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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) have been identified as important prebiotics. Previous studies have found that they can significantly promote the proliferation of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum in the mouse intestine. However, it is still unclear which other bacteria in the mouse intestine can utilize FOS, and the differences in the ability to utilize FOS. In this study, the bacteria capable of utilizing FOS were isolated from mice feces and their ability to utilize FOS was compared. Draft genome sequencing was also applied to explain the differences in FOS utilization at the gene levels. RESULTS: A total of 15 species were isolated from mouse feces and 13 species were able to utilize fructofuranosylnystose (GF2). Eleven species could utilize nistose (GF3), but not Enterococcus hirae and Lactobacillus reuteri. In contrast, 1-kestose (GF4) was hardly utilized. The enzyme activity determination and draft genome sequencing-based analyses revealed that all isolated species used the phosphotransferase system or permease system to transport FOS into the cells before hydrolysis by ß-fructofuranosidase. Although ß-fructofuranosidase exists in all strains, there are big differences in the corresponding coding genes between bifidobacteria and non-bifidobacteria. CONCLUSION: Compared with the other isolates, Bifidobacterium species exhibited higher enzyme activity and shorter generation time, leading to a stronger ability to utilize FOS. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

2.
J Appl Microbiol ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365708

RESUMO

The review deals with lactic acid bacteria in characterizing the stress adaptation with cross-protection effects, mainly associated with Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus. It focuses on adaptation and cross-protection in Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus, including heat shocking, cold stress, acid stress, osmotic stress, starvation effect, etc. Web of Science, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed databases were used for the systematic search of literature up to the year 2020. The literature suggests that a lower survival rate during freeze-drying is linked to environmental stress. Protective pretreatment under various mild stresses can be applied to lactic acid bacteria which may enhance resistance in a strain-dependent manner. We investigate the mechanism of damage and adaptation under various stresses including heat, cold, acidic, osmotic, starvation, oxidative and bile stress. Adaptive mechanisms include synthesis of stress-induced proteins, adjusting the composition of cell membrane fatty acids, accumulating compatible substances, etc. Next, we reveal the cross-protective effect of specific stress on the other environmental stresses. Freeze-drying is discussed from three perspectives including the regulation of membrane, accumulation of compatible solutes and the production of chaperones and stress-responsive proteases. The resistance of lactic acid bacteria against technological stress can be enhanced via cross-protection, which improves industrial efficiency concerning the survival of probiotics. However, the adaptive responses and cross-protection are strain-dependent and should be optimized case by case.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207960

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated systemic disease that may be treated with probiotics. In this study, probiotic strains that could or could not decrease interleukin (IL)-17 levels were applied to imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mice via oral administration. Bifidobacteriumadolescentis CCFM667, B. breve CCFM1078, Lacticaseibacillusparacasei CCFM1074, and Limosilactobacillus reuteri CCFM1132 ameliorated psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and suppressed the release of IL-23/T helper cell 17 (Th17) axis-related inflammatory cytokines, whereas B. animalis CCFM1148, L. paracasei CCFM1147, and L. reuteri CCFM1040 neither alleviated the pathological characteristics nor reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines. All effective strains increased the contents of short-chain fatty acids, which were negatively correlated with the levels of inflammatory cytokines. By performing 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the diversity of gut microbiota in psoriasis-like mice was found to decrease, but all effective strains made some specific changes to the composition of gut microbiota compared to the ineffective strains. Furthermore, except for B. breve CCFM1078, all other effective strains decreased the abundance of the family Rikenellaceae, which was positively correlated with psoriasis-like pathological characteristics and was negatively correlated with propionate levels. These findings demonstrated effects of strain-specificity, and how probiotics ameliorated psoriasis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Imiquimode , Interleucinas/análise , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Probióticos/farmacologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th17/imunologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7619-7628, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156842

