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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465619

RESUMO

The second plague pandemic started in Europe with the Black Death in 1346 and lasted until the 19th century. Based on ancient DNA studies, there is a scientific disagreement over whether the bacterium, Yersinia pestis, came into Europe once (Hypothesis 1) or repeatedly over the following four centuries (Hypothesis 2). Here, we synthesize the most updated phylogeny together with historical, archeological, evolutionary, and ecological information. On the basis of this holistic view, we conclude that Hypothesis 2 is the most plausible. We also suggest that Y. pestis lineages might have developed attenuated virulence during transmission, which can explain the convergent evolutionary signals, including pla decay, that appeared at the end of the pandemics.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5654, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580297

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Here, we generate and characterize a novel mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain, MASCp36, that causes severe respiratory symptoms, and mortality. Our model exhibits age- and gender-related mortality akin to severe COVID-19. Deep sequencing identified three amino acid substitutions, N501Y, Q493H, and K417N, at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MASCp36, during in vivo passaging. All three RBD mutations significantly enhance binding affinity to its endogenous receptor, ACE2. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of human ACE2 (hACE2), or mouse ACE2 (mACE2), in complex with the RBD of MASCp36, at 3.1 to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals the molecular basis for the receptor-binding switch. N501Y and Q493H enhance the binding affinity to hACE2, whereas triple mutations at N501Y/Q493H/K417N decrease affinity and reduce infectivity of MASCp36. Our study provides a platform for studying SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, and unveils the molecular mechanism for its rapid adaptation and evolution.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ligação Proteica/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(76): 9728-9731, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474461

RESUMO

Fluorescently labeled calix[4]arene glycoconjugates demonstrate multifunctional potential in both Warburg effect mediated tumor imaging and GLUT1 targeted drug delivery. Nitrobenzoxadiazole and mannose conjugated NBD-Man-CA was found to be selectively recognized by GLUT1 and act as a "molecular carrier" for selective tumor targeting.

4.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 729350, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485387

RESUMO

LuxR, a bacterial quorum sensing-related transcription factor that responds to the signaling molecule 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL). In this study, we employed molecular dynamics simulation and the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GB/SA) method to rationally identify residues in Vibrio fischeri LuxR that are important for its interaction with 3OC6-HSL. Isoleucine-46 was selected for engineering as the key residue for interaction with 3OC6-HSL-LuxR-I46F would have the strongest binding energy to 3OC6-HSL and LuxR-I46R the weakest binding energy. Stable wild-type (WT) LuxR, I46F and I46R variants were produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the absence of 3OC6-HSL by fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP). Dissociation constants for 3OC6-HSL from MBP-fusions of WT-, I46F- and I46R-LuxR determined by surface plasmon resonance confirmed the binding affinity. We designed and constructed a novel whole-cell biosensor on the basis of LuxR-I46F in E. coli host cells with a reporting module that expressed green fluorescent protein. The biosensor had high sensitivity in response to the signaling molecule 3OC6-HSL produced by the target bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis. Our work demonstrates a practical, generalizable framework for the rational design and adjustment of LuxR-family proteins for use in bioengineering and bioelectronics applications.

5.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 180, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to regulate the gut microbiota and physiology in various contexts, but their precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. RESULTS: By population genomic analysis of 418 Bifidobacterium longum strains, including 143 newly sequenced in this study, three geographically distinct gene pools/populations, BLAsia1, BLAsia2, and BLothers, were identified. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, particularly peptidoglycan biosynthesis, varied considerably among the core genomes of the different populations, but accessory genes that contributed to the carbohydrate metabolism were significantly distinct. Although active transmission was observed inter-host, inter-country, inter-city, intra-community, and intra-family, a single B. longum clone seemed to reside within each individual. A significant negative association was observed between host age and relative abundance of B. longum, while there was a strong positive association between host age and strain genotype [e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms in the arginine biosynthesis pathway]. Further animal experiments performed with the B. longum isolates via using a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model supported these associations, in which B. longum strains with different genotypes in arginine biosynthesis pathway showed divergent abilities on protecting against host aging possibly via their different abilities to modify the metabolism of gut microbes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known example of research on the evolutionary history and transmission of this probiotic species. Our results propose a new mechanistic insight for promoting host longevity via the informed use of specific probiotics or molecules. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Sulfaleno , Envelhecimento , Animais , Galactose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Camundongos
6.
Pathogens ; 10(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066578

