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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 51: 102215, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540282

RESUMO

The human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs) (CMCi009), derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 42-year-old woman who were diagnosed as Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) caused by the frameshift deletion mutation c.1285delC in FCLN gene, was generated using synthetic mRNA. Generated hiPSCs showed a typical human embryonic stem cell like morphology and expressed all pluripotency-associated markers, and directly differentiated into all three germ layers. Karyotyping of generated iPSCs showed normal 46, XY (CMCi009-A) respectively. In summary, we generated a novel patient-specific hiPSCs line containing the same mutation of FLCN gene and it can be used to provide additional insights for BHD pathophysiology.

2.
Stem Cell Res ; 51: 102214, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545641

RESUMO

Human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines (hiPSCs) derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a woman (CMCi007-A) and her son (CMCi006-A) diagnosed with Fabry disease (FD) caused by the frameshift deletion mutation c.969delC in the alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) gene were generated. These hiPSCs showed typical human embryonic stem cell-like morphology and expressed pluripotency-associated markers, and directly differentiated into all three germ-layers. Karyotyping showed normal 46, XY (CMCi006-A) and 46, XX (CMCi007-A). In summary, we generated novel patient-specific hiPSC lines from both a female and male containing the same mutation, which may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of FD.

3.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495714

RESUMO

The pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a high number of deaths in the world. To combat it, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of how the virus infects host cells. Infection normally starts with the attachment of the virus to cell-surface glycans like heparan sulfate (HS) and sialic acid-containing glycolipids/glycoproteins. In this study, we examined and compared the binding of the subunits and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV to these glycans. Our results revealed that the S proteins and subunits can bind to HS in a sulfation-dependent manner and no binding with sialic acid residues was detected. Overall, this work suggests that HS binding may be a general mechanism for the attachment of these coronaviruses to host cells, and supports the potential importance of HS in infection and in the development of antiviral agents against these viruses.

4.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430574

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), is a promising antioxidant; however, low bioavailability owing to lipid-solubility is a limiting factor. We developed water-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-W) and compared its effects with conventional lipid-soluble CoQ10 (CoQ10-L) in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac) nephropathy. Methods: CoQ10-W was developed from a glycyrrhizic-carnitine mixed layer CoQ10 micelle based on acyltransferases. Chronic nephropathy was induced in rats with 28-day Tac treatment; they were concomitantly treated with CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W. CoQ10 level in plasma and kidney were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. CoQ10-W and CoQ10-L effects on Tac-induced nephropathy were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. Their effects on cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed in cultured proximal tubular cells, human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells. Results: The plasma CoQ10 level was significantly higher in the CoQ10-W group than in the CoQ10-L group. Tac treatment caused renal dysfunction, typical pathologic lesions, and oxidative stress markers. Serum creatinine was restored in the Tac + CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W groups compared with that in the Tac group. CoQ10-W administration reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers. Mitochondrial ultrastructure assessment revealed that the addition of CoQ10-L or CoQ10-W with Tac increased mitochondrial size and number than Tac treatment alone. In vitro investigations revealed that both CoQ10-L and CoQ10-W improved cell viability and reduced ROS production in the Tac-induced HK-2 cell injury. Conclusions: CoQ10-W has a better therapeutic effect in Tac-induced renal injury than conventional CoQ10-L, possibly associated with improved CoQ10 bioavailability.

5.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 6, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with health burden both at personal and societal levels. Recent assessments on the role of lncRNAs in SCI regulation have matured. Therefore, to comprehensively explore the function of lncRNA LEF1-AS1 in SCI, there is an urgent need to understand its occurrence and development. METHODS: Using in vitro experiments, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to treat and establish the SCI model primarily on microglial cells. Gain- and loss of function assays of LEF1-AS1 and miR-222-5p were conducted. Cell viability and apoptosis of microglial cells were assessed via CCK8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, SCI, sh-NC, and sh-LEF-AS1 groups. ELISA test was used to determine the expression of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas the protein level of apoptotic-related markers (Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3) was assessed using Western blot technique. RESULTS: We revealed that LncRNA LEF1-AS1 was distinctly upregulated, whereas miR-222-5p was significantly downregulated in LPS-treated SCI and microglial cells. However, LEF1-AS1 knockdown enhanced cell viability, inhibited apoptosis, as well as inflammation of LPS-mediated microglial cells. On the contrary, miR-222-5p upregulation decreased cell viability, promoted apoptosis, and inflammation of microglial cells. Mechanistically, LEF1-AS1 served as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by sponging miR-222-5p, targeting RAMP3. RAMP3 overexpression attenuated LEF1-AS1-mediated protective effects on LPS-mediated microglial cells from apoptosis and inflammation. CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings ascertain that knockdown of LEF1-AS1 impedes SCI progression via the miR-222-5p/RAMP3 axis.