RESUMO

This research assessed the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of inosine and the associated mechanism. Inosine pretreatment significantly reduced the secretion of several inflammatory factors and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels in a dose-dependent manner compared with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group. In LPS-treated mice, inosine pretreatment significantly reduced the ALT and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activity. Furthermore, inosine pretreatment significantly altered the relative abundance of the genera, Bifidobacterium, Lachnospiraceae UCG-006, and Muribaculum. Correlation analysis showed that Bifidobacterium and Lachnospiraceae UCG-006 were positively related to the cecal short-chain fatty acids but negatively related to the serum IL-6 and hepatic AST and ALT levels. Notably, inosine pretreatment significantly modulated the hepatic TLR4, MYD88, NF-κB, iNOS, COX2, AMPK, Nfr2, and IκB-α expression. These results suggested that inosine pretreatment alters the intestinal microbiota structure and improves LPS-induced acute liver damage and inflammation through modulating the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Microbiota , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inosina , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
5.
Microorganisms ; 9(5)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922843

RESUMO

In recent years, Blautia has attracted attention for its role in ameliorating host diseases. In particular, Blautia producta DSM 2950 has been considered a potential probiotic due to its ability to mitigate inflammation in poly(I:C) induced HT-29 cells. Thus, to promote the development of indigenous intestinal microorganisms with potential probiotic function, we conducted a comprehensive experimental analysis of DSM 2950 to determine its safety. This comprised a study of its potential virulence genes, antibiotic resistance genes, genomic islands, antibiotic resistance, and hemolytic activity and a 14-day test of its acute oral toxicity in mice. The results indicated no toxin-related virulence genes in the DSM 2950 genome. Most of the genomic islands in DSM 2950 were related to metabolism, rather than virulence expression. DSM 2950 was sensitive to most of the tested antibiotics but was tolerant of treatment with kanamycin, neomycin, clindamycin, or ciprofloxacin, probably because it possessed the corresponding antibiotic resistance genes. Oral acute toxicity tests indicated that the consumption of DSM 2950 does not cause toxic side effects in mice. Overall, the safety profile of DSM 2950 confirmed that it could be a candidate probiotic for use in food and pharmaceutical preparations.

6.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801119

RESUMO

The incidence of obesity, which is closely associated with the gut microbiota and chronic inflammation, has rapidly increased in the past 40 years. Therefore, the probiotic-based modification of the intestinal microbiota composition has been developed as a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we selected four Bifidobacterium adolescentis strains isolated from the feces of newborn and elderly humans to investigate whether supplementation with B. adolescentis of various origins could alleviate obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy as fat) received one of the following 14-week interventions: (i) B. adolescentis N4_N3, (ii) B. adolescentis Z25, (iii) B. adolescentis 17_3, (iv) B. adolescentis 2016_7_2, and (v) phosphate-buffered saline. The metabolic parameters, thermogenesis, and immunity of all treated mice were measured. Cecal and colonic microbial profiles were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Intestinal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The B. adolescentis strains isolated from the feces of elderly humans (B. adolescentis Z25, 17_3, and 2016_7_2) decreased the body weight or weight gain of mice, whilst the strain isolated from the newborn (B. adolescentis N4_N3) increased the body weight of mice. The B. adolescentis strains isolated from the elderly also increased serum leptin concentrations and induced the expression of thermogenesis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in brown adipose tissue. All the B. adolescentis strains alleviated inflammations in the spleen and brain and modified the cecal and colonic microbiota. Particularly, all strains reversed the HFD-induced depletion of Bifidobacterium and reduced the development of beta-lactam resistance. In addition, the B. adolescentis strains isolated from the elderly increased the relative abundances of potentially beneficial genera, such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Faecalibaculum. We speculate that such increased abundance of commensal bacteria may have mediated the alleviation of obesity, as B. adolescentis supplementation decreased the intestinal production of SCFAs, thereby reducing energy delivery to the host mice. Our results revealed that certain strains of B. adolescentis can alleviate obesity and modify the gut microbiota of mice. The tested strains of B. adolescentis showed different effects on lipid metabolism and immunity regulation, with these effects related to whether they had been isolated from the feces of newborn or elderly humans. This indicates that B. adolescentis from different sources may have disparate effects on host health possibly due to the transmission of origin-specific functions to the host.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium adolescentis/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium adolescentis/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Bifidobacterium adolescentis/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Imunidade , Inflamação/metabolismo , Intestinos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Probióticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
7.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671556

