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1.
Langmuir ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114765

RESUMO

Rough nanostructured surfaces can enhance evaporation heat transfer. Most studies artificially optimized the geometry and size during the design of nanostructured surfaces. Instead of the empirical design of nanostructured surfaces, this paper proposes a mathematical optimization method of the grooved nanostructured surface design. This method is inspired by the molecular dynamics simulations of grooved nanostructured surfaces. The results show that the heat transfer performance exhibits a positive correlation with the defined sectional area of the grooved nanostructured surface; thus, this method is developed to convert the maximum heat transfer and evaporation rate to a mathematical conditional extremum solution. The mathematical description of the optimization method is to solve the surface structure with the maximum sectional area when the heat transfer area is constant. Comparing the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results of the optimal surface and the existing ones under the same simulation conditions indicates that the optimal surface has the best heat transfer performance compared with the other ones. Additionally, discussions on the types of grooved nanostructured surfaces, the materials of solid and liquid, and the wettability of grooved surfaces verify the generality of the calculation results and the optimization method. The explanation of the method is that different nanostructured surfaces have a similar potential energy per liquid atom, which affects the latent heat of the evaporation process. However, the maximum sectional area corresponds to the minimum interfacial thermal resistance and the maximum interaction energy per unit area, which will enhance the heat transfer at the solid-liquid interface. Moreover, a nanostructured surface with the maximum sectional area also obtains the maximum area of the liquid-vapor interface and thus enhances the evaporation heat transfer process.

2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 100: 309-316, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173451

RESUMO

As a central pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) plays critical roles in the inflammatory response, pathogen infection, and immunological challenges in mammals. Although fish IL-1ß has been confirmed to participate in inflammatory response to pathogen infection, few studies have been performed to characterize the antibacterial and bactericidal functions of fish IL-1ß. In this study, snakehead (Channa argus) IL-1ß (shIL-1ß) and its receptors, shIL-1R1 and shIL-1R2, were cloned and functionally characterized. ShIL-1ß contained the IL-1 family signature domain, and a potential cutting site at Asp96 that presented in all vertebrate IL-1ß sequences. ShIL-1R1 had three extracellular IG-like domains and one intracellular signal TIR domain, while shIL-1R2 had three extracellular IG-like domain but lacked the intracellular signal TIR domain. ShIL-1ß, shIL-1R1, and shIL-1R2 were constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, and their expressions could be induced by Aeromonas schubertii and Nocardia seriolae in the head kidney and spleen in vivo, and by LTA, LPS, and Poly (I:C) in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs) in vitro. Moreover, recombinant shIL-1ß upregulated the expression of endogenous shIL-1ß, shIL-R1, and shIL-R2 in snakehead HKLs, and enhanced intracellular bactericidal activity. Taken together, this study found that, like IL-1ß and its receptors in mammals, shIL-1ß and its receptors play crucial roles in antibacterial innate immunity. This provides new insight into the evolution of IL-1ß function in vertebrates.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090556

RESUMO

Poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt(4,4'-(N-(4-butylphenyl)))] (TFB) has been widely used as a hole transport layer (HTL) material in cadmium-based quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) because of its high hole mobility. However, as the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of TFB is -5.4 eV, the hole injection from TFB to the quantum dot (QD) layer is higher than 1.5 eV. Such a high oxidation potential at the QD/HTL interface may seriously degrade the device lifetime. In addition, TFB is not resistant to most solvents, which limits its application in inkjet-printed QLED display. In this study, the blended HTL consisting of TFB and cross-linkable small molecular 4,4'-bis(3-vinyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)1,1'-biphenyl (CBP-V) was introduced into red QLEDs because of the deep HOMO energy level of CBP-V (-6.2 eV). Compared with the TFB-only devices, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of devices with the blended HTL improved from 15.9 to 22.3% without the increase of turn-on voltage for spin-coating-fabricated devices. Furthermore, the blended HTL prolonged the T90 and T70 lifetime from 5.4 and 31.1 to 39.4 and 148.9 h, respectively. These enhancements in lifetime are attributed to the low hole-injection barrier at the HTL/QD interface and high thermal stability of the blended HTL after cross-linking. Moreover, the cross-linked blended HTL showed excellent solvent resistance after cross-linking, and the EQE of the inkjet-printed red QLEDs reached 16.9%.

