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1.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) for chemotherapy are associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We aimed to quantify the incidence of TIVAPs associated VTE and compare it with external central venous catheters (CVCs) in cancer patients through a meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies reporting on VTE risk associated with TIVAP were retrieved from medical literature databases. In publications without a comparison group, the pooled incidence of TIVAP-related VTE was calculated. For studies comparing TIVAPs with external CVCs, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to assess the risk of VTE. RESULTS: In total, 80 studies (11 with a comparison group and 69 without) including 39148 patients were retrieved. In the non-comparison studies, the overall symptomatic VTE incidence was 2.76% (95% CI 2.24-3.28%), and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.06-0.10) per 1000 catheter-days. This risk was highest when TIVAPs were inserted via the upper-extremity vein (3.54%, 95%CI 2.94-4.76%). Our meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed that TIVAPs were associated with a decreased risk of VTE compared with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) (OR= 0.20, 95% CI 0.09-0.43), and a trend for lower VTE risk compared with Hickman catheters (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.37-1.50). Meta-regression models suggested that regional difference may significantly impact on the incidence of VTE associated with TIVAPs. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that the cancer patients with TIVAP are less likely to develop VTE compared with external CVCs. This should be considered when choosing the indwelling intravenous device for chemotherapy. However, more attention should be paid when choosing upper-extremity veins as the insertion site.

2.
Ultrasonography ; 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475089

RESUMO

The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) was created to standardize liver imaging in patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and it uses a diagnostic algorithm to assign categories that reflect the relative probability of HCC, non-HCC malignancies, or benign focal liver lesions. In addition to major imaging features, ancillary features (AFs) are used by radiologists to refine the categorization of liver nodules. In the present document, we discuss and explain the application of AFs currently defined within the LI-RADS guidelines. We also explore possible additional AFs visible on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Finally, we summarize the management of CEUS LI-RADS features, including the role of current and potential future AFs.

3.
Autism Res ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496662

RESUMO

Discovering pathophysiologic networks in a blood-based approach may help to generate valuable tools for early treatment or preventive measures in autism. To date targeted or untargeted metabolomics approaches to identify metabolic features and pathways affecting fetal neurodevelopment have rarely been applied to pregnancy samples, that is, an early period potentially relevant for the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We conducted a population-based study relying on autism diagnoses retrieved from California Department of Developmental Services record. After linking cases to and sampling controls from birth certificates, we retrieved stored maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples collected as part of the California Prenatal Screening Program from the California Biobank for children born 2004 to 2010 in the central valley of California. We retrieved serum for 52 mothers whose children developed autism and 62 population controls originally selected from all eligible children matched by birth year and child's sex. Also, we required that these mothers were relatively low or unexposed to air pollution and select pesticides during early pregnancy. We identified differences in metabolite levels in several metabolic pathways, including glycosphingolipid biosynthesis and metabolism, N-glycan and pyrimidine metabolism, bile acid pathways and, importantly, C21-steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism. Disturbances in these pathways have been shown to be relevant for neurodevelopment in rare genetic syndromes or implicated in previous studies of autism. This study provides new insight into maternal mid-pregnancy metabolic features possibly related to the development of autism and an incentive to explore whether these pathways and metabolites are useful for early diagnosis, treatment, or prevention. LAY SUMMARY: This study found that in mid-pregnancy the blood of mothers who give birth to a child that develops autism has some characteristic features that are different from those of blood samples taken from control mothers. These features are related to biologic mechanisms that can affect fetal brain development. In the future, these insights may help identify biomarkers for early autism diagnosis and treatment or preventive measures.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526140