6.
Stem Cell Res ; 49: 102110, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370877

RESUMO

We established a human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) line (CMCi002-A) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 29-year-old male with Gitelman's syndrome (GIT) caused by the mutation of solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3) gene using Sendai virus. The GIT-hiPSCs showed a typical human embryonic stem cell like morphology and expressed all pluripotency-associated markers, exhibited normal karyotype and were capable of differentiating into cells representative of three germ layers.

7.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232459

RESUMO

Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies of campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter -contaminated chicken products is a high risk factor for infection and illness. In this study, the cross-contamination and transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken to ready-to-eat foods were determined in various food-handling scenarios. Skinless raw chicken breasts were artificially contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and diced on three kinds of texture cutting boards. Whether cold water or cold water with detergent or hot water was used, statistically significant differences were found between the transfer rate of Campylobacter jejuni to unwashed and washed cutting boards or hands, respectively. When both kitchen knife and cutting board were reused after dicing the artificially contaminated chicken, the transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni to cucumber cut on bamboo, wooden and plastic cutting board were 16.28%, 12.82% and 5.32%, respectively. The transfer rates from chicken to bread, a large lift-up water faucet handle and a small twist faucet handle via unwashed hands were 0.49%, 4.64% and 3.14%, respectively. This research provides scientific evidence that various types of contaminated kitchen-ware and cook's hand are vital potential vehicles for the cross-contamination of Campylobacter from raw chicken to ready-to-eat food, and emphasizes the importance of timely and properly cleaning to prevent cross-contamination during food handling, therefore a high quality consumer education to reduce the risk of foodborne infection is urgent and necessary.

8.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895623

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is changing the world like never before. This crisis is unlikely contained in the absence of effective therapeutics or vaccine. The papain-like protease (PLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays essential roles in virus replication and immune evasion, presenting a charming drug target. Given the PLpro proteases of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV share significant homology, inhibitor developed for SARS-CoV PLpro is a promising starting point of therapeutic development. In this study, we sought to provide structural frameworks for PLpro inhibitor design. We determined the unliganded structure of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro mutant C111S, which shares many structural features of SARS-CoV PLpro. This crystal form has unique packing, high solvent content and reasonable resolution 2.5 Å, hence provides a good possibility for fragment-based screening using crystallographic approach. We characterized the protease activity of PLpro in cleaving synthetic peptide harboring nsp2/nsp3 juncture. We demonstrate that a potent SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitor GRL0617 is highly effective in inhibiting protease activity of SARS-CoV-2 with the IC50 of 2.2±0.3 µmol/L. We then determined the structure of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro complex by GRL0617 to 2.6 Å, showing the inhibitor accommodates the S3-S4 pockets of the substrate binding cleft. The binding of GRL0617 induces closure of the BL2 loop and narrows the substrate binding cleft, whereas the binding of a tetrapeptide substrate enlarges the cleft. Hence, our results suggest a mechanism of GRL0617 inhibition, that GRL0617 not only occupies the substrate pockets, but also seals the entrance to the substrate binding cleft hence prevents the binding of the LXGG motif of the substrate.

9.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 424, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a regular age-related disease that affects millions of people. Resveratrol (RSV) is a flavonoid with a stilbene structure with different pharmacological effects. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the protective role of RSV against the human OA chondrocyte injury induced by interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from OA patients and identified by type II collagen, safranin O staining, and toluidine blue staining. Differentially expressed genes in chondrocytes treated RSV were identified by RNA sequencing. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway as well as gene ontology (GO) were further conducted through Metascape online tool. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was applied to discover the viability of chondrocytes (6, 12, 24, and 48 µM). Many genes associated with inflammation and matrix degradation are evaluated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) as well as western blot (WB). The mechanism of RSV for protecting IL-1ß induced chondrocytes injury was further measured through immunofluorescence and WB assays. RESULTS: A total of 845 differentially expressed genes (upregulated = 499, downregulated = 346) were found. These differentially expressed genes mainly enriched into negative regulation of catabolic process, autophagy, and cellular catabolic process, intrinsic apoptotic, apoptotic, and regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway, cellular response to abiotic stimulus, external stimuli, stress, and radiation. These differentially expressed genes were obviously enriched in NF-kB signaling pathway. RSV at the concentration of 48 µM markedly weakened the viability of the cells after 24 h of treatment (87% vs 100%, P < 0.05). No obvious difference was observed between the 6, 12, and 24 µM groups (106% vs 100%, 104% vs 100%, 103% vs 100%, P > 0.05). RSV (24 µM) also markedly depressed the levels of PGE2 and NO induced by IL-1ß by 25% and 29% respectively (P < 0.05). Our experiment pointed out that RSV could dramatically inhibit the inflammatory response induced by IL-1ß, including the MMP-13, MMP-3, and MMP-1 in human OA chondrocytes by 50%, 35%, and 33% respectively. On the other hand, RSV inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-3, MMP-13, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) expression (P < 0.05), while increased collagen-II and aggrecan levels (P < 0.05). From a mechanistic perspective, RSV inhibited the degradation of IκB-α as well as the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) induced by IL-1ß. CONCLUSION: In summary, RSV regulates the signaling pathway of NF-κB, thus inhibiting inflammation and matrix degradation in chondrocytes. More studies should be focused on the treatment efficacy of RSV for OA in vivo.