4.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951483

RESUMO

During the course of searching for structurally interesting and bioactive compounds, a further chemical investigation of the leaves of Heynea trijuga Roxburgh was performed, which led to the isolation of a new ergostane derivative, named 3ß, 4ß, 20S-trihydroxyergosta-5, 24(28)-dien-16-one (1), together with five known sterides (3ß, 23S)-ergosta-5, 24(28)-diene-3, 23-diol (2), ergosta-5, 24(28)-diene-3ß-diol (3), stigmast-5-ene-3ß, 7α-diol (4), sitoindoside I (5) and stigmast-3ß, 5α, 6ß-triol (6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated using a combination of 1 D, 2 D NMR techniques and HR-EI-MS analyses. All the compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against tumor cell line BEL-7402 by MTT method.

5.
Metallomics ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959998

RESUMO

Melatonin, a safe endogenous hormone and a natural supplement, has recently been recognized to have antiproliferative effects and the ability to sensitize cells to other anticancer therapies. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO) has anticancer potential but it is considered as a toxic agent. In this study we combined melatonin to reduce the toxicity while securing the anti-cancer effects of PAO. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, whereas cytotoxic assays were performed using an LDH cytotoxicity assay kit. Cell cycle analysis, Annexin V/PI staining, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed using flow cytometry. Sytox stained cells were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the expression of proteins was detected by western blotting. Melatonin increased the anticancer potential of PAO by decreasing the cell viability and increasing LDH release in various cancer cells. The mode of cell death was determined to be typical apoptosis, as evidenced by Annexin V/PI-stained cells, PARP cleavage, and caspase-3 activation, and with significant modulations in the expression of proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and cell cycle-related proteins. ROS generation played a critical role in induction of cell death by this combined treatment, which is validated by reversal of cytotoxicity upon cotreatment with NAC. Furthermore, the activation of MAPKs, especially JNK, contributed to the induction of cell death, accompanied by endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy, affirmed by the abrogation of cytotoxicity after JNK-IN-8 and TUDCA application. Melatonin showed promising potential as a chemotherapeutic agent in combination with PAO to achieve a better anticancer response.

6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 221: 110009, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945652

RESUMO

A 14-day experiment was conducted to explore the pathological process and immune response of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis (SBMIE) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The complete replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) with SBM resulted in a remarkable reduction in final body weight, weight gain ratio, and feed conversion efficiency (p < 0.05). The typical histopathological changes of SBMIE appeared starting at day 4, and progressively increased in severity until day 8, then gradually subsided after day 11. The course of SBMIE could be divided into incubation period (days 1-2), prodromal period (days 3-6), symptomatic period (days 7-10), and convalescent period (days 11-14). Transcription levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A/F1 and IFN-γ2, were up-regulated during the prodromal period, and then down-regulated during the convalescent period. Transcript levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGFß1) and their receptors (IL-10R1 and TßRII), were up-regulated during the prodromal and convalescent periods. Transcript levels of MHCIIß, Igµ, Igτ, TCRδ, TCRß, CD4, and CD8α were altered in SBMIE. Furthermore, expression levels of T-bet, IFN-γ2, RORγ2 and IL-17A/F1 were significantly increased in the initiation of enteritis, whereas the transcript levels of Foxp3 and IL-2/15Ra were significantly up-regulated in the repair of enteritis. In conclusion, grass carp SBMIE is regulated by the adjustment of SBM-based diet intake, and the changes of the above-mentioned genes expression suggest that these genes may be involved in SBMIE.