RESUMO

Vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in cardiovascular diseases and the antioxidative effects of probiotics have been widely reported. To screen the probiotic strains that may prevent cardiovascular diseases, we tested the antioxidative effects of supernatants of different Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains on A7R5 cells. Preincubation with supernatants of B. longum CCFM752, L. plantarum CCFM1149, or L. plantarum CCFM10 significantly suppressed the angiotensin II-induced increases in ROS levels and increased catalase (CAT) activity in A7R5, whereas CCFM752 inhibited NADPH oxidase activation and CCFM1149 enhanced the intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity simultaneously. Treatment with CCFM752, CCFM1149, or CCFM10 supernatants had no significant impact on transcriptional levels of Cat, Sod1, Sod2, Nox1, p22phox, or p47phox, but altered the overall transcriptomic profile and the expression of genes relevant to protein biosynthesis, and up-regulated the 60S ribosomal protein L7a (Rpl7a). A positive correlation between Rpl7a expression and intracellular CAT activity implied that Rpl7a may participate in CAT synthesis in A7R5. Supernatant of CCFM752 could also down-regulate the expression of NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1) and angiotensinogen in A7R5. Collectively, the probiotic strains CCFM752, CCFM1149, and CCFM10 exhibited antioxidative attributes on A7R5 cells and might help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

8.
J Med Food ; 24(3): 319-330, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739885

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, and its prevalence continues to increase. Dietary supplements, including probiotics, prebiotics, and plant extracts, have been shown to alleviate diabetes. In this study, the synergistic effects of two types of dietary supplements were investigated in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sixty mice were divided into the following six groups: control, model (induced by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin), drug (metformin), probiotic (Lactobacillus spp.), formula A (probiotics, plant extracts, and soybean peptide), and formula B (probiotics, prebiotics, and soybean peptide). All three dietary interventions (probiotic, formula A, and formula B groups) significantly reduced the blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance level and effectively improved some biochemical parameters (e.g., chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood lipid level) and regulated gut microbiota. Notably, formula B exhibited a better ability on reducing the blood glucose level, regulating the gut microbiota, and increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels compared with the probiotics alone and formula A. Thus, formula B may exert synergistic protective effects against T2DM through a mechanism involving probiotics and prebiotics of gut microbiota regulation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of probiotic dietary supplements to the treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Camundongos , Prebióticos
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5721-5729, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactulose was one of the earliest prebiotics to be identified. To assess the potential risk of large intakes of lactulose to the intestinal microbiota, mice were fed a diet containing lactulose (0%, 5% and 15%, w/w) for 2 weeks and the changes in the fecal microbiota were evaluated by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: Lactulose intervention decreased the α-diversity of the fecal microbiota in both low-dose and high-dose groups. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased, while that of Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased after lactulose intervention. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium belonging to Actinobacteria was significantly increased, and that of Alistipes belonging to Bacteroidetes was decreased in both low-dose and high-dose groups. The relative abundance of Blautia was significantly increased from 0.2% to 7.9% in the high-dose group and one strain of Blautia producta was isolated from the mice feces. However, the strain could not utilize lactulose. CONCLUSION: Overall, the microbial diversity was decreased after lactulose treatment, with significant increases in the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium. We also provide a strategy to increase the relative abundance of Blautia in the intestine by lactulose feeding at high doses, although the mechanism is not revealed. This will help us understand the prebiotic effect of lactulose on the host health. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactulose/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prebióticos/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567604

RESUMO

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum can adapt to a variety of niches and is widely distributed in many sources. We used comparative genomics to explore the differences in the genome and in the physiological characteristics of L. plantarum isolated from pickles, fermented sauce, and human feces. The relationships between genotypes and phenotypes were analyzed to address the effects of isolation source on the genetic variation of L. plantarum. The comparative genomic results indicate that the numbers of unique genes in the different strains were niche-dependent. L. plantarum isolated from fecal sources generally had more strain-specific genes than L. plantarum isolated from pickles. The phylogenetic tree and average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicate that L. plantarum in pickles and fermented sauce clustered independently, whereas the fecal L. plantarum was distributed more uniformly in the phylogenetic tree. The pan-genome curve indicated that the L. plantarum exhibited high genomic diversity. Based on the analysis of the carbohydrate active enzyme and carbohydrate-use abilities, we found that L. plantarum strains isolated from different sources exhibited different expression of the Glycoside Hydrolases (GH) and Glycosyl Transferases (GT) families and that the expression patterns of carbohydrate active enzymes were consistent with the evolution relationships of the strains. L. plantarum strains exhibited niche-specific characteristicsand the results provided better understating on genetics of this species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Filogenia
11.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-21, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525961

