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1.
Complement Med Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823512

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of acupuncture in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) based on current randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS: Five databases were screened for RCTs published until August 2019. Studies that assessed the efficacy of acupuncture when used as an independent intervention for HZ were included. The outcomes of interest were pain intensity, as assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), incrustation time, decrustation time, and incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). RESULTS: In total, 21 RCTs were included in this research. Compared with antiviral therapy, acupuncture was associated with a reduction in VAS score by 16.13, incrustation time by 1.86 days, decrustation time by 2.19 days, and incidence of PHN by 83%. According to a meta-regression analysis, the main sources of heterogeneity were sample size and duration of treatment. There was no publication bias except on decrustation time. A sensitivity analysis showed that the outcomes were relatively stable and reliable. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture may be effective for patients with HZ. Nevertheless, this finding should be validated by conducting high-quality trials with a larger sample size.

2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 17, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current findings regarding plasma/serum homocysteine (HCY) levels in AS patients are inconsistent. This study aims to systematically evaluate the association between circulating HCY levels and AS. METHODS: Online electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data) were used to retrieve all relevant articles published up to May 7, 2020. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the random-effect model, Stata16 software. RESULTS: Nine articles containing 778 AS patients and 522 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No significant differences in HCY levels were found between AS and control groups (pooled SMD = 0.46, 95% CI = - 0.30 to 1.23, P = 0.23). However, subgroup analysis suggested that HCY levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the AS group treated with methotrexate (MTX) compared with the control group. In contrast, HCY levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the AS group receiving anti-TNF-α treatment compared with the control group. No significant differences were detected between HCY levels and disease activity scores (Bath AS disease activity index, BASDAI), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicates that HCY levels are similar between AS and controls, and do not correlate with disease activity. However, different medical treatments cause fluctuations of circulating HCY levels in AS patients. Further and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number: CRD42020184426 .

3.
Appl Opt ; 60(5): 1092-1098, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690556

RESUMO

The ghost imaging (GI) approach is an intriguing and promising image acquisition technique that can transmit high-quality image information in a scattering environment. In this paper, we focus on two concerns recently emerged in the GI modality: one is the vulnerability to forgery attacks in GI-based optical encryption [Opt. Lett.45, 3917 (2020)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.392424], and the other is the potential threat of GI to personal privacy regarding non-invasive imaging [Opt. Express28, 17232 (2020)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.391788]. The core idea is to recommend introducing weighted multiplicative signals [Opt. Express27, 36505 (2019)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.27.036505] into the computational GI system, whether on the transmitting end or the receiving end. At the transmitting end, the random multiplicative signal can be used as an additional key that can reduce the possibility of forgery attacks, thereby increasing image transmission security. On the receiving end, the introduction of a random multiplicative signal to a spatial scattering medium makes it a "spatiotemporal" scattering medium, whose transmittance changes with time. Further, the spatiotemporal scattering medium can disable direct imaging and GI at the same time with low cost, thereby having great potential in privacy protection in daily lives.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2246: 237-247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576993

RESUMO

A method for measuring mRNA copies in intact bacterial cells by fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) is presented. Unlike conventional single-molecule FISH, where the presence of a transcript is determined by fluorescence intensity, fliFISH relies on On-Off duty cycles of photo-switching dyes to set a predetermined threshold for distinguishing true signals from background noise. The method provides a quantitative approach for detecting and counting true mRNA copies and rejecting false signals with high accuracy.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 109: 104728, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636436

RESUMO

As a successful anti-tumor drug target, the family of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is also a critical player in immune response, making the research of anti-inflammatory HDAC inhibitors an attractive new focus. In this report, triterpenoids nigranoic acid (NA) and manwuweizic acid (MA) were identified as HDAC inhibitors through docking-based virtual screening and enzymatic activity assay. A series of derivatives of NA and MA were synthesized and assessed for their biological effects. As a result, hydroxamic acid derivatives of NA and MA showed moderately increased activity for HDAC1/2/4/6 inhibition (the lowest IC50 against HDAC1 is 1.14 µM), with no activity against HDAC8. In J774A.1 macrophage, compound 1-3, 13 and 17-19 demonstrated inhibitory activity against lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and IL-1ß production, without affecting cell viability. Compound 19 increased the histone acetylation level in J774A.1 cells, as well as inhibited IL-1ß maturation and caspase-1 cleavage. These results indicated that compound 19 blocks the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, probably related to HDAC inhibition. This work provided a natural scaffold for developing low-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory HDAC inhibitors, as well as a class of tool molecules for studying the relationship between HDACs and NLRP3 activation.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596654