RESUMO

We present that activation of CoMoO4-based microrod arrays in KOH (1.0 M, 2 h) allows us to significantly improve their electrochemical hydrogen evolution performance in phosphate buffer solution (1.0 M, pH = 7.1). The activation mechanism originates from the conversion of the surface layer of CoMoO4 to Co(OH)2 nanosheets, together with the release of Mo3O102- ions into the activation solution. Our experimental and calculated results suggest that the Co(OH)2 nanosheets on the surface of the CoMoO4-based microrod arrays show the ability to improve water molecule disassociation and stabilize the catalytic activity of the two-component catalysts by decreasing their overpotentials in the hydrogen evolution reaction. When extending this strategy to activate P-doped CoMoO4 with a low hydrogen absorption free energy, we report the synthesis of a new class of superior neutral electrochemical hydrogen evolution catalysts of P-doped CoMoO4-Co(OH)2 microrod arrays. We show that a low overpotential of about 30 mV (obtained from bulk electrolysis) is required to deliver a current density of 10 mA cm-2 in the neutral media. By making use of our catalyst and NiFe double hydroxide as cathodic and anodic electrodes, respectively, we fabricated a two-electrode electrolysis device for neutral overall water splitting. Our results showed a low cell voltage of 1.78 V (obtained from bulk electrolysis) that is needed for delivering a current density of about 10 mA cm-2 in the neutral electrolyte, even outperforming the state-of-the-art catalyst combination of Pt/C∥RuO2 in terms of catalytic activity and stability. These findings suggest that our strategy may be utilized as a facile but useful strategy toward the activation of molybdate catalysts to improve their HER performance in both basic and neutral media.

5.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 578: 135-145, 2020 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521353

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Ion specificity is crucial in assembly and aggregation of polymers in water driven by hydrophobic interaction. An increasing number of studies have suggested that specific ion adsorption and consequent impact on interfacial water molecules should play an important role in modulating hydrophobic interaction. EXPERIMENTS: Here, bubble probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with theoretical modeling analysis was applied to quantify hydrophobic interactions involving three model polymers in solutions containing different ions. FINDINGS: For polystyrene, the hydrophobic interaction's decay length D0 was reduced from 0.75 nm to 0.60 nm by introducing weakly hydrated cations (e.g., K+ and NH4+), while varying anion type had little effect. For poly(methyl methacrylate) and polydimethylsiloxane, anion specificity was demonstrated more evident in shortening the hydrophobic interaction range, with D0 decreasing from 0.63 nm to 0.50 nm and from 0.72 nm to 0.58 nm respectively when strongly hydrated F- or Cl- was replaced by weakly hydrated I-. Such results could arise from specific ion adsorption at water/polymer interface which disrupts the water structuring effect. From the nanomechanical perspective, this work has revealed the importance of interfacial ion specificity in modulating hydrophobic interaction, which offers novel implications for tuning assembly behavior of macromolecules in relevant engineering applications such as micelle formation and foam stabilization.

6.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 314, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium spp. is still a major threat to public health globally. The various approaches to developing new antimalarial agents rely on the understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms of dynamic gene expression in the life-cycle of these malaria parasites. The nuclear members of the evolutionarily conserved actin-related protein nuclear (ARP) superfamily are the major components of nucleosome remodelling complexes. In the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, bioinformatics analysis has predicted three ARP orthologues: PfArp1, PfArp4 and PfArp6. However, little is known about the biological functions of putative PfArp4. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function and the underlying mechanisms of PfArp4 gene regulation. METHODS: A conditional gene knockdown approach was adopted by incorporating the glucosamine-inducible glmS ribozyme sequence into the 3' UTR of the PfArp4 and PfArp6 genes. The transgenic parasites PfArp4-Ty1-Ribo, PfArp6-Ty1-Ribo and pL6-PfArp4-Ty1::PfArp6-HA were generated by the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. The knockdown effect in the transgenic parasite was measured by growth curve assay and western blot (WB) analysis. The direct interaction between PfArp4 and PfArp6 was validated by co-IFA and co-IP assays. The euchromatic gene expression mediated through H2A.Z (histone H2A variant) deposition and H3K9ac modification at promoters and regulated by PfArp4, was determined by RNA-seq and ChIP-seq. RESULTS: The inducible knockdown of PfArp4 inhibited blood-stage development of P. falciparum. PfArp4 and PfArp6 were colocalized in the nucleus of P. falciparum parasites. PfArp4 gene knockdown altered the global transcriptome. PfArp4 protein colocalized with the histone variant H2A.Z and euchromatic marker H3K9ac in intergenic regions. The inducible downregulation of PfArp4 resulted in the depletion of H2A.Z and lower H3K9ac levels at the upstream regions of eukaryotic genes, thereby repressing the transcriptional abundance of H2A.Z-dependent genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that PfArp4 regulates the cell cycle by controlling H2A.Z deposition and affecting centromere function, contributing to the understanding the complex epigenetic regulation of gene expression and the development of P. falciparum.