RESUMO

Blautia is a genus of anaerobic bacteria with probiotic characteristics that occur widely in the feces and intestines of mammals. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, some species in the genera Clostridium and Ruminococcus have been reclassified as Blautia, so to date, there are 20 new species with valid published names in this genus. An extensive body of research has recently focused on the probiotic effects of this genus, such as biological transformation and its ability to regulate host health and alleviate metabolic syndrome. This article reviews the origin and biological characteristics of Blautia and the factors that affect its abundance and discusses its role in host health, thus laying a theoretical foundation for the development of new functional microorganisms with probiotic properties.

12.
Food Funct ; 12(4): 1695-1707, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502422

RESUMO

The role of Pediococcus pentosaceus in the gastrointestinne has received considerable attention in recent decades. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the short-term administration of P. pentosaceus on physiological characteristics, inflammation, and intestinal microecology in mice. In this study, 90 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 15 groups, with 14 groups treated with a daily intragastric administration of different genotypes of P. pentosaceus. After three weeks of intragastric administration P. pentosaceus had a mild effect on mice. It could be seen that different P. pentosaceus strains had different effects on the gut microbiota and intestinal microecology. P. pentosaceus VCQYC5144M12 possessing an Enterolysin A operon may have been harmful, activating the expression of inflammatory factors, while P. pentosaceus DYNDL69M8 consisting of only a pediocin-like operon increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria and increased the content of acetic acid. The presence of various genotypes of bacteriocin may have been the explanation for variations among strains. This may provide theoretical support for further exploring the probiotic effect and patterns of P. pentosaceus.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pediococcus pentosaceus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(5): 1758-1766, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus plantarum is an important probiotic with a variety of physiologic functions. Studies have focused on the effects of L. plantarum on host physiology and microbiota, but studies of the fate of strains after they enter the intestine are lacking. In this study, L. plantarum ST-III was genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Mice were administered ST-III-GFP, and fluorescence imaging was used to study the distribution, location and quantity of strains within 8 h after entry into the intestine. RESULTS: The results indicated that genetic modification did not affect the growth of ST-III, tolerance to simulated gastric juice and intestinal fluid or tolerance to antibiotics (with the exception of chloramphenicol). Fluorescence imaging and colony counting indicated that ST-III-GFP can be detected in the small intestine 5 min after oral gavage. After 30 min, nearly all ST-III-GFP was located in the small intestine. After 1.5 h, ST-III-GFP was detected in both the cecum and large intestine. After 4 and 8 h, ST-III-GFP was mainly concentrated in the cecum and large intestine. Compared to the initial amount ingested, the survival rate of ST-III-GFP within the intestine of mice was 10% after 8 h. In addition, a strong linear relationship was found between the fluorescence intensity and the viable count of ST-III-GFP. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained data indicate that the amount of ST-III-GFP can be estimated by measuring the fluorescence intensity of this novel strain within the intestinal tract. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Probióticos/química , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fluorescência , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(4): 1436-1446, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starter cultures are nowadays more and more used to make inoculated pickles (IPs), but it remains unclear whether there are differences in flavors between IPs and naturally fermented pickles. In this study 16 commercial pickles (CPs) produced by spontaneous fermentation method were purchased from markets in Sichuan province and Chongqing. Ten strains of three lactic acid bacteria species - Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus ethanolidurans - were selected as single starter cultures to produce IPs. RESULTS: Differences in flavor components between the CPs and IPs were monitored using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical methods. Higher levels of nonvolatile substances such as glucose, fructose, tagatose, sucrose, lactic acid and mannitol were detected in most IPs than in the CPs. The values of flavor characteristics such as sweetness, umami and astringency, which were correlated positively with consumers' overall preferences for pickles, were higher in the IPs than in the CPs. Volatile compounds such as geranyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, eucalyptol and linalool were distinguished as the main compounds that contributed to the flavor characteristics of the CPs. In addition to dimethyl trisulfide, dimethyl disulfide was also an odor contributor to the IPs. CONCLUSIONS: The CPs and IPs had different flavor characteristics, especially in the composition and content of volatile components, and the inoculation method reflected some fermentation advantages, which could reduce the bitterness and increase umami and lead to a higher score of sensory preference. This will be helpful for industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/microbiologia , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/economia , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactobacillales/classificação , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614751