RESUMO

Safety issues associated with lithium-ion batteries are of major concern, especially with the ever-growing demand for higher-energy-density storage devices. Although flame retardants (FRs) added to electrolytes can reduce fire hazards, large amounts of FRs are required and they severely deteriorate battery performance. Here, we report a feasible method to balance flame retardancy and electrochemical performance by coating an electrolyte-insoluble FR on commercial battery separators. By integrating dual materials via a two-pronged mechanism, the quantity of FR required could be limited to an ultrathin coating layer (4 µm) that rarely influences electrochemical performance. The developed composite separator has a four-times better flame retardancy than conventional polyolefin separators in full pouch cells. Additionally, this separator can be fabricated easily on a large scale for industrial applications. High-energy-density batteries (2 Ah) were assembled to demonstrate the scaling of the composite separator and to confirm its enhanced safety through nail penetration tests.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601363

RESUMO

Layered two-dimensional (2D) materials such as MoS2 have attracted much attention for nano- and opto-electronics. Recently, intercalation (e.g. of ions, atoms, or molecules) has emerged as an effective technique to reversibly modulate material properties of such layered 2D films. Here we probe both electrical and thermal properties of Li-intercalated bilayer MoS2 nanosheets by combined electrical measurements and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate reversible modulation of carrier density over more than two orders of magnitude (from 0.8×1012 cm 2 to 1.5×1014 cm-2), and we simultaneously obtain the thermal boundary conduct-ance (TBC) between the bilayer and its supporting SiO2 substrate for an intercalated system for the first time. This thermal coupling can be reversibly modulated by nearly a factor of eight, from 14 ± 4.0 MWm-2K-1 before intercalation to 1.8 ± 0.9 MWm 2K-1 when the MoS2 is fully lithiated. These results reveal electrochemical intercalation as a reversible tool to modulate and control both electrical and thermal properties of 2D layers.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595314

RESUMO

Metal anodes represent as a prime choice for the coming generation rechargeable batteries with high energy density. However, daunting challenges including electrode volume variation and inevitable side reactions preclude them from becoming a viable technology. Here, a facile replacement reaction was employed to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte composite electrode, which not only provides a stable host structure for buffering the volume change within the composite but also prevents side reactions by avoiding the direct contact between active metal and liquid electrolyte. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a 3D interdigitated zinc (Zn) metal/solid electrolyte architecture was fabricated via a galvanic replacement reaction between Zn metal foil and indium (In) chloride solution followed by electrochemical activation, featuring the interdigitation between metallic Zn and amorphous indium hydroxide sulfate (IHS) with high Zn2+ conductivity (56.9 ± 1.8 mS cm-1), large Zn2+ transference number (0.55), and high electronic resistivity [(2.08 ± 0.01) × 103 Ω cm]. The as-designed Zn/IHS electrode sustained stable electrochemical Zn plating/stripping over 700 cycles with a record-low overpotential of 8 mV at 1 mA cm-2 and 0.5 mAh cm-2. More impressively, it displayed cycle-stable performance with low overpotential of 10 mV under ultrahigh current density and areal capacity (20 mA cm-2, 20 mAh cm-2), which outperformed all the reported Zn metal electrodes in mild aqueous electrolyte. The fabrication of interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte was generalized to other metal pairs, including Zn/Sn and Zn/Co, which provide inspiration for next-generation Zn metal batteries with high energy density and reversibility.