7.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458847

RESUMO

A one-pot protocol has been developed for the synthesis of quinazolinones from amide-oxazolines with TsCl via a cyclic 1,3-azaoxonium intermediate and 6π electron cyclization in the presence of a Lewis acid and base. The process is operationally simple and has a broad substrate scope. This method provides a unique strategy for the construction of quinazolinones.

8.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(21): 4014-4018, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427265

RESUMO

An atom-economical protocol for synthesizing indazole N-oxides from readily available N-nitrosoanilines and sulfoxonium ylides through the rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation and cyclization reaction is described here. This protocol employs nitroso as a traceless directing group. The transformation features powerful reactivity, tolerates various functional groups, and proceeds with moderate to good yields under an ambient atmosphere, providing a straightforward approach to access structurally diverse and valuable indazole N-oxide derivatives. Importantly, this new annulation process represents a hitherto unobserved reactivity pattern for the N-nitroso group.

9.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470742

RESUMO

Seasonal changes in chemical compositions and source apportionment of PM2.5 during clear and hazy days help to develop effective control policy, but limited information is available in megacity Nanjing. In this study, 102 PM2.5 samples were collected during clear and hazy days from 4 seasons in 2014-2015. Their chemical compositions (organic and elemental carbon, 8 water-soluble ions, and 22 inorganic elements) were determined, which were used for PM2.5 source apportionment using the PMF model. The mean PM2.5 concentration was lower during clear days than hazy days (42 vs. 122 µg m-3), so were mean concentrations of metals (0.48 vs. 0.82 ng m-3 for Co and 2.0 vs. 2.4 µg m-3 for Na), water soluble ions (0.10 vs. 0.16 µg m-3 for Mg2+ and 12 vs. 23 µg m-3 for SO42-), and carbon species (3.2 vs. 5.4 µg m-3 for elemetal C and 20 vs. 35 µg m-3 for organic C). Based on the PMF model, five main sources of PM2.5 were identified including secondary aerosols (31%), coal combustion (27%), road & construction dust (26%), oil combustion (8.5%), and iron & steel industry (5.1%) for all samples. The PM2.5 concentrations from the 5 sources were 0.01-46.5, averaging 9.8 µg m-3 during clear days (PM2.5 < 75 µg m-3), which increased to 1.83-60.1, averaging 18 µg m-3 during hazy days. However, based on their contributions to PM2.5, only secondary aerosols increased during hazy days compared to clear days in all seasons (11 vs. 42%), indicating its dominant contribution to haze in Nanjing. For different seasons, road & construction dust was a major contributor to PM2.5 in the summer, while oil combustion (4.86 vs.16.8%) contributed more in spring. However, coal combustion became the main source of PM2.5 during the summer (44-85%) due to the pollution controls for the Youth Olympic Games. Our results suggest that secondary aerosols play an important role in haze formation and season-dependent pollution measures should be implemented for effective control of air pollution.

10.
Med Ultrason ; 22(2): 211-219, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399528

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the value of S-Detect (a computer aided diagnosis system using deep learning) in breast ultrasound (US) for discriminating benign and malignant breast masses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was performed and relevant studies using S-Detect for the differential diagnosis of breast masses were selected. The quality of included studies was assessed using a Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) questionnaire. Two review authors independently searched the articles and assessed the eligibility of the reports. RESULTS: A total of ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 (95%CI: 0.77-0.87) and 0.86 (95%CI: 0.76-0.92), respectively. In addition, the diagnostic odds ratios, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 28 (95%CI: 16- 49), 5.7 (95%CI: 3.4-9.5), and 0.21 (95%CI: 0.16-0.27), respectively. Area under the curve was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.86-0.92). No significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: S-Detect exhibited a favourable diagnostic value in assisting physicians discriminating benign and malignant breast masses and it can be considered as a useful complement for conventional US.

11.
Med Ultrason ; 22(2): 220-229, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399529

RESUMO

Ultrasound is becoming a fundamental first-line diagnostic tool for most medical specialties and an innovative tool to teach anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology to undergraduate and graduate students. However, availability of structured training programs during medical school is lagging behind and many physicians still acquire all their ultrasound skills during postgraduate training.There is wide variation in medical student ultrasound education worldwide. Sharing successful educational strategies from early adopter medical schools and learning from leading education programs should advance the integration of ultrasound into the university medical school curricula. In this overview, we present current approaches and suggestions by ultrasound societies concerning medical student educa-tion throughout the world. Based on these examples, we formulate a consensus statement with suggestions on how to integrate ultrasound teaching into the preclinical and clinical medical curricula.

12.
Med Ultrason ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399540

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatidosis (hydatid cysts), is an infection with a wide spectrum of manifestations, from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Ultrasound (US) allows screening, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment guidance and follow-up of CE under many circumstances. Hydatid cysts are predominantly observed in the liver but many other organs can be involved. As part of a series of publications, herewith we present a review describing the characteristic imaging features of the broad variety of organs which can be involved.

13.
J Perinatol ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: NICU patients are disproportionately affected by any disaster due to their vulnerability and highly specialized care needs that require a multitude of resources. Research in disaster preparedness and its effect on NICU patients is limited. STUDY DESIGN: From March to May 2018, NICUs across California participated in a survey designed to assess their preparedness for a disaster. RESULTS: Of the 84 responding units, 99% were urban, 73% were nonprofit, and 65% were community NICUs. As for NICU participation in hospital training exercises for disaster preparedness, 10% did not participate in annual drills, 44% did once a year, 36% did twice a year, and 10% did more than two times per year. CONCLUSION: We showed that many NICUs had redundant systems in place and plans for various disasters; however, there is not consistent participation by NICUs in hospital training exercises for disaster preparedness.

14.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 20: 400-408, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244167

RESUMO

Hammerhead ribozyme-based aptazyme (HHAz), inheriting the advantages of small size and high efficiency from the RNA-cleaving ribozyme and the specific recognition ability of aptamers to specific targets, exhibits the huge potential to be a transgene expression regulator. Herein, we report a selection strategy for HHAz by using a toxin protein IbsC as the reporter to offer a positive phenotype, thus realizing an easy-operating, time- and labor-saving selection of HHAz variants with desired properties. Based on this strategy, we obtained a new HHAz (TAP-1), which could react sensitively toward the extracellular regulatory molecule, theophylline, both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. With fluorescent protein reporter, the intracellular switching efficiencies of TAP-1 and other reported theophylline-dependent HHAzs has been quantitatively evaluated, showing that TAP-1 not only exhibits the best downregulating ability at high concentration of theophylline but also maintains high activity with 0.1 mM theophylline, which is a safe concentration in the human body.

15.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(5): 249-255, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250160

RESUMO

Aims: To determine the clinical characteristics and genetic cause of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1) in a Chinese family. Materials and Methods: Evaluations, including history, clinical features, and audiological tests, were performed on the proband and her parents. Genetic analyses were performed targeting 144 known deafness genes using a next-generation sequencing panel. Bioinformatic analyses were used to analyze the candidate mutation. Results: The proband and her parents suffered from congenital bilateral profound hearing loss. Her mother exhibited bilateral blue irides. WS1 was diagnosed in the proband and her mother according to the Waardenburg syndrome consortium criteria: the calculated W index of the proband was 2.39 and that of her mother was 2.31. A novel mutation c.1076_1077del (p.Thr359fs) in exon 7 of the PAX3 gene (paired box 3) was identified in the proband and her mother that was absent in the father and controls. Conclusion: Mutations in exon 7 of the PAX3 gene are rare. We identified a novel frameshift mutation in exon 7 of the PAX3 gene that we determined was responsible for WS1 in this family.

16.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and management options are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the management of urinary dysfunction by researching the special needs of PD patients. METHODS: PD patients with urinary dysfunction who underwent urodynamic testing were recruited from a single center from October 2013 to February 2019. The urinary symptoms, International Prostate Symptom Score and Hoehn-Yahr scale were evaluated. Management was made at the urologists' discretion with follow-up after three weeks. Urinary symptoms, urodynamics and the management of urinary dysfunction were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients with a median age of 66.2 and Hoehn-Yahr scale soccer of 2 were enrolled. Irritative symptoms were more common than obstructive symptoms, while obstructive symptoms were more common in male than female patients, except for incomplete voiding. There were 51% cases of detrusor overactivity, followed by 33% with bladder outlet obstruction, 13% had normal function, 12% had detrusor underactivity, 9% had stress incontinence, 7% had increased bladder sensation and 4% had an acontractile bladder. Tolterodine and tamsulosin were the most common therapeutic agents, respectively prescribed to 38.5% and 27.3% of the patients. Other treatments included catheterization, botulinum toxin A bladder wall injection, transurethral resection of the prostate and urethral dilatation. Urinary symptoms were improved significantly in 74.5% of the patients (p < 0.001), including 27 patients treated with tamsulosin only and 54 patients with tolterodine only. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary symptoms and urodynamics were highly variable in PD patients, indicating that most patients may benefit from personalized management.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297413

RESUMO

A general and atom-economical synthesis of 1,1-diborylalkanes from alkenes and a borane without the need for an additional H2 acceptor is reported for the first time. The key to our success is the use of an earth-abundant zirconium-based catalyst, which allows a balance of self-contradictory reactivities (dehydrogenative boration and hydroboration) to be achieved. Our method avoids using an excess amount of another alkene as an H2 acceptor, which was required in other reported systems. Furthermore, substrates such as simple long-chain aliphatic alkenes that did not react before also underwent 1,1-diboration in our system. Significantly, the unprecedented 1,1-diboration of internal alkenes enabled the preparation of 1,1-diborylalkanes.

19.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(5): 1216-1223, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115307

RESUMO

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) categorization of focal liver lesions (FLLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). A total of 63 patients with 84 FLLs were included in the final study population, after review of the electronic medical records and clinical data. Two trained radiologists evaluated all CEUS and CE-MRI images independently. They assigned a LI-RADS category to each FLL and assessed major features based on CEUS LI-RADS Version 2017 and computed tomography/MRI LI-RADS Version 2018. The generalized estimating equation method was used to compare the diagnostic performance of the LI-RADS algorithm between CEUS and CE-MRI. The sensitivity of LR-5/LR-TIV (tumor in vein) categories for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differed significantly between CEUS and CE-MRI (88.9% [40/45], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 76.5%-95.2%), versus 64.4% (29/45; 95% CI: 49.8%-76.8%), p = 0.006; 82.2% (37/45; 95% CI: 68.7%-90.7%), versus 62.2% (28/45; 95% CI: 47.6%-74.9%), p = 0.034. Inter-observer agreement was substantial for assigning LR-5 on both CEUS and CE-MRI. For both reviewers, there was a higher frequency of LR-5 (44.0% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.009; 42.9% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.023) in CEUS compared with CE-MRI. Arterial phase hyper-enhancement (APHE) was less frequently observed on CEUS than on CE-MRI (46.4% vs. 61.9%, p = 0.044). However, the washout appearance was observed more frequently on CEUS than on CE-MRI (50.0% vs. 28.6%, p = 0.004). Inter-observer agreement between the two reviewers on APHE and washout appearance was excellent for both CEUS and CE-MRI. These findings suggest that CEUS had a much higher sensitivity than CE-MRI in the diagnosis of HCC using LI-RADS, and although the frequencies of major features differed, inter-observer agreement between the two reviewers on major features of HCC was excellent for both CEUS and CE-MRI.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19211, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the efficacy and safety of plaster splint vs splints in the treatment of distal radius fractures (DRFs). METHODS: For a more comprehensive collection of original study, we mainly searched 9 electronic databases including the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Clinical Trials.gov, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wanfang Database, and VIP Database. The retrieval date of all databases is from the establishment to January 2019. In the aspect of assessing the quality of original research methodology, we mainly rely on the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool and GRADE assessment method. Revman 5.3 is used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies involving 717 participants were included. The results showed that effective rate (RR = 0.99, 95%CI 0.91 to 1.07, P = .83), reduction rate (RR = 1.00, 95%CI 0.93 to 1.07, P = .98), and complication rate of the plaster splint had no significant difference with the splint. In addition, for the excellent rate of treatment, subgroup analysis based on the included studies found that when the intervention period was 4 weeks, the plaster splint was better than the splint, and when the intervention period was more than 4 weeks, there was no significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: There is no sufficient evidence that plaster splint is superior to splint. However, according to current evidence, plaster splint is more effective than splint when the intervention period is shorter (4 weeks), and its advantage disappears when the intervention period is longer (> 4 weeks). It should be noted that the results of this study were influenced by the sample size and the quality of the included studies. More high-quality and well-controlled RCTs are needed to draw better conclusions in further study.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Rádio/terapia , Contenções , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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