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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27125, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477155

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the genetic and demographic differences and interactions between areas where observed genomic variations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) were distributed uniformly in cold and hot spots.The cold and hot spot areas were identified using the reported incidence of TB over the previous 5 years. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 291 M. tb isolates between January and June 2018. Analysis of molecular variance and a multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model was applied to test gene-gene-environment interactions. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to test the extent to which genetic mutation affects the TB epidemic using a multivariate logistic regression model.The percentage of the Beijing family strain in hot spots was significantly higher than that in cold spots (64.63% vs 50.69%, P = .022), among the elderly, people with a low BMI, and those having a history of contact with a TB patient (all P < .05). Individuals from cold spot areas had a higher frequency of out-of-town traveling (P < .05). The mutation of Rv1186c, Rv3900c, Rv1508c, Rv0210, and an Intergenic Region (SNP site: 3847237) showed a significant difference between cold and hot spots. (P < .001). The MDR model displayed a clear negative interaction effect of age groups with BMI (interaction entropy: -3.55%) and mutation of Rv0210 (interaction entropy: -2.39%). Through the mutations of Rv0210 and BMI had a low independent effect (interaction entropy: -1.46%).Our data suggests a statistically significant role of age, BMI and the polymorphisms of Rv0210 genes in the transmission and development of M. tb. The results provide clues for the study of susceptibility genes of M. tb in different populations. The characteristic strains showed a local epidemic. Strengthening genotype monitoring of strains in various regions can be used as an early warning signal of epidemic spillover.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 840, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). China is the third in top 8 high TB burden countries and Guangxi is one of the high incidence areas in South China. Determine bacterial factors that affected TB incidence rate is a step toward Ending the TB epidemic. RESULTS: Genomes of M. tuberculosis cultures from a relatively high and low incidence region in Guangxi have been sequenced. 347 of 358(96.9%) were identified as M. tuberculosis. All the strains belong to Lineage 2 and Lineage 4, except for one in Lineage 1. We found that the genetic structure of the M. tuberculosis population in each county varies enormously. Low incidence rate regions have a lower prevalence of Beijing genotypes than other regions. Four isolates which harbored mutT4-48 also had mutT2-58 mutations. It is suggested that strains from the ancestors of modern Beijing lineage is circulating in Guangxi. Strains of modern Beijing lineage (OR=2.04) were more likely to acquire drug resistances than Lineage 4. Most of the lineage differentiation SNPs are related to cell wall biosynthetic pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided a higher resolution to better understand the history of transmission of M. tuberculosis from/to South China. And the incidence rate of tuberculosis might be affected by bacterial population structure shaped by demographic history. Our findings also support the hypothesis that Modern Beijing lineage originated in South China.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 462, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At present, there are few studies on polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gene and how it affects the TB epidemic. This study aimed to document the differences of polymorphisms between tuberculosis hot and cold spot areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. METHODS: The cold and hot spot areas, each with 3 counties, had been pre-identified by TB incidence for 5 years from the surveillance database. Whole genome sequencing analysis was performed on all sputum Mtb isolates from the detected cases during January and June 2018. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of each isolate compared to the H37Rv strain were called and used for lineage and sub-lineage identification. Pairwise SNP differences between every pair of isolates were computed. Analyses of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) across counties of the same hot or cold spot area and between the two areas were performed. RESULTS: As a whole, 59.8% (57.7% sub-lineage 2.2 and 2.1% sub-lineage 2.1) and 39.8% (17.8% sub-lineage 4.4, 6.5% sub-lineage 4.2 and 15.5% sub-lineage 4.5) of the Mtb strains were Lineage 2 and Lineage 4 respectively. The percentages of sub-lineage 2.2 (Beijing family strains) are significantly higher in hot spots. Through the MDS dimension reduction, the genomic population structure in the three hot spot counties is significantly different from those three cold spot counties (T-test p = 0.05). The median of SNPs distances among Mtb isolates in cold spots was greater than that in hot spots (897 vs 746, Rank-sum test p < 0.001). Three genomic clusters, each with genomic distance ≤12 SNPs, were identified with 2, 3 and 4 consanguineous strains. Two clusters were from hot spots and one was from cold spots. CONCLUSION: Narrower genotype diversity in the hot area may indicate higher transmissibility of the Mtb strains in the area compared to those in the cold spot area.