10.
J Control Release ; 328: 100-111, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858074

RESUMO

Single reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated therapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chemodynamic therapy (CDT) is severely hindered in hypoxic solid tumor. Herein, to address the urgent challenge, a hypoxia-activated ROS burst liposome has been fabricated to achieve synergistic PDT/CDT that is initiated by the structural dissociation of poly(metronidazole) liposome in hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME). The therapeutic enhancement of our ROS-blasting treatment is simultaneously regulated by external light-initiated PDT and endogenous iron oxide nanoclusters-triggered CDT, which is synergistically boosted and amplified by localized mild hyperthermia under 808/660 nm coirradiation. More importantly, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that electron-affinic poly(aminoimidazole) product from hypoxia-responsive transition of poly(metronidazole) polymers could efficiently enhance hypoxic cell apoptosis and induce solid tumor ablation. Thus, this work offers a potential hypoxia-activated ROS burst-PDT/CDT strategy with a superior antitumor efficacy, highlighting a promising clinical application.

11.
Anal Methods ; 12(33): 4123-4129, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766632

RESUMO

Sensitive and reliable methods for explosives detection are of significance in homeland security due to the serious threats of explosives in terrorist attack events. However, such suitable sensors are still rare. Herein, porous silica aerogels decorated with silver nanoparticles (SiO2-Ag hybrids) were prepared and applied as a flexible SERS substrate for ultrasensitive explosives detection. It is worth noting that the silica aerogel we prepared had good flexibility compared with traditional silica aerogels, which effectively avoided structural damage during sample collection. Also, because of excellent adsorption performance provided by the silica aerogel, trace explosive 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) could be enriched and realized by label-free detection. Combined with the plasma enhancement provided by Ag NPs decorated around these porous aerogels, the limit of detection for explosive NTO was as low as 7.94 × 10-10 M. As far as we know, this SiO2-Ag hybrid SERS substrate was firstly used for the detection of explosives. It presented good sensitivity and reproducibility for analyte sensing. Most importantly, this is a label-free method for trace explosives detection and has a good application prospect in homeland security.

12.
Clin Lab ; 66(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High red cell distribution width (RDW) is correlated with poor prognosis in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the association of red cell distribution width to erythrocyte count ratio (RER) with STEMI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during hospitalization has not been investigated. Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to investigate whether RER is associated with STEMI patients after PCI during hospitalization. METHODS: A total of 331 patients, who were hospitalized for STEMI and underwent PCI, were enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were used to find the cutoff value of RER and classify the patients into two groups including higher RER group and lower RER group by cutoff value. Differences between measured parameters in higher RER and lower RER groups were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. The evaluation correlation of RDW, red blood cell, and RER with major adverse cardiovascular events was determined by bivariate regression analysis. Univariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with adverse cardiovascular events during the hospitalization of STEMI patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential independent predictors of STEMI. RESULTS: According to ROC analysis, the cutoff value of RER and RDW is 3.10 and 13.9, the sensitivity is 51% and 35%, the specificity is 76% and 80%, respectively. RER showed improved diagnostic capacity compared to RDW in correlation with adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalization in STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Compared with the lower RER group, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in STEMI patients is elevated in the higher RER group (75% vs. 64.5%, p < 0.05). Bivariate regression analysis indicated that RER and RDW showed a good correlation with adverse cardiovascular events, and the difference was statistically significant (R = 0.10 p < 0.05 vs. R = 0.05 p < 0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, hyperlipidemia, RDW, mean platelet volume, total cholesterol, and RER were correlated with the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during the hospitalization of STEMI patients (p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that RER could be an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events in STEMI patients (B: 0.574, OR: 1.776, 95% CI: 1.043 ~ 3.023, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: RER and RDW demonstrated good correlation with adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalization in STEMI patients. RER is a potential independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalization in STEMI patients.