9.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2006247, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630383

RESUMO

Despite considerable efforts to prevent lithium (Li) dendrite growth, stable cycling of Li metal anodes with various structures remains extremely difficult due to the direct contact of the liquid electrolyte with Li. Rational design of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) for 3D electrodes is a promising but still challenging strategy for preventing Li dendrite growth and avoiding lithium-electrolyte side reactions in Li-metal batteries. Here, a 3D architecture is constructed with g-C3 N4 /graphene/g-C3 N4 insulator-metal-insulator sandwiched nanosheets to guide uniform Li plating/stripping in the van der Waals gap between the graphene and the g-C3 N4 , and the function of which can be regarded as a 3D artificial SEI. Li deposition on the surface of g-C3 N4 is suppressed due to its insulating nature. However, its uniform lithiophilic sites and nanopore channels enable homogeneous lithium plating between the graphene and the g-C3 N4 , prohibiting the direct contact of the electrolyte with the Li metal. The use of the g-C3 N4 -layer-modified 3D anode enables long-term Li deposition with a high Coulombic efficiency and stable cycling of full cells under high cathode loading, limited Li excess, and lean electrolyte conditions. The concept of a 3D artificial SEI will shed light on developing safe and stable Li-metal anodes.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506677

RESUMO

Temperature coefficients (TCs) for either electrochemical cell voltages or potentials of individual electrodes have been widely utilized to study the thermal safety and cathode/anode phase changes of lithium (Li)-ion batteries. However, the fundamental significance of single electrode potential TCs is little known. In this work, we discover that the Li-ion desolvation process during Li deposition/intercalation is accompanied by considerable entropy change, which significantly contributes to the measured Li/Li+ electrode potential TCs. To explore this phenomenon, we compare the Li/Li+ electrode potential TCs in a series of electrolyte formulations, where the interaction between Li-ion and solvent molecules occurs at varying strength as a function of both solvent and anion species as well as salt concentrations. As a result, we establish correlations between electrode potential TCs and Li-ion solvation structures and further verify them by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that measurements of Li/Li+ electrode potential TCs provide valuable knowledge regarding the Li-ion solvation environments and could serve as a screening tool when designing future electrolytes for Li-ion/Li metal batteries.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470104

RESUMO

Aqueous Zn-based batteries are attractive because of the low cost and high theoretical capacity of the Zn metal anode. However, the Zn-based batteries developed so far utilize an excess amount of Zn (i.e., thick Zn metal anode), which decreases the energy density of the whole battery. Herein, we demonstrate an anode-free design (i.e., zero-excess Zn), which is enabled by employing a nanocarbon nucleation layer. Electrochemical studies show that this design allows for uniform Zn electrodeposition with high efficiency and stability over a range of current densities and plating capacities. Using this anode-free configuration, we showcase a Zn-MnO2 battery prototype, showing 68.2% capacity retention after 80 cycles. Our anode-free design opens a new direction for implementing aqueous Zn-based batteries in energy storage systems.

12.
Science ; 371(6528)2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509999

RESUMO

Methods for highly multiplexed RNA imaging are limited in spatial resolution and thus in their ability to localize transcripts to nanoscale and subcellular compartments. We adapt expansion microscopy, which physically expands biological specimens, for long-read untargeted and targeted in situ RNA sequencing. We applied untargeted expansion sequencing (ExSeq) to the mouse brain, which yielded the readout of thousands of genes, including splice variants. Targeted ExSeq yielded nanoscale-resolution maps of RNAs throughout dendrites and spines in the neurons of the mouse hippocampus, revealing patterns across multiple cell types, layer-specific cell types across the mouse visual cortex, and the organization and position-dependent states of tumor and immune cells in a human metastatic breast cancer biopsy. Thus, ExSeq enables highly multiplexed mapping of RNAs from nanoscale to system scale.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Espinhas Dendríticas , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Córtex Visual
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411389

RESUMO

Microstructural optimization (such as thickness and preferred orientation) is a major concern for performance enhancement of zeolite membranes. In this study, we demonstrated that the introduction of hierarchy easily enabled concurrent thickness reduction and orientation control of zeolite membranes. Specifically, hierarchical MFI zeolite membranes comprising higher degree of (h0h) preferentially oriented ultrathin (ca. 390 nm) selective top layers and porous intermediate layers on porous α-Al2 O3 substrates were fabricated. The use of hollow-structured MFI nanoseeds and the employment of single-mode microwave heating during membrane processing were found indispensable for the preparation of MFI zeolite membranes with superior butane isomer separation performance, thereby surpassing the current n-/i-butane selectivity versus n-butane permeance trade-off limits of MFI zeolite membranes prepared via solution-based synthetic protocols.