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Epidemias , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0212051, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guangxi is one of the provinces having the highest notification rate of tuberculosis in China. However, spatial and temporal patterns and the association between environmental diversity and tuberculosis notification are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To detect the spatiotemporal pattern of tuberculosis notification rates from 2010 to 2016 and its potential association with ecological environmental factors in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. METHODS: We performed a spatiotemporal analysis with prediction using time series analysis, Moran's I global and local spatial autocorrelation statistics, and space-time scan statistics to detect temporal and spatial clusters of tuberculosis notifications in Guangxi between 2010 and 2016. Spatial panel models were employed to identify potential associating factors. RESULTS: The number of reported cases peaked in spring and summer and decreased in autumn and winter. The predicted number of reported cases was 49,946 in 2017. Moran's I global statistics were greater than 0 (0.363-0.536) during the study period. The most significant hot spots were mainly located in the central area. The eastern area exhibited a low-low relation. By the space-time scanning, the clusters identified were similar to those of the local autocorrelation statistics, and were clustered toward the early part of 2016. Duration of sunshine, per capita gross domestic product, the treatment success rate of tuberculosis and participation rate of the new cooperative medical care insurance scheme in rural areas had a significant negative association with tuberculosis notification rates. CONCLUSION: The notification rate of tuberculosis in Guangxi remains high, with the highest notification cluster located in the central region. The notification rate is associated with economic level, treatment success rate and participation in the new cooperative medical care insurance scheme.


Assuntos
Ecologia/métodos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137811

RESUMO

The aims of the study were: (1) compare sociodemographic characteristics among active tuberculosis (TB) cases and their household contacts in cold and hot spot transmission areas, and (2) quantify the influence of locality, genotype and potential determinants on the rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among household contacts of index TB cases. Parallel case-contact studies were conducted in two geographic areas classified as "cold" and "hot" spots based on TB notification and spatial clustering between January and June 2018 in Guangxi, China, using data from field contact investigations, whole genome sequencing, tuberculin skin tests (TSTs), and chest radiographs. Beijing family strains accounted for 64.6% of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains transmitted in hot spots, and 50.7% in cold spots (p-value = 0.02). The positive TST rate in hot spot areas was significantly higher than that observed in cold spot areas (p-value < 0.01). Living in hot spots (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.75, 95%, confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.50), Beijing family genotype (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.81), living in the same room with an index case (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.49), travelling time from home to a medical facility (aOR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.96, 7.72), history of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.13 3.62), and delay in diagnosis (aOR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.13, 5.80) were significantly associated with positive TST results among household contacts of TB cases. The findings of this study confirmed the strong transmissibility of the Beijing genotype family strains and this genotype's important role in household transmission. We found that an extended traveling time from home to the medical facility was an important socioeconomic factor for Mtb transmission in the family. It is still necessary to improve the medical facility infrastructure and management, especially in areas with a high TB prevalence.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Classe Social , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173976, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As one of the poorest provinces in China, Guangxi has a high HIV and TB prevalence, with the annual number of TB/HIV cases reported by health department among the highest in the country. However, studies on the burden of TB-HIV co-infection and risk factors for active TB among HIV-infected persons in Guangxi have rarely been reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. METHODS: A surveillance survey was conducted of 1 019 HIV-infected patients receiving care at three AIDS prevention and control departments between 2013 and 2015. We investigated the cumulative prevalence of TB during 2 years. To analyze risk factors associated with active TB, we conducted a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study of newly reported active TB/HIV co-infected patients. Controls were patients with HIV without active TB, latent TB infection or other lung disease, who were matched with the case group based on sex and age (± 3 years). RESULTS: A total of 1 019 subjects were evaluated. 160 subjects (15.70%) were diagnosed with active TB, including 85 clinically diagnosed cases and 75 confirmed cases. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study, with 82 TB/HIV patients and 82 people living with HIV/AIDS based on surveillance site, sex and age (±3) years. According to multivariate analysis, smoking (OR = 2.996, 0.992-9.053), lower CD 4+ T-cell count (OR = 3.288, 1.161-9.311), long duration of HIV-infection (OR = 5.946, 2.221-15.915) and non-use of ART (OR = 7.775, 2.618-23.094) were independent risk factors for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi was 173 times higher than general population in Guangxi. It is necessary for government to integrate control planning and resources for the two diseases. Medical and public health workers should strengthen health education for TB/HIV prevention and treatment and promote smoking cessation. Active TB case finding and early initiation of ART is necessary to minimize the burden of disease among patients with HIV, as is IPT and infection control in healthcare facilities.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/terapia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/patologia , Tuberculose/terapia , Tuberculose/virologia
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 124-7, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in reducing deaths among patients co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV), and provide data-based evidence for improving ART in TB/HIV patients. METHODS: The information about TB patients who were HIV positive confirmed previously or recently in Guangxi were collected, and the TB/HIV patients were confirmed by using the related data from national AIDS prevention and treatment information system. Then a retrospective case control study was conducted to understand the survivals and deaths in the patients receiving ART or receiving no ART by using Kaplan-Meier method and estimate the ART protective rate within 1 year after TB treatment initiation. RESULTS: Among 519 TB/HIV patients, 100 received ART (19.3%); Among 84 TB/HIV patients who died within 1 year after TB treatment, 8 (9.5%) received ART, while 76 (90.5%) received no ART. Compared with the 18.7% mortality rate in non-ART group, TB/HIV patients mortality rate in ART group was only 8.08%, the difference was statistical significant (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the survival rate in patients receiving ART was higher than that in patients receiving no ART within 1 year after TB treatment, the difference was statistical significant (Log-rank = 4.96, P = 0.02). Compared with patients receiving ART, the OR value was 2.31 times higher than that in patients receiving no ART;ART could protect 56.7% of TB/HIV patients against death during the first year of anti-TB therapy. CONCLUSION: In the first year of anti-TB therapy, the risk of death in TB/HIV patients receiving no ART was much higher than that in TB/HIV patients receiving ART, and the survival time was longer in the patients receiving ART. The ART coverage should be expanded in TB/HIV patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 35(6): 695-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25174474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the general feature of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infectious (TB/HIV) in Guangxi, from 2007 to 2012. METHODS: Information regarding individuals that the contributory causes of death were due to MTB infection among HIV as the underlying cause of death from the Vital Registration System, together with bacterium smear or culture results, onset of TB, time that TB was diagnosed and entered an Internet base TB surveillance system was collected and checked. Data including information on time of death, age, occupation, the underlying cause of death among TB patients, bacterium distribution, average age of death, interval from onset to death, percentage of TB/HIV co-infection patients among all the patients etc, were all analysed. RESULTS: 203 patients died from HIV associated with TB from the Guangxi Vital Registration System were identified between 2007 and 2012. The average percentage of TB/HIV co-infection cases accounted for 8.24% (ranging from 3.94% in 2007 to 13.27% in 2012) among all the deaths of HIV infection while it accounted for 9.90% (ranging from 2.56% to in 2007 to 26.88% in 2012) among patients with MTB infection in the same period. The average percentage of deaths from TB/HIV co-infection in 2010 and 2012 accounted for 10.66% (ranging from 8.83% to 13.27%)and 22.17% (ranging from 20.60% to 26.88%)among patients died of HIV and TB infection respectively. The male-female ratio was 4.21 for 1, with the average age of death as 44.65 (44.65 ± 15.52) years;median time from TB symptoms onset to diagnosis as 37 (mean 94.31, standard deviation 206.07) days, record as (94.31 ± 206.07); median time from diagnosis to death as 46 (165.22 ± 282.19) days, 54.68% TB/HIV patients died within two months of being diagnosed with TB and the median time from TB symptoms onset to death as 131 (257.68 ± 340.79) days. 16.26% of the TB/HIV cases were bacterium confirmed TB cases. CONCLUSION: Compare to those TB patients without HIV, less bacterium evidence was found in TB/HIV patients. High burden caused by HIV disease was seen if they were co-infected with TB. An increasing proportion of deaths was noticed among patients co-infected with HIV and TB in the last three years, suggesting that the coverage of antiretroviral therapy be scaled up together with the strengthening of the capability on early TB case-finding among people live with HIV.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/virologia , Adulto Jovem
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