RESUMO

Three worldwide historical plague pandemics resulted in millions of deaths. Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is also a potential bioterrorist weapon. Simple, rapid, and specific detection of Y. pestis is important to prevent and control plague. However, the high similarity between Y. pestis and its sister species within the same genus makes detection work problematic. Here, the genome sequence from the Y. pestis CO92 strain was electronically separated into millions of fragments. These fragments were analyzed and compared with the genome sequences of 539 Y. pestis strains and 572 strains of 20 species within the Yersinia genus. Altogether, 97 Y. pestis-specific tags containing two or more single nucleotide polymorphism sites were screened out. These 97 tags efficiently distinguished Y. pestis from all other closely related species. We chose four of these tags to design a Cas12a-based detection system. PCR-fluorescence methodology was used to test the specificity of these tags, and the results showed that the fluorescence intensity produced by Y. pestis was significantly higher than that of non-Y. pestis (p < 0.0001). We then employed recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow dipsticks to visualize the results. Our newly developed plasmid-independent, species-specific library of tags completely and effectively screened chromosomal sequences. The detection limit of our four-tag Cas12a system reached picogram levels.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 628335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935990

RESUMO

Yunnan Province, China is thought to be the original source of biovar Orientalis of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the third plague pandemic that has spread globally since the end of the 19th century. Although encompassing a large area of natural plague foci, Y. pestis strains have rarely been found in live rodents during surveillance in Yunnan, and most isolates are from rodent corpses and their fleas. In 2017, 10 Y. pestis strains were isolated from seven live rodents and three fleas in Heqing County of Yunnan. These strains were supposed to have low virulence to local rodents Eothenomys miletus and Apodemus chevrieri because the rodents were healthy and no dead animals were found in surrounding areas, as had occurred in previous epizootic disease. We performed microscopic and biochemical examinations of the isolates, and compared their whole-genome sequences and transcriptome with those of 10 high virulence Y. pestis strains that were isolated from nine rodents and one parasitic flea in adjacent city (Lijiang). We analyzed the phenotypic, genomic, and transcriptomic characteristics of live rodent isolates. The isolates formed a previously undefined monophyletic branch of Y. pestis that was named 1.IN5. Six SNPs, two indels, and one copy number variation were detected between live rodent isolates and the high virulence neighbors. No obvious functional consequence of these variations was found according to the known annotation information. Among genes which expression differential in the live rodent isolates compared to their high virulent neighbors, we found five iron transfer related ones that were significant up-regulated (| log2 (FC) | > 1, p.adjust < 0.05), indicating these genes may be related to the low-virulence phenotype. The novel genotype of Y. pestis reported here provides further insights into the evolution and spread of plague as well as clues that may help to decipher the virulence mechanism of this notorious pathogen.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1167: 338593, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049629

RESUMO

Increased expression of glucose transporters, especially GLUT1 has been proven to be involved in the Warburg effect. Therefore, GLUT1-targeted oncological approaches are being successfully employed for clinical tumor diagnostic imaging (e.g. the 18F-FDG/PET), drug delivery and novel anticancer drug development. Despite the long history of the Warburg effect-targeted cancer diagnosis, other than antibody labeling, there have been no imaging tools developed for direct detection of the GLUT1 expression. Herein, we report the new strategy of using a non-antibody GLUT1 binding probe for Warburg effect-based tumor detection and diagnostic imaging. By specifically inhibits the transport function of GLUT1, the newly designed fluorescent probe, CUM-5, was found to be a useful tool not only for sensitive GLUT1-mediated cancer cell detection, but also for cell-based high-throughput GLUT inhibitor screening. In in vivo studies, CUM-5 shows clear advantages including desirable tumor-to-normal tissue contrast and excellent tumor selectivity (Tm/Bkg and Tm/Torg), as well as high fluorescence stability (long response time) and ideal physiological biocompatibility. In particular, the GLUT1 inhibitor probe offers the potential use for glycolysis-based diagnostic imaging in triple-negative breast cancer which is claimed to have unsatisfactory results with FDG/PET diagnosis, thus remaining a highly metastatic and lethal disease with a need for sensitive and precise identification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(4): 1120-1130, 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973429

RESUMO

As the demand for high-performance computing continues to grow, traditional computing models are facing unprecedented challenges. Among the many emerging computing technologies, DNA computing has attracted much attention due to its low energy consumption and parallelism. The DNA circuit, which is the basis for DNA computing, is an important technology for the regulation and processing of the molecular information. This review highlights the basic principles of DNA computing, summarizes the latest research progress, and concludes with a discussion of the challenges of DNA computing. Such integrated molecular computing systems are expected to be widely used in the fields of aerospace, information security and defense system.