14.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 17, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152736

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current findings regarding plasma/serum homocysteine (HCY) levels in AS patients are inconsistent. This study aims to systematically evaluate the association between circulating HCY levels and AS. Methods: Online electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data) were used to retrieve all relevant articles published up to May 7, 2020. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the random-effect model, Stata16 software. Results: Nine articles containing 778 AS patients and 522 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No significant differences in HCY levels were found between AS and control groups (pooled SMD = 0.46, 95% CI = − 0.30 to 1.23, P = 0.23). However, subgroup analysis suggested that HCY levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the AS group treated with methotrexate (MTX) compared with the control group. In contrast, HCY levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the AS group receiving anti-TNF-α treatment compared with the control group. No significant differences were detected between HCY levels and disease activity scores (Bath AS disease activity index, BASDAI), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype. Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that HCY levels are similar between AS and controls, and do not correlate with disease activity. However, different medical treatments cause fluctuations of circulating HCY levels in AS patients. Further and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. Trial registration: This study was registered at international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number: CRD42020184426.

15.
Traffic ; 22(4): 123-136, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347683

RESUMO

Retromer core complex is an endosomal scaffold that plays a critical role in orchestrating protein trafficking within the endosomal system. Here we characterized the effect of the Parkinson's disease-linked Vps35 D620N in the endo-lysosomal system using Vps35 D620N rescue cell models. Vps35 D620N fully rescues the lysosomal and autophagy defects caused by retromer knock-out. Analogous to Vps35 knock out cells, the endosome-to-trans-Golgi network transport of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) is impaired in Vps35 D620N rescue cells because of a reduced capacity to form endosome transport carriers. Cells expressing the Vps35 D620N variant have altered endosomal morphology, resulting in smaller, rounder structures with less tubule-like branches. At the molecular level retromer incorporating Vps35 D620N variant has a decreased binding to retromer associated proteins wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) and SNX3 which are known to associate with retromer to form the endosome transport carriers. Hence, the partial defects on retrograde protein trafficking carriers in the presence of Vps35 D620N represents an altered cellular state able to cause Parkinson's disease.

16.
Biomaterials ; 268: 120561, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316630

RESUMO

Periosteum plays a pivotal role in vascularization, ossification and remodeling during the healing process of bone injury. However, there are few studies focused on the construction of artificial implants with periosteum-mimetic effect. To emulate the primary role of natural periosteum or endosteal tissues in bone regeneration, here we provide a functional biomimetic membrane with micropatterns of site-specific biomineralization. The micropattern is generated by using printed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs), combined with selective growth of biomineralized apatite and in situ coprecipitation with growth factors. The biomimetic membrane can sustainably provide a periosteum-mimetic microenvironment, such as long-term topographical guidance for cell recruitment and induced cell differentiation, by releasing calcium phosphate and growth factors. We demonstrated that rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) on such biomimetic membrane exhibited highly aligned organization, leading to enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In the rat calvarial defect model, our biomimetic membranes with biomineralized micropatterns could significantly enhance vascularized ossification and accelerate new bone formation. The current work suggests that the functionally biomimetic membranes with specific biomineralized micropatterns can be a promising alternative to periosteal autografts, with great potential for bench-to-bedside translation in orthopedics.