7.
Int J Pharm ; 577: 118996, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904402

RESUMO

The present work aimed to study the feasibility of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) as an instinctive liver-targeting drug delivery carrier with applications in acute alcoholic liver damage (ALD). Amphipathic cholesteryl hemisuccinate-ASP (ASP-CHEMS) conjugate was synthesized by an esterification reaction and characterized by conventional methods. ASP-CHEMS self-assembled nanoparticles (ACNPs) and Curcumin-loaded ACNPs (Cur/ACNPs) were fabricated with a roughly spherical shape, and their sizes were ranged from 200 to 260 nm in aqueous solution. Compared with free Cur, Cur/ACNPs displayed enhanced solubility, good photostability, and a sustained release of Cur over 72 h. In the in vivo cellular uptake behavior study and in vivo bioimaging experiments, the ACNPs showed excellent liver-targeting capability because of the specific recognition by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) overexpressed on the hepatocyte membrane. The tissue distribution of Cur/ACNPs in mice further demonstrated that ACNPs could distinctly enhance the distribution of Cur into the liver. Furthermore, Cur/ACNPs protected the liver from acute ALD by attenuating oxidative stress and were superior to the protective effects of free Cur and the Cur-loaded CHEMS modified-dextran derivative. According to the results, ACNPs may serve as a promising liver-targeting drug delivery carrier for liver disease prevention.

8.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 106: 103613, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935401

RESUMO

Teleost fish are the most primitive bony vertebrates that contain B cells; thus, comparative analysis of teleost naïve/mature B cells and plasma cells can provide helpful evidence for understanding the evolution paradigms of these two B-cell subpopulations in vertebrates. In this study, we developed monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM and identified two different IgM+ cell subsets: IgM+ lymphocytes (Lym), resembling naïve/mature B cells, and IgM+ myeloid cells (Mye), resembling plasma cells. Like plasma cells in mammals, the size of IgM+ Mye is significantly larger than that of IgM+ Lym, as revealed by flow cytometric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The IgM+ Mye were further verified as plasma cells because they showed gene expression patterns similar with those of human plasma cells and a great capacity to secrete IgM. Like mammalian IgM+ and IgA+ plasma cells, not IgG+ plasma cells, grass carp IgM+ Mye also expressed membrane immunoglobulins, a feature conserved in IgM+ plasma cells in vertebrates. Furthermore, recombinant CD40L or IL-21 alone could induce the plasma cell generation and IgM secretion, while the combination of CD40L and IL-21 had greater effect on IgM secretion, but not on plasma cell generation. This study fills an important gap in the knowledge of plasma cells in teleost fish and provides critical insights into the conserved evolution of IgM+ plasma cells in vertebrates.

9.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 456-462, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769993

RESUMO

Nanowires can serve as flexible substrates for hybrid epitaxial growth on selected facets, allowing for the design of heterostructures with complex material combinations and geometries. In this work we report on hybrid epitaxy of freestanding vapor-liquid-solid grown and in-plane selective area grown semiconductor-ferromagnetic insulator-superconductor (InAs/EuS/Al) nanowire heterostructures. We study the crystal growth and complex epitaxial matching of wurtzite and zinc-blende InAs/rock-salt EuS interfaces as well as rock-salt EuS/face-centered cubic Al interfaces. Because of the magnetic anisotropy originating from the nanowire shape, the magnetic structure of the EuS phase is easily tuned into single magnetic domains. This effect efficiently ejects the stray field lines along the nanowires. With tunnel spectroscopy measurements of the density of states, we show that the material has a hard induced superconducting gap, and magnetic hysteretic evolution which indicates that the magnetic exchange fields are not negligible. These hybrid nanowires fulfill key material requirements for serving as a platform for spin-based quantum applications, such as scalable topological quantum computing.

10.
Stress ; 23(1): 87-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311393

RESUMO

Psychological stress may be linked to cancer incidence; however, more direct evidence is required to support this viewpoint. In this study, we investigated the effects of stress on immunosurveillance against cancer cells using a previously established examination stress model. We showed that the cancer killing activity (CKA) of granulocytes (also known as polymorphic nuclear cells, PMNs) is sharply reduced during examination stress stimulation in some donors who are psychologically sensitive to examination stress, with the concentration of plasma stress hormones (cortisone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) increasing accordingly. The effects of stress hormones on immune cell CKA were also investigated under two in vitro co-incubation conditions, with all three hormones found to exert inhibitory effects on the CKA of PMNs and mononuclear cells. We showed that stress triggered the release of stress hormones which had profound inhibitory effects on the innate anticancer functions of PMNs. These results provide a possible explanation for the relationship between psychological stress and cancer incidence.