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are considered prebiotics and have been proven to selectively promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the gut. This study aimed to clarify the effects of FOS intake on the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota in mice. Briefly, mice were fed a 0% or 25% FOS (w/w)-supplemented diet for four weeks, and the composition of luminal and mucosal microbiota, especially the Bifidobacterium, was analyzed by sequencing the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA and groEL gene, respectively. After FOS intervention, there were significant increases in the total and wall weights of the cecum and the amount of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecal contents of the mice. At the phylum level, the results showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Actinobacteria in the contents and mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon in the FOS group. Besides Bifidobacterium, a significant increase was observed in the relative abundance of Coprococcus in all samples at the genus level, which may be partially related to the increase in butyric acid levels in the luminal contents. Furthermore, groEL sequencing revealed that Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was almost the sole bifidobacterial species in the luminal contents (>98%) and mucosa (>89%). These results indicated that FOS can selectively promote B. pseudolongum proliferation in the intestine, either in the lumen or the mucosa from the cecum to the distal colon. Further studies are required to reveal the competitive advantage of B. pseudolongum over other FOS-metabolizing bacteria and the response mechanisms of B. pseudolongum to FOS.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
16.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456752

RESUMO

Constipation, which seriously affects living quality of people, is a common gastrointestinal disease. The engagement of the intestinal flora in the development of symptoms of constipation has been frequently hypothesized. In this study, constipated mice induced by loperamide were used to investige the alleviation of constipation by Bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria was sorted out according to their adhesive properties into two groups. One group combined multiple strains of Bifidobacterium with adhesion property (CMB1), the other combined multiple strains of Bifidobacterium without adhesion property (CMB2). It was found that CMB1 can alleviate constipation more efficiently by improving the water, propionate and butyrate content in feces, and overall gastrointestinal transit time. Meanwhile, from the perspective of fecal microbiota, CMB1 alleviated constipation mainly by increasing the relative abundances of genera (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella) associated with rapid bowel movement. From the perspective of cecal microbiota, CMB1 alleviated constipation mainly by increasing the relative abundances of genera Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, unclassified S24-7, Dorea, Ruminococcus, Coprococcus, and Rikenella, and decreasing the relative abundances of genera Oscillospira, Odoribacter and Unclassified F16, which are associated with methane production and colonic transit. Overall, changes of microbiota in caecum by CMB1 reflect the stage of constipation in mice more comprehensively than that in feces.

17.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(7): 2214-2223, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367350

RESUMO

Lactobacillus is the dominant genus during fruit and vegetable juices (FVFs) fermentation, which are the key factors for taste and flavor. This study was performed to investigate the effects of different Lactobacillus spp. on profile of volatile flavor compounds and nonvolatile taste compounds in FVFs fermentation. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant flavor and taste markers for fermented FVFs via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. The PCA score plot and PLS-DA showed that different FVFs were divided into three distinct types, suggesting that the different species significantly affect the volatile and nonvolatile compounds profiles of FVFs. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Type A FVFs) might make a greater contribution to the umami taste. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Type B FVFs) make a greater contribution to the sour taste. Lactobacillus fermentum may be an potential critical contributor to produce volatile compounds. We reveal that different Lactobacillus strains play different roles in modifying these compounds related to flavor and taste features.

18.
Food Funct ; 9(11): 5824-5831, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357216

RESUMO

Raffinose has become a major focus of research interest and recent studies have shown that besides beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae can also utilize raffinose and raffinose might lead to flatulence in some hosts. Therefore, it is required to find out the raffinose-metabolizing bacteria in the gut and the bacteria responsible for the flatulence. The BLASTP search results showed that the homologous proteins of glycosidases related to raffinose utilization are widely distributed in 196 of the 528 gut bacterial strains. Fifty-nine bacterial strains belonging to nine species of five genera were isolated from human feces and were found to be capable of utilizing raffinose; of these species, Enterococcus avium and Streptococcus salivarius were reported for the first time. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the supernatants of the nine species revealed that the bacteria could utilize raffinose in different manners. Glucose and melibiose were detected in the supernatants of Enterococcus avium E5 and Streptococcus salivarius B5, respectively. However, no resulting saccharides of raffinose degradation were detected in the supernatants of other seven strains, indicating that they had different raffinose utilization types from Enterococcus avium E5 and Streptococcus salivarius B5. Gas was produced with raffinose utilization by Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus pasteurianus and Enterococcus avium. Thus, more attention should be paid to the raffinose-utilizing bacteria besides bifidobacteria and further studies are required to reveal the mechanisms of raffinose utilization to clarify the relationship between raffinose and gut bacteria.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Rafinose/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Flatulência , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/metabolismo
19.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115879

RESUMO

Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are a well-known class of prebiotic and are considered to selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the gut. Previous studies focused on the growth stimulation of Bifidobacterium, but they did not further investigate the bifidobacterial composition and the specific species that were stimulated. In this study, mice were fed with FOS in different doses for four weeks and the composition of fecal microbiota, in particular Bifidobacterium, was analyzed by sequencing the V3⁻V4 region and the groEL gene on the MiSeq platform, respectively. In the high-dose group, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased, which was mainly contributed by Bifidobacterium. At the genus level, the relative abundances of Blautia and Coprococcus were also significantly increased. Through the groEL sequencing, 14 species of Bifidobacterium were identified, among which B.pseudolongum was most abundant. After FOS treatment, B.pseudolongum became almost the sole bifidobacterial species (>95%). B.pseudolongum strains were isolated and demonstrated their ability to metabolize FOS by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, we inferred that FOS significantly stimulated the growth of B.pseudolongum in mice. Further investigations are needed to reveal the mechanism of selectiveness between FOS and B.pseudolongum, which would aid our understanding of the basic principles between dietary carbohydrates and host health.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/classificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bifidobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Genoma Bacteriano , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 125(5): 513-518, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29331529

RESUMO

For the industrial production of probiotics powder, various sugars have been used as cryoprotectants to preserve probiotics during freeze-drying. Some of these sugars can be metabolized by Lactobacillus with the production of acids during the mix. In this study, we investigated the effect of acids on ATPase, ß-galactosidase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), integrity and fluidity of cell membrane and the survival rate of Lactobacillus during freeze-drying. In the presence of Lactobacillus, acids were produced from cryoprotectants containing fermentable sugars before freezing, resulting in a decrease in the pH of the bacterial suspension to below 5.0. During freeze-drying, the acids caused a loss of viability of Lactobacillus due to aggravated damage to ATPase, ß-galactosidase and cell membrane fluidity, but not LDH and cell membrane integrity. This finding implied that cryoprotectants that do not lead to the production of acids are effective in improving the survival rate of freeze-dried Lactobacillus. Here, a new formula was proposed for a protectant containing whey protein isolate (WPI) and rhamnose, which were not metabolized. In addition, linear-regression analyses were performed on the proportion of cryoprotectants (M) against cell paste (m), total cell count (N), total surface area (St) and total volume (Vt) of bacteria for 100% survival rate. The total surface areas of bacteria were found to be highly correlated with the amount of proposed cryoprotectant. The following prediction equation was established for the optimal initial cell concentration for a 100% survival rate of freeze-dried Lactobacillus: N (4πr2+2πl)=(0.66±0.03)M.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Preservação Biológica , Ácidos/metabolismo , Carga Bacteriana/normas , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Crioprotetores/química , Fermentação , Liofilização/normas , Lactobacillus/citologia , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Preservação Biológica/normas , Probióticos/normas
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