Assuntos
DNA , DNA/genética
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(45): 5530-5533, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959731

RESUMO

We report a non-antibody GLUT1 inhibitor probe NBDQ that is 30 times more sensitive than the traditional GLUT1 transportable tracer for cancer cell imaging and Warburg effect-based tumor detection. NBDQ reveals significant advantages in terms of tumor selectivity, fluorescence stability and in vivo biocompatibility in xenograft tumor imaging, including triple-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/análogos & derivados , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem , 4-Cloro-7-nitrobenzofurazano/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Desoxiglucose/química , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Imagem Multimodal , Neoplasias Experimentais , Imagem Óptica , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(4): 4044-4055, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663860

RESUMO

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is one of the most commonly used starter cultures for yogurt production. However, how its genetic background affects acid production capacity is unclear. This study investigated the industrial potential of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus using population genomics and GWAS analysis. To meet our goal, population genetics and functional genomics analyses were performed on 188 newly sequenced L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains isolated from naturally fermented dairy products together with 19 genome sequences retrieved from the NCBI database. Four distinct clusters were identified, and they were correlated with the geographical sites where the samples were collected. The GWAS analysis about acidification fermentation results with sucrose-fortified reconstituted skim milk revealed a significant association between l-lactate dehydrogenase (lldD; Ldb2036) and the bacterial acid production rate. Our study has broadened the understanding of the population structure and genetic diversity of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus by identifying potential targets for further research, development, and use of lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus delbrueckii , Animais , Fermentação , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Lactobacillus delbrueckii/genética , Metagenômica , Iogurte
12.
Bioorg Chem ; 107: 104636, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465670

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the current standard of care in adjuvant therapy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). But acquired resistance to oxaliplatin eventually occurs and becoming a major cause of treatment failure. Thus, there is an unmet need for developing new chemical entities (NCE) as new therapeutic candidates to target chemotherapy-resistant CRC. Novel Pt(II) complexes were designed and synthesized as cationic monofunctional oxaliplatin derivatives for DNA platination-mediated tumor targeting. The complex Ph-glu-Oxa sharing the same chelating ligand of diaminocyclohexane (DACH) with oxaliplatin but is equally potent in inhibiting the proliferation of HT29 colon cancer cells and its oxaliplatin-resistant phenotype of HT29/Oxa. The in vivo therapeutic potential of Ph-glu-Oxa was confirmed in oxaliplatin-resistant xenograft model demonstrating the reversibility of the drug resistance by the new complex and the efficacy was associated with the unimpaired high intracellular drug accumulation in HT29/Oxa. Guanosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP) reactivity, double-strand plasmid DNA cleavage, DNA-intercalated ethidium bromide (EB) fluorescence quenching and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-mediated DNA denaturing studies revealed that Ph-glu-Oxa was intrinsically active as DNA-targeting agent. The diminished susceptibility of the complex to glutathione (GSH)-mediated detoxification, which confers high intracellular accumulation of the drug molecule may play a key role in maintaining cytotoxicity and counteracting oxaliplatin drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxaliplatina/química , Platina/química , Triazóis/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Complexos de Coordenação/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glutationa/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia
13.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(8): 582-589, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450161

RESUMO

As an important foodborne pathogen, Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is recognized as one of the most common causes of human salmonellosis globally. Outbreak detection for this highly homogenous serotype, however, has remained challenging. Rapid advances in sequencing technologies have presented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a significant advancement for source tracing and molecular typing of foodborne pathogens. A retrospective analysis was conducted using Salmonella Enteritidis isolates (n = 65) from 11 epidemiologically confirmed outbreaks and a collection of contemporaneous sporadic isolates (n = 258) during 2007-2017 to evaluate the performance of WGS in delineating outbreak-associated isolates. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based phylogenetic analysis revealed well-supported clades in concordance with epidemiological evidence and pairwise distances of ≤3 SNPs for all outbreaks. WGS-based framework of outbreak detection was thus proposed and applied prospectively to investigate isolates (n = 66) from nine outbreaks during 2018-2019. We further demonstrated the superior discriminatory power and accuracy of WGS to resolve and delineate outbreaks for pragmatic food source tracing. The proposed integrated WGS framework is the first in China for Salmonella Enteritidis and has the potential to serve as a paradigm for outbreak detection and source tracing of Salmonella throughout the stages of food production, as well as expanded to other foodborne pathogens.