13.
14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 15(1): 255, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO). MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. However, the role and potential mechanism of miR-708 for regulating H2O2-induced apoptosis is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the protective function of miR-708 in H2O2-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. METHODS: MC3T3-E1 was co-cultured with H2O2 for 8 h, then, flow cytometry, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) levels were measured to establish the oxidative model. MiRNA microarray was performed to assess differentially expressed miRNAs between control and H2O2-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. We then performed RT-PCR to identify the relative expression of miR-708 and PTEN. After transfected MC3T3-E1 with miR-708 mimics, flow cytometry, MDA, and Gpx level were performed to identify the apoptosis rate and oxidative stress in these groups. Furthermore, we small interfering RNA of PTEN to identify the role of PTEN in H2O2-induced apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. RESULTS: H2O2 (100 nM) could significantly induce the apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, H2O2 could significantly increase the MDA level and downregulated Gpx level. RT-PCR found that H2O2 significantly decrease the level of miR-708. Compared with H2O2 group, H2O2 + miR-708 mimic significantly decreased the apoptosis rate. CONCLUSIONS: miR-708 plays a protective role in H2O2-induced MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts apoptosis and its protective effect is proceeded by regulating ROS level and PTEN expression level.

15.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555441

RESUMO

Reducing immunosuppressant-related complications using conventional drugs is an efficient therapeutic strategy. L-carnitine (LC) has been shown to protect against various types of renal injury. In this study, we investigated the renoprotective effects of LC in a rat model of chronic tacrolimus (TAC) nephropathy. SD rats were injected with TAC (1.5 mg · kg-1 · d-1, sc) for 4 weeks. Renoprotective effects of LC were assessed in terms of renal function, histopathology, oxidative stress, expression of inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines, programmed cell death (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and autophagy), mitochondrial function, and PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling. Chronic TAC nephropathy was characterized by severe renal dysfunction and typical histological features of chronic nephropathy. At a molecular level, TAC markedly increased the expression of inflammatory and fibrotic cytokines in the kidney, induced oxidative stress, and led to mitochondrial dysfunction and programmed cell death through activation of PI3K/AKT and inhibition of PTEN. Coadministration of LC (200 mg · kg-1 · d-1, ip) caused a prominent improvement in renal function and ameliorated histological changes of kidneys in TAC-treated rats. Furthermore, LC exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, and modulated the expression of a series of apoptosis- and autophagy-controlling genes to promote cell survival. Human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) were treated with TAC (50 µg/mL) in vitro, which induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and expression of an array of genes controlling programmed cell death (pyroptosis, apoptosis, and autophagy) through interfering with PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling. The harmful responses of HK-2 cells to TAC were significantly attenuated by cotreatment with LC and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (25 µM). In conclusion, LC treatment protects against chronic TAC nephropathy through interfering the PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling.

16.
IUCrJ ; 7(Pt 3): 375-382, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431821

RESUMO

Alongshan virus (ALSV) is an emerging human pathogen that was identified in China and rapidly spread to the European continent in 2019, raising concerns about public health. ALSV belongs to the distinct Jingmenvirus group within the Flaviviridae family with segmented RNA genomes. While segments 2 and 4 of the ALSV genome encode the VP1-VP3 proteins of unknown origin, segments 1 and 3 encode the NS2b-NS3 and NS5 proteins, which are related to Flavivirus nonstructural proteins, suggesting an evolutionary link between segmented and unsegmented viruses within the Flaviviridae family. Here, the enzymatic activity of the ALSV NS3-like helicase (NS3-Hel) was characterized and its crystal structure was determined to 2.9 Šresolution. ALSV NS3-Hel exhibits an ATPase activity that is comparable to those measured for Flavivirus NS3 helicases. The structure of ALSV NS3-Hel exhibits an overall fold similar to those of Flavivirus NS3 helicases. Despite the limited amino-acid sequence identity between ALSV NS3-Hel and Flavivirus NS3 helicases, structural features at the ATPase active site and the RNA-binding groove remain conserved in ALSV NS3-Hel. These findings provide a structural framework for drug design and suggest the possibility of developing a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against both Flavivirus and Jingmenvirus.

