. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of water intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95 % CI) for mortality from total CVD in the highest quintile of water intake were 0·88 (0·72, 1·07; P for trend=0·03) in men and 0·79 (0·66, 0·95; P for trend=0·10) in women. Those for CHD were 0·81 (0·54, 1·21; P for trend=0·06) in men and 0·60 (0·39, 0·93; P for trend=0·20) in women. Reduced risk of mortality from ischaemic stroke was also observed among women in the highest water intake quintile: 0·70 (0·47, 0·99; P for trend=0·19). There was no association between water intake and mortality from haemorrhagic stroke in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of fluids from foods and beverages was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality in both sexes and reduced risk of ischaemic stroke in women in Japan.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Alimentos , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Circ J ; 82(6): 1598-1604, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of postprandial glucose on the risk of cardiovascular disease has been emphasized, but it is controversial whether nonfasting glucose is related to incident stroke and its types.Methods and Results:We investigated the associations of nonfasting glucose with incident stroke and its types among 7,198 participants aged 40-74 years from the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study, enrolled in 1995-2000. We estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) using Cox proportional hazard models. Over a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 291 cases of total stroke (ischemic strokes: 191 including 109 lacunar infarctions) were identified. Nonfasting glucose concentration was associated with greater risk of incident total stroke, ischemic stroke and lacunar infarction when modeled categorically (for prediabetic type: 7.8-11.0 mmol/L vs. normal type: <7.8 mmol/L among all subjects, HR for lacunar infarction was 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 3.43) or continuously (per one standard deviation increment among all subjects, HR for lacunar infarction was 1.29, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.45). Diabetic type showed similar results. Population attributable fractions of nonfasting hyperglycemia were 13.2% for ischemic stroke and 17.4% for lacunar infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Nonfasting glucose concentration, either as a diagnosis of prediabetic and diabetic types or as a continuous variable, proved to be an independent predictor significantly attributed to incident total stroke, especially ischemic stroke and lacunar infarction, in the general population.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Período Pós-Prandial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/etiologia
19.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 25(9): 836-845, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415955

RESUMO

AIMS: Smoking impairs endothelial function as an acute effect. However, few population-based studies have examined the association between smoking status and endothelial function or the dose-response and duration-response association of smoking with endothelial function. We examined whether smoking habits were associated with impaired endothelial function depending on smoking dose and duration. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 910 men and women aged 30-79 years from 2013 to 2016. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted between 2016 and 2017. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurement. Low FMD was defined in two ways as the cutoff point based on the lowest quartile of %FMD (<5.1%) and median of %FMD (<6.8%), regarding as impaired endothelial function. We investigated the smoking status in terms of cigarettes consumed per day and the duration of smoking. RESULTS: Heavy and chronic smokers were associated with a high prevalence of impaired endothelial function. Those associations did not change substantially after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Among all participants, the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of low FMD (<5.1%) with reference to never smokers were 2.23 (1.00-5.14) for current heavy smokers of ≥ 30 cigarettes per day, 1.83 (1.04-3.20) for heavy smokers of ≥ 40 pack-years, and 2.16 (1.15-4.06) for chronic smokers of ≥ 40 years. For low FMD (<6.8%) those values was 2.17 (1.01-5.05), 1.70 (1.01-2.86), and 1.98 (1.07-3.69), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Similar associations were observed among only men. Heavy or long-term tobacco smoking may induce impaired endothelial function.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Fumar Tabaco , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Nutrition ; 47: 50-55, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A few reports have investigated the association of dietary vitamin intakes with risk of heart failure in Asia. Therefore, we examined the relation between dietary intakes of fat-soluble vitamins A, K, E, and D and mortality from heart failure in the Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 23 099 men and 35 597 women ages 40 to 79 y participated in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study and completed a food frequency questionnaire from which dietary intakes of vitamins A, K, E, and D were calculated. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the sex-specific risks of heart failure mortality according to increasing quintiles of fat-soluble vitamin intakes. RESULTS: During the median 19.3 y follow-up period, there were 567 deaths from heart failure (240 men, 327 women). Dietary vitamin A intake showed no association with heart failure mortality in both sexes; however, the reduced risk was observed in women but not in men with dietary intakes of vitamins K, E, and D. The multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) in the highest versus the lowest intake quintiles among women were 0.63 (0.45-0.87; P for trend = 0.006) for vitamin K, 0.55 (0.36-0.78; P for trend = 0.006) for vitamin E, and 0.66 (0.48-0.93; P for trend = 0.01) for vitamin D. The association for each vitamin was slightly attenuated but remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment for intakes of the other vitamins. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary intakes of fat-soluble vitamins K, E, and D were associated with a reduced risk of heart failure mortality in Japanese women but not men.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Vitaminas/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina D/análise , Vitamina E/análise , Vitamina K/análise
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