17.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283521

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of daily lives. Wearing personal protective equipment, especially respirators (face masks), has become common for both the public and medical professionals, proving to be effective in preventing spread of the virus. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of respirator filtration-layer internal structures and their physical configurations is lacking. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) internal analysis of N95 filtration layers via X-ray tomography. Using deep learning methods, we uncover how the distribution and diameters of fibers within these layers directly affect contaminant particle filtration. The average porosity of the filter layers is found to be 89.1%. Contaminants are more efficiently captured by denser fiber regions, with fibers <1.8 µm in diameter being particularly effective, presumably because of the stronger electric field gradient on smaller diameter fibers. This study provides critical information for further development of N95-type respirators that combine high efficiency with good breathability.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009226, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284793

RESUMO

Replication-coupled chromatin assembly is achieved by a network of alternate pathways containing different chromatin assembly factors and histone-modifying enzymes that coordinate deposition of nucleosomes at the replication fork. Here we describe the organization of a CAF-1-dependent pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that regulates acetylation of histone H4 K16. We demonstrate factors that function in this CAF-1-dependent pathway are important for preventing establishment of silenced states at inappropriate genomic sites using a crippled HMR locus as a model, while factors specific to other assembly pathways do not. This CAF-1-dependent pathway required the cullin Rtt101p, but was functionally distinct from an alternate pathway involving Rtt101p-dependent ubiquitination of histone H3 and the chromatin assembly factor Rtt106p. A major implication from this work is that cells have the inherent ability to create different chromatin modification patterns during DNA replication via differential processing and deposition of histones by distinct chromatin assembly pathways within the network.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260561

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with diverse characteristics and outcomes. Here, we aim to develop a histological classification for HCC by integrating computational imaging features of the tumor and its microenvironment. We first trained a multitask deep-learning neural network for automated single-cell segmentation and classification on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections. After confirming the accuracy in a testing set, we applied the model to whole-slide images of 304 tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas. Given the single-cell map, we calculated 246 quantitative image features to characterize individual nuclei as well as spatial relations between tumor cells and infiltrating lymphocytes. Unsupervised consensus clustering revealed three reproducible histological subtypes, which exhibit distinct nuclear features as well as spatial distribution and relation between tumor cells and lymphocytes. These histological subtypes were associated with somatic genomic alterations (i.e., aneuploidy) and specific molecular pathways, including cell cycle progression and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, these histological subtypes complement established molecular classification and demonstrate independent prognostic value beyond conventional clinicopathologic factors. Our study represents a step forward in quantifying the spatial distribution and complex interaction between tumor and immune microenvironment. The clinical relevance of the imaging subtypes for predicting prognosis and therapy response warrants further validation.

20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 9241-9253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262586

RESUMO

Purpose: Reducing toxicity, immunogenicity, and costs of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) carrier materials are key goals for RNA interference (RNAi) technology transition from bench to bed. Recently, calcium ions (Ca2+) have garnered attention as a novel, alternative material for delivering siRNA to cells. However, the tolerance for Ca2+ concentration varies in different cell types, which has limited its applications in vivo. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) can bind to Ca2+ through chelation. Moreover, BSA is a favorable coating material for nanoparticles owing to its excellent biocompatibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that coating Ca2+-siRNA with BSA helps buffer Ca2+ toxicity in vivo. Methods: BSA-Ca2+-siRNA nanoparticles were prepared, and the size, shape, encapsulation, and release efficiency were characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microcopy, and gel electrophoresis. Binding nanoparticles were evaluated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The cellular uptake, intracellular release, cytotoxicity, and gene knockdown of nanoparticles were evaluated in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) using laser-scanning confocal microscope, flow cytometry, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: BSA and Ca2+-siRNA could form a stable nano-scale complex (~140 nm in diameter). The nanocomplexes could maintain siRNA release for more than 1 week in neutral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and could induce accelerated degradation in acidic PBS (pH 5.0). The nanoparticles were taken up by the cells, primarily through macropinocytosis, and were then released intracellularly through the acidification of endosomes/lysosomes. Importantly, the BSA-Ca2+ carrier had high transfection efficiency and biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the therapeutic potential of our BSA coating-optimized Ca2+-siRNA technology, we showed that BSA-Ca2+-siWWP1 complexes strongly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of inflammatory PDLSCs. Conclusion: BSA-Ca2+ could potentially be used for siRNA delivery, which is not only highly efficient and cost-effective but also biocompatible to host tissues owing to the BSA coating.

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