17.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 216, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382148

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes an exceptionally large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, supporting the hypothesis that TA systems are involved in pathogenesis. We characterized the putative Mtb Rv1044-Rv1045 TA locus structurally and functionally, demonstrating that it constitutes a bona fide TA system but adopts a previously unobserved antitoxicity mechanism involving phosphorylation of the toxin. While Rv1045 encodes the guanylyltransferase TglT functioning as a toxin, Rv1044 encodes the novel atypical serine protein kinase TakA, which specifically phosphorylates the cognate toxin at residue S78, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. In contrast to previous predictions, we found that Rv1044-Rv1045 does not belong to the type IV TA family because TglT and TakA interact with each other as substrate and kinase, suggesting an unusual type of TA system. Protein homology analysis suggests that other COG5340-DUF1814 protein pairs, two highly associated but uncharacterized protein families widespread in prokaryotes, might share this unusual antitoxicity mechanism.

18.
J Ginseng Res ; 44(3): 399-404, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372861

RESUMO

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) is associated with a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxative, antiallergic, antidiabetic, and anticancer effects. Accordingly, the use of ginseng has reached an all-time high among members of the general public. However, the safety and efficacy of ginseng in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressant drugs have still not been elucidated. Transplantation is the most challenging and complex of surgical procedures and may require causation for the use of ginseng. In this regard, we have previously examined the safety, immunological benefits, and protective mechanisms of ginseng with respect to calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression, which is the most widely used regimen in organ transplantation. Using an experimental model of calcineurin inhibitor-induced organ injury, we found that ginseng does not affect drug levels in the peripheral blood and tissue, favorably regulates immune response, and protects against calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity and pancreatic islet injury. On the basis of our experimental studies and a review of the related literature, we propose that ginseng may provide benefits in organ transplant recipients administered calcineurin inhibitors. Through the present review, we aimed to briefly discuss our current understanding of the therapeutic benefits of ginseng related to transplant patient survival.

19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(12): 1597-1608, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300244

RESUMO

Tissue kallikrein has protective function against various types of injury. In this study, we investigated whether exogenous pancreatic kininogenase (PK) conferred renoprotection in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and H2O2-treated HK-2 cells in vitro. SD rats were subjected to UUO surgery, then PK (7.2 U/g per day, ip) was administered for 7 or 14 days. After the treatment, rats were euthanized; the obstructed kidneys were harvested for further examination. We found that PK administration significantly attenuated interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, and downregulated the expression of proinflammatory (MCP-1, TLR-2, and OPN) and profibrotic (TGF-ß1 and CTGF) cytokines in obstructed kidney. UUO-induced oxidative stress, closely associated with excessive apoptotic cell death and autophagy via PI3K/AKT/FoxO1a signaling, which were abolished by PK administration. We further showed that PK administration increased the expression of bradykinin receptors 1 and 2 (B1R and B2R) mRNA and the production of NO and cAMP in kidney tissues. Coadministration with either B1R antagonist (des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin) or B2R antagonist (icatibant) abrogated the renoprotective effects of PK, and reduced the levels of NO and cAMP in obstructed kidney. In H2O2-treated HK-2 cells, addition of PK (6 pg/mL) significantly decreased ROS production, regulated the expression of oxidant and antioxidant enzymes, suppressed the expression of TGF-ß1 and MCP-1, and inhibited cell apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that PK treatment protects against the progression of renal fibrosis in obstructed kidneys.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339757

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that Zearalenone (ZEA) affects not only maternal reproductive function but also that of the offspring. However, the transgenerational toxic effects of ZEA on the spermatogonia of male F1 mice are not clear. The present study was thus designed to determine whether the fertility of male F1 mice was affected following exposure of F0 pregnant mice to ZEA. In present study, 32 pregnant female mice were divided into 4 groups and exposed to ZEA of 0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, and the testis development and reproductive performance of 96 male F1 mice were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the F0 pregnant mice treated with ZEA resulted in increased anogenital distances in the newborn male F1 mice. Moreover, ZEA caused abnormal vacuole structures and loose connections in the testes of male F1 offspring, compared with the controls. Further ultramicrostructural analysis showed that the mitochondria appeared to be vacuolated with ablated membranes and cristae, and this was accompanied by the presence of large lipid droplets in the spermatogonia. Further, the semen quality and sperm counts declined significantly, and increased malformation rates and decreased testosterone levels were observed in the male F1 offspring from experimental groups. Our results reveal the toxic effects of ZEA on F0 pregnant mice is transgenerational, and affects the fertility of male F1 mice by damaging the spermatogonial cells. This offers a new viewpoint of ZEA-induced reproductive toxicity in male animals and provides a new potential direction for the treatment and prevention of ZEA-induced cytotoxicity.

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