11.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 187: 105232, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A fusion of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) represents a powerful tool for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) analysis. In this paper, a novel and high-performance MSCT/SPECT non-rigid registration algorithm is proposed to accurately map the lung lobe information onto the functional imaging. Such a fusion can then be used to guide lung volume reduction surgery. METHODS: The multi-modality fusion method proposed here is developed by a multi-channel technique which performs registration from MSCT scan to ventilation and perfusion SPECT scans simultaneously. Furthermore, a novel function with less parameters is also proposed to avoid the adjustment of the weighting parameter and to achieve a better performance in comparison with the exisitng methods in the literature. RESULTS: A lung imaging dataset from a hospital and a synthetic dataset created by software are employed to validate single- and multi-modality registration results. Our method is demonstrated to achieve the improvements in terms of registration accuracy and stability by up to 23% and 54% respectively. Our multi-channel technique proposed here is also proved to obtain improved registration accuracy in comparison with single-channel method. CONCLUSIONS: The fusion of lung lobes onto SPECT imaging is achievable by accurate MSCT/SPECT alignment. It can also be used to perform lobar lung activity analysis for COPD diagnosis and treatment.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19817, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875012

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), oxalic acid (OA), and citric acid (CA) on phytoextraction of U- and Cd-contaminated soil by Z. pendula. In this study, the biomass of tested plant inhibited significantly following treatment with the high concentration (7.5 mmol·kg-1) EDDS treatment. Maximum U and Cd concentration in the single plant was observed with the 5 mmol·kg-1 CA and 7.5 mmol·kg-1 EDDS treatment, respectively, whereas OA treatments had the lowest U and Cd uptake. The translocation factors of U and Cd reached the maximum in the 5 mmol·kg-1 EDDS. The maximum bioaccumulation of U and Cd in the single plants was 1032.14 µg and 816.87 µg following treatment with 5 mmol·kg-1 CA treatment, which was 6.60- and 1.72-fold of the control groups, respectively. Furthermore, the resultant rank order for available U and Cd content in the soil was CA > EDDS > OA (U) and EDDS > CA > OA (Cd). These results suggested that CA could greater improve the capacity of phytoextraction using Z. pendula in U- and Cd- contaminated soils.

13.
Chem Sci ; 10(32): 7641-7648, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583069

RESUMO

A divergent modular strategy for the enantioselective total synthesis of 12 naturally-occurring griseusin type pyranonaphthoquinones and 8 structurally-similar analogues is described. Key synthetic highlights include Cu-catalyzed enantioselective boration-hydroxylation and hydroxyl-directed C-H olefination to afford the central pharmacophore followed by epoxidation-cyclization and maturation via diastereoselective reduction and regioselective acetylation. Structural revision of griseusin D and absolute structural assignment of 2a,8a-epoxy-epi-4'-deacetyl griseusin B are also reported. Subsequent mechanistic studies establish, for the first time, griseusins as potent inhibitors of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) and glutaredoxin 3 (Grx3). Biological evaluation, including comparative cancer cell line cytotoxicity and axolotl embryo tail inhibition studies, highlights the potential of griseusins as potent molecular probes and/or early stage leads in cancer and regenerative biology.

14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3426-3434, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621229

RESUMO

To optimize the effects of nitrate (NO3--N) to ammonium (NH4+-N) ratios on water consumption characteristics, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize under full film mulching on double ridges, a field experiment was conducted at semi-arid Loess Plateau of Gansu Province, China during 2015 to 2017 cropping seasons. The treatments with different ratios of NO3--N to NH4+-N included: N1 (1:0), N2 (1:1), N3 (1:3) and N4 (3:1). The results showed that different NO3--N/NH4+-N ratios had significant impacts on soil water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer. Treatment N3 had the lowest soil water storage. Treatment N4 significantly increased total water consumption by 2.9%, 1.9% and 0.9% in 2015, and 2.3%, 1.4%, and 2.2% in 2017, compared with N1, N2 and N3 treatments, respectively. Compared with the other treatments, treatment N4 increased grain yield by 3.3%-9.9%, 3.5%-24.2% and 8.3%-36.1% and improved WUE by 1.6%-6.8%, 4.9%-21.8%, and 6.6%-32.9% in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. Treatment N4 had the highest partial productivity of nitrogen fertilizer, followed by N2, N3 and N1, respectively. We recommended treatment N4 as the best nitrate and ammonium ratio to improve water use efficiency, N partial productivity, and grain yield of maize in arid and semi-arid Loess Plateau.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Zea mays , Agricultura , China , Ingestão de Líquidos , Solo , Água
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(44): 41531-41543, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597420