15.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(45)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154013

RESUMO

To explore the genetic diversity of Yersinia pestis strains in Erenhot, China, and their relationship with Mongolian strains, we collected and sequenced three Y. pestis strains from Erenhot, China, in 2018. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three Y. pestis bv. Medievalis strains belonging to the 2.MED phylogroup that were circulating in Meriones unguiculatus populations.

16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2368-2378, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151135

RESUMO

Managing recovered COVID-19 patients with recurrent-positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test results is challenging. We performed a population-based observational study to characterize the viral RNA level and serum antibody responses in recurrent-positive patients and evaluate their viral transmission risk. Of 479 recovered COVID-19 patients, 93 (19%) recurrent-positive patients were identified, characterized by younger age, with a median discharge-to-recurrent-positive length of 8 days. After readmission, recurrent-positive patients exhibited mild (28%) or absent (72%) symptoms, with no disease progression. The viral RNA level in recurrent-positive patients ranged from 1.8 to 5.7 log10 copies/mL (median: 3.2), which was significantly lower than the corresponding values at disease onset. There are generally no significant differences in antibody levels between recurrent-positive and non-recurrent-positive patients, or in recurrent-positive patients over time (before, during, or after recurrent-positive detection). Virus isolation of nine representative specimens returned negative results. Whole genome sequencing of six specimens yielded only genomic fragments. 96 close contacts and 1,200 candidate contacts of 23 recurrent-positive patients showed no clinical symptoms; their viral RNA (1,296/1,296) and antibody (20/20) tests were negative. After full recovery (no longer/never recurrent-positive), 60% (98/162) patients had neutralizing antibody titers of ≥1:32. Our findings suggested that an intermittent, non-stable excretion of low-level viral RNA may result in recurrent-positive occurrence, rather than re-infection. Recurrent-positive patients pose a low transmission risk, a relatively relaxed management of recovered COVID-19 patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Recidiva , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
17.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(43)2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093054

RESUMO

In this announcement, we report the draft genome sequences of six Yersinia pestis strains (biovar Medievalis) that were isolated from the Zamyn-Ude region in Mongolia. These genomes reveal the genetic characteristics of the Y. pestis population circulating in a local plague focus.

18.
Science ; 369(6511): 1603-1607, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732280

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In particular, the N501Y mutation is located at the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. The protective efficacy of a recombinant RBD vaccine candidate was validated by using this model. Thus, this mouse-adapted strain and associated challenge model should be of value in evaluating vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pulmão/virologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Virulência/genética
19.
Small ; 16(32): e2002801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567225

RESUMO

There is a great demand for the development of detection assays for inflammation infection diagnosis with high throughput and ultrasensitivity. Herein, a vertical flow assay system with functionalized nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as sensing membrane, and encoded core-shell surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags as labels for multiple inflammatory biomarkers detection is presented. A 2 × 2 test array on the porous AAO is developed and modified with multiple capture antibodies to capture inflammatory biomarkers from samples. Due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the AAO membrane, and its influence on plasmonic coupling, the electromagnetic field of the encoded core-shell SERS nanotags is enhanced. Detection limits of 53.4, 4.72, 48.3, and 7.53 fg mL-1 are realized for C reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A, and procalcitonin, respectively, with a linear dynamic range spanning at least five orders of magnitude. In addition, the proposed method also shows acceptable accuracy and repeatability for the detection of clinical samples. Therefore, this approach is expected to be a powerful point of care testing tool for disease diagnosis in facility limited areas.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anticorpos , Biomarcadores , Análise Espectral Raman
20.
Science ; 368(6491): 638-642, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234804

RESUMO

Responding to an outbreak of a novel coronavirus [agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] in December 2019, China banned travel to and from Wuhan city on 23 January 2020 and implemented a national emergency response. We investigated the spread and control of COVID-19 using a data set that included case reports, human movement, and public health interventions. The Wuhan shutdown was associated with the delayed arrival of COVID-19 in other cities by 2.91 days. Cities that implemented control measures preemptively reported fewer cases on average (13.0) in the first week of their outbreaks compared with cities that started control later (20.6). Suspending intracity public transport, closing entertainment venues, and banning public gatherings were associated with reductions in case incidence. The national emergency response appears to have delayed the growth and limited the size of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, averting hundreds of thousands of cases by 19 February (day 50).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Viagem , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2
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