RESUMO

Silver ink is the most widely used conductive material for printing electrodes in the fabrication of all-printed ion gel gated transistors because of their high conductivity and low cost. However, electrochemical instability of printed silver electrodes is generally one of the biggest issues, whether it is in air where silver gets oxidized or in a moisture environment where electrochemical migration occurs. Notwithstanding, the electrochemical stability of printed silver electrodes in ion gel medium has not been studied so far. In this work, we studied the electrochemical instabilities of printed silver electrodes in fully printed ion gel gated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and developed some strategies to overcome these issues. All-printed ion gel-based p-type SWCNT TFTs were employed to investigate the impact of electrochemical instabilities on the electrical behavior of printed SWCNT TFTs. The results have demonstrated that printed silver was unstable at anodic and cathodic polarization because of the corrosion by the ionic liquid. Besides, anodic corrosion of silver source/drain electrodes was shown to be responsible for the electrical failure of printed SWCNT TFTs in both the linear and saturated regime. These issues were completely resolved when preventing printed silver electrodes from coming into direct contact with ion gels. For example, ion gels were partially printed in device channels to avoid contacting the printed silver source and drain electrodes. At the same time, silver side-gate electrodes were replaced by inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS electrodes to avoid gate electrode-related instabilities. Consequently, all-printed electrochemically stable SWCNT TFTs fabricated were obtained with enhanced performance of higher ION/IOFF ratios (105 to 106), smaller subthreshold slopes (∼70 mV/dec), and smaller hysteresis (ΔV = 0.025 V) at gate voltages from 1.2 to -0.5 V. Additionally, the polarity of all-printed SWCNT TFTs was converted from the p-channel to ambipolar while achieving lower leakage currents.

16.
Biomater Sci ; 7(12): 5238-5246, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602440

RESUMO

Due to unsatisfactory tumor-targeting efficiency, hitch-hiking nanomedicines with tumor "smelling" immune cells have rapidly evolved to achieve a more precision delivery. However, the current research tends to default to the smelling capacity of neutrophils and largely overlooks the capacity of those immune cells that are heavily dependent on the pathogen exposure history of individuals. By avoiding risky strategies, such as altering the housing environment of mice for the improved activity of immune cells, we propose a new concept of nano-immunotraining strategy to quickly activate neutrophil tumor tropism and thereby give an enhanced tumor-targeting capacity. Such a strategy involves a facile construction of a vaccine-like nano-CpG adjuvant, followed by pre-immunizing on mice periodically to mimic the pathogen exposure. The results demonstrated that a significantly enhanced tumor-targeting accumulation of neutrophils harvested from nano-immunotrained mice could be achieved, either by intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. This easily accessed, reproducible, and biosafe nano-immunotraining strategy holds a great promise for more precision delivery of nanomedicines.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546769

RESUMO

A printable elastic silver ink has been developed, which was made of silver flakes, dispersant, and a fluorine rubber and could be sintered at a low temperature. The printed elastic conductors showed low resistivity at 21 µΩ·cm, which is about 13.2 times of bulk silver (1.59 µΩ·cm). Their mechanical properties were investigated by bending, stretching, and cyclic endurance tests. It was found that upon stretching the resistance of printed conductors increased due to deformation and small cracks appeared in the conductor, but was almost reversible when the strain was removed, and the recovery of conductivity was found to be time dependent. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags were fabricated by screen printing the stretchable silver ink on a stretchable fabric (lycra). High performance of tag was maintained even with 1000 cycles of stretching. As a practical example of wearable electronics, an RFID tag was printed directly onto a T-shirt, which demonstrated its normal working order in a wearing state.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480267

RESUMO

Phalaenopsis cultivar 'Panda' is a beautiful and valuable ornamental for its big flower and unique big spots on the petals and sepals. Although anthocyanins are known as the main pigments responsible for flower colors in Phalaenopsis, and the anthocyanins biosynthetic pathway in Phalaenopsis is generally well known, the detailed knowledge of anthocynins regulation within the spot and non-spot parts in 'Panda' flower is limited. In this study, transcriptome and small RNA libraries analysis from spot and non-spot sepal tissues of 'Panda' were performed, and we found PeMYB7, PeMYB11, and miR156g, miR858 is associated with the purple spot patterning in its sepals. Transcriptome analyses showed a total 674 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with 424 downregulated and 250 upregulated (Non-spot-VS-Spot), and 10 candidate DEGs involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. The qPCR analysis confirmed that seven candidate structure genes (PeANS, PeF3'H, PeC4H, PeF3H, PeF3H1, Pe4CL2, and PeCHI) have significantly higher expressing levels in spot tissues than non-spot tissues. A total 1552 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were detected with 676 downregulated and 876 upregulated. However, microRNA data showed no DEMs targeting on anthocyanin biosynthesis structure gene, while a total 40 DEMs target transcription factor (TF) genes, which expressed significantly different level in spot via non-spot sepal, including 2 key MYB regulator genes. These results indicated that the lack of anthocyanidins in non-spot sepal may not directly be caused by microRNA suppressing anthocyanidin synthesis genes rather than the MYB genes. Our findings will help in understanding the role of miRNA molecular mechanisms in the spot formation pattern of Phalaenopsis, and would be useful to provide a reference to similar research in other species.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Orchidaceae/genética , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma de Planta , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Orchidaceae/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Oncol Lett ; 18(1): 487-498, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289520

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality among men and women. Chemo-resistance, adverse effects and disease recurrence are major challenges in the development of effective cancer therapeutics. Substantial literature on this subject highlights that populations consuming diets rich in fibers, fruits and vegetables have a significantly reduced incidence rate of CRC. This chemo-preventive effect is primarily associated with the presence of phytochemicals in the dietary components. Plant-derived chemical agents act as a prominent source of novel compounds for drug discovery. Phytochemicals have been the focus of an increasing number of studies due to their ability to modulate carcinogenic processes through the alteration of multiple cancer cell survival pathways. Despite promising results from experimental studies, only a limited number of phytochemicals have entered into clinical trials. The purpose of the current review is to compile previously published pre-clinical and clinical evidence of phytochemicals in cases of CRC. A PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct search was performed for relevant articles published between 2008-2018 using the following key terms: 'Phytochemicals with colorectal cancers', 'apoptosis', 'cell cycle', 'reactive oxygen species' and 'clinical anticancer activities'. The present review may aid in identifying the most investigated phytochemicals in CRC cells, and due to the limited number of studies that make it from the laboratory bench to clinical trial stage, may provide a novel foundation for future research.

20.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4396-4406, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282906

RESUMO

Petasites japonicus is an edible and medicinal plant with a good flavor, and it is a rich source of bioactive compounds. S-Petasin has been isolated from Petasites hybridus (L.), Petasites officinalis (L.) and Petasites formosanus, but not from Petasites japonicus. In this study, we found that hexane extracts of Petasites japonicus inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. After this we isolated s-petasin from Petasites japonicus. Subsequently, the 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were used to test whether s-petasin exerts an anti-adipogenic effect. The results showed that s-petasin presented strong anti-adipogenic activity. Further studies illustrated that s-petasin reduced glucose uptake. Moreover, results showed that triglyceride accumulation was inhibited by s-petasin in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Western blot assay indicated that s-petasin down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ and its target genes in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, we isolated s-petasin from Petasites japonicus and found that it exerted anti-adipogenic activity against 3T3-L1 cell differentiation through inhibition of the expression of PPAR-γ pathway signaling.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